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23:24 EDT 16th October 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Timing everything Researchers describe genetic clockwork germ cell" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 37,000+

Production of live fish derived from frozen germ cells via germ cell transplantation.

The conservation of endangered fish is an urgent issue. Although cryo-banking of fish gametes might ultimately help conserve endangered fish, cryopreservation of fish eggs or embryos is still not possible due to their large size and high yolk content. Therefore, as an alternative, we focused on undifferentiated germ cells, such as primordial germ cells, spermatogonia, and oogonia, as materials for cryopreservation. Transplantation of cryopreserved germ cells into the body cavity of allogeneic or xenogeneic ...

Prognostic markers in clinical stage I seminoma and nonseminomatous germ cell tumours.

Testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) is a common malignancy among young men. There is controversy regarding the best approach for patients with clinical stage I disease due to rates of relapse with active surveillance in contrast to overtreatment with adjuvant therapy. The aim of this review is to describe the role of prognostic factors in this setting.

Isolation and characterization of a germ cell marker in teleost fish Colossoma macropomum.

The native Amazonian fish tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) is the second-largest scaled fish in South America and the most common native species in Brazil. To preserve genetic resources with sufficient genetic diversity through germ cell cryopreservation and transplantation techniques, a molecular marker for identifying the cells is required to trace them during the manipulation processes. The vasa gene is a promising candidate, as its specific expression in germ cell lineage has been well-conserved througho...

Cognitive Profile of Children With Intracranial Germ Cell Tumor According to Tumor Location.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term cognitive sequelae and to describe the neuropsychological profile of patients with intracranial germ cell tumors according to tumor location (pineal or suprasellar site).

Reproductive outcomes of 105 malignant ovarian germ cell tumor survivors: a multicenter study.

Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors usually occur in young women. Until the 1970s, before establishment of systemic chemotherapy, malignant ovarian germ cell tumors had a very poor prognosis. Recently, prognosis has improved, and fertility-sparing treatment is being adopted in patients who desire to become pregnant. However, the number of malignant ovarian germ cell tumor survivors who actually became pregnant remains unknown.

Germ cells in the teleost fish medaka have an inherent feminizing effect.

Germ cells are the only cells that can transfer genetic materials to the next generation via the sperm or egg. However, recent analyses in teleosts revealed another essential role of germ cells: feminizing the gonads. In our study, medaka mutants in which gametogenesis was blocked at specific stages provides the novel view that the feminizing effect of germ cells occurs in parallel with other reproductive elements, such as meiosis, the sexual fate decision of germ cells, and gametogenesis. Germ cells in med...

Correlation of 41 loci of single nucleotide polymorphisms with testicular germ cell tumor.

To identify genetic susceptibility genes and the loci of their single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in patients with testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) and provide some new ideas for the prediction, diagnosis and treatment of TGCT.

Activin A target genes are differentially expressed between normal and neoplastic adult human testes: clues to gonocyte fate choice.

Human testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) arise from germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS) cells that originate from foetal germ cell precursors. Activin A is central to normal foetal testis development, and its dysregulation may contribute to TGCT aetiology.

Managing seminomatous and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors.

In the present review, we summarize the recent developments in the management of germ cell tumors (GCTs).

Comparison of carboplatin versus cisplatin in the treatment of paediatric extracranial malignant germ cell tumours: A report of the Malignant Germ Cell International Consortium.

To compare the outcomes of paediatric and adolescent extracranial malignant germ cell tumour (GCT) patients treated with either carboplatin or cisplatin on clinical trials conducted by the Children's Oncology Group (COG) and the Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group (CCLG).

Isolating mitotic and meiotic germ cells from male mice by developmental synchronization, staging, and sorting.

Isolating discrete populations of germ cells from the mouse testis is challenging, because the adult testis contains germ cells at every step of spermatogenesis, in addition to somatic cells. We present a novel method for isolating precise, high-purity populations of male germ cells. We first synchronize germ cell development in vivo by manipulating retinoic acid metabolism, and perform histological staging to verify synchronization. We use fluorescence-activated cell sorting to separate the synchronized di...

Tdrd6a Regulates the Aggregation of Buc into Functional Subcellular Compartments that Drive Germ Cell Specification.

Phase separation represents an important form of subcellular compartmentalization. However, relatively little is known about how the formation or disassembly of such compartments is regulated. In zebrafish, the Balbiani body (Bb) and the germ plasm (Gp) are intimately linked phase-separated structures essential for germ cell specification and home to many germ cell-specific mRNAs and proteins. Throughout development, these structures occur as a single large aggregate (Bb), which disperses throughout oogenes...

Growth In Vitro of Granulosa Cell-Oocyte Complexes of the Mouse.

Analysis of the mechanisms that drive the growth and meiotic maturation of the female germ cell, the oocyte, has been greatly facilitated by the development of conditions that support these processes in vitro. Easily identified signposts of oocyte differentiation enable the ability of specific culture conditions to recapitulate normal oocyte development to be robustly assayed. Here we describe a technique for deriving complexes consisting of an oocyte surrounded by somatic granulosa cells from follicles and...

Profiling Maternal mRNA Translation During Oocyte Development.

With the progress in our understanding of germ cell development, there is an emerging need to investigate the mechanisms of mRNA translation functioning in these cells. Indeed, posttranscriptional regulations of gene expression drive the most important transitions of the germ cell life cycle. Here we describe a strategy to measure mRNA translation in the oocyte, taking advantage of an approach originally developed to identify the transcriptome of a subgroup of cells in a complex cell mixture. This technique...

Identifying the germ cells during embryogenesis and gametogenesis by germ-line gene vasa in an anadromous fish, American shad Alosa sapidissima.

American shad Alosa sapidissima, an anadromous clupeid, exhibits variation in reproductive strategies, including semelparity and iteroparity. It provides an excellent model for studying the behaviour of germ cells in anadromous fish during their migration from sea to river. The vasa gene was characterized in A. sapidissima as a germ-cell marker to elaborate the process of germ-cell development and differentiation in anadromous species. A complementary (c)DNA fragment of 819 bp, partial open reading frame ...

Epigenome regulation during germ cell specification and development from pluripotent stem cells.

Germ cells undergo epigenome reprogramming for proper development of the next generation. The realization of germ cell derivation from human and mouse pluripotent stem cells offers unprecedented opportunity for investigation of germline development. Primordial germ cells reconstituted in vitro (PGC-like cells [PGCLCs]) show progressive dilution of genomic DNA methylation, tightly linked with chromatin remodeling, during their specification. PGCLCs can be further expanded by plane culture, allowing maintenan...

Germline DNA replication timing shapes mammalian genome composition.

Mammalian DNA replication is a highly organized and regulated process. Large, Mb-sized regions are replicated at defined times along S-phase. Replication Timing (RT) is thought to play a role in shaping the mammalian genome by affecting mutation rates. Previous analyses relied on somatic RT profiles. However, only germline mutations are passed on to offspring and affect genomic composition. Therefore, germ cell RT information is necessary to evaluate the influences of RT on the mammalian genome. We adapted ...

Antiapoptotic effects of vitamins C and E against cypermethrin-induced oxidative stress and spermatogonial germ cell apoptosis.

Toxicological studies have demonstrated the relation between use of agrochemicals and fertility issues within males. Thus, the present study aimed to elucidate the propensity of cypermethrin (CYP) in bringing testicular germ cell apoptosis and effective attenuation by vitamins C and E in caprines. Reproductive toxicity of CYP was evaluated using histomorphological, cytological, and biochemical changes in the testicular germ cells in dose-dependent (1, 5, 10 μg/mL) and time-dependent (4, 6, 8 h) manner. Hi...

Visualization and Tools for Analysis of Zebrafish Lymphatic Development.

The accessibility and optical transparency of the zebrafish embryo offers a unique platform for live-imaging of developmental lymphangiogenesis. Transgenic lines labelling lymphatic progenitors and vessels enable researchers to visualize cellular processes and ask how they contribute to lymphatic development in genetic models. Furthermore, validated immunofluorescence staining for key signaling and cell fate markers (phosphorylated Erk and Prox1) allow single cell resolution studies of lymphatic differentia...

Classic and "Dissecting" Gonadoblastoma in a Phenotypic Girl With a 46, XX Peripheral Karyotype and No Evidence of a Disorder of Sex Development.

Herein, we report a case of a 9-yr-old girl who had a 46, XX peripheral karyotype and apparent developmentally normal ovaries. She presented with abdominal pain and a right adnexal mass. No clinical or pathologic evidence of gonadal dysgenesis or undifferentiated gonadal tissue was detected. She underwent right salpingo-oophorectomy with rupture of the tumor at the time of operation due to recent adnexal torsion. The original pathologic diagnosis was gonadoblastoma and mixed germ cell tumor. Most significan...

Subunits of the DNA polymerase alpha-primase complex promote Notch-mediated proliferation with discrete and shared functions in C. elegans germline.

Notch receptor signaling is a highly conserved cell communication system in most multicellular organisms and plays a critical role at several junctures in animal development. In C. elegans, GLP-1/Notch signaling is essential for both germline stem cell maintenance and germ cell proliferation during gonad development. Here, we show that subunits (POLA-1, DIV-1, PRI-1, and PRI-2) of the DNA polymerase alpha-primase complex are required for germ cell proliferation in response to GLP-1/Notch signaling in differ...

Surgical Management of Patients with Advanced Germ Cell Tumors Following Salvage Chemotherapy.

To characterize clinical and pathologic outcomes of cisplatin-refractory or relapsed germ cell tumor (GCT) patients who underwent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) following salvage chemotherapy with either conventional or high dose regimens.

An approach for controlling the timing and order of engineered mutations in mice.

Significant advances in our understanding of normal development and disease have been facilitated by engineered mice in which genes can be altered in a spatially, temporally, or cell type restricted manner using site specific recombinase systems like Cre-loxP or Flp-frt. In many circumstances it is important to understand how interactions between multiple genes influence a given phenotype. Robust approaches for precisely controlling multiple genetic alterations independently are limited, however, thus the i...

MRI Findings of Suprasellar Germ Cell Tumors in Two Dogs.

A 4 yr old border collie presenting for mydriasis and decreased mentation and a 7 yr old Boston terrier presenting for obtundation, head tilt, and paraparesis were both evaluated using MRI. Findings in both included mass lesions of the thalamus and brainstem that were hypo- to isointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images with regions of hypointensity, and robust contrast enhancement and displacement of adjacent structures. Postmortem histopathology findings, tumor location, and a ...

N-acetylcysteine protects against microcystin-LR-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and germ cell apoptosis in zebrafish testes.

Previous studies have shown that microcystin-LR (MCLR) is a reproductive toxicant that induces germ cell apoptosis in the testes, but the underlying mechanisms have not been well understood. In this study, we investigated that MCLR induces germ cell apoptosis is through activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant could protect against germ cell apoptosis by inhibiting the ER stress. Healthy male zebrafish were intraperitoneally injected with NAC (500 nM), beg...

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