PubMed Journals Articles About "Transmission Blocking Malaria Vaccine" RSS

15:16 EDT 18th September 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Transmission Blocking Malaria Vaccine" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 5,400+

Advances in malaria vaccine development: report from the 2017 malaria vaccine symposium.

The Malaria Vaccine Symposium occurred at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, MD, USA on April 25th, 2017, coinciding with World Malaria Day and the WHO announcement that the RTS,S malaria vaccine would begin pilot implementation programs in Ghana, Kenya, and Malawi in 2018. Scientists from several disciplines reported progress on an array of malaria vaccine concepts and product candidates, including pre-erythrocytic vaccines that prevent infection, blood-stage vaccines that limit infection and disease, ...

Correlating efficacy and immunogenicity in malaria vaccine trials.

The availability of an effective and appropriately implemented malaria vaccine would form a crucial cornerstone of public health efforts to fight this disease. Despite many decades of research, however, no malaria vaccine has yet shown satisfactory protective efficacy or been rolled-out. Validated immunological substitute endpoints have the potential to accelerate clinical vaccine development by reducing the required complexity, size, duration and cost of clinical trials. Besides facilitating clinical devel...

Downstream processing of a plant-derived malaria transmission-blocking vaccine candidate.

Plants as a platform for recombinant protein expression are now economically comparable to well-established systems, such as microbes and mammalian cells, thanks to advantages such as scalability and product safety. However, downstream processing accounts for the majority of the final product costs because plant extracts contain large quantities of host cell proteins (HCPs) that must be removed using elaborate purification strategies. Heat precipitation in planta (blanching) can remove ∼80% of HCPs and th...

Expression of full-length Plasmodium falciparum P48/45 in P. berghei blood stages: a method to express and evaluate vaccine antigens.

The transmission-blocking vaccine candidate Pfs48/45 from the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is known to be difficult to express in heterologous systems, either as full-length protein or as correctly folded protein fragments that retain conformational epitopes. In this study we express full-length Pfs48/45 in the rodent parasite P. berghei. Pfs48/45 is expressed as a transgene under control of the strong P. berghei schizont-specific msp1 gene promoter (Pfs48/45@PbMSP1). Pfs48/45@PbMSP1 schizon...

Sm-p80-based schistosomiasis vaccine: double-blind preclinical trial in baboons demonstrates comprehensive prophylactic and parasite transmission-blocking efficacy.

Schistosomiasis is of public health importance to an estimated one billion people in 79 countries. A vaccine is urgently needed. Here, we report the results of four independent, double-blind studies of an Sm-p80-based vaccine in baboons. The vaccine exhibited potent prophylactic efficacy against transmission of Schistosoma mansoni infection and was associated with significantly less egg-induced pathology, compared with unvaccinated control animals. Specifically, the vaccine resulted in a 93.45% reduction of...

Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2015.

Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles species mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local ...

Transmission traits of malaria parasites within the mosquito: Genetic variation, phenotypic plasticity, and consequences for control.

Evaluating the risk of emergence and transmission of vector-borne diseases requires knowledge of the genetic and environmental contributions to pathogen transmission traits. Compared to the significant effort devoted to understanding the biology of malaria transmission from vertebrate hosts to mosquito vectors, the strategies that malaria parasites have evolved to maximize transmission from vectors to vertebrate hosts have been largely overlooked. While determinants of infection success within the mosquito ...

Fusion to Tetrahymena thermophila granule lattice protein 1 confers solubility to sexual stage malaria antigens in Escherichia coli.

A transmission-blocking vaccine targeting the sexual stages of Plasmodium species could play a key role in eradicating malaria. Multiple studies have identified the P. falciparum proteins Pfs25 and Pfs48/45 as prime targets for transmission-blocking vaccines. Although significant advances have been made in recombinant expression of these antigens, they remain difficult to produce at large scale and lack strong immunogenicity as subunit antigens. We linked a self-assembling protein, granule lattice protein 1...

Optimal mode for delivery of seasonal malaria chemoprevention in Ouelessebougou, Mali: A cluster randomized trial.

Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC), the administration of complete therapeutic courses of antimalarials to children aged 3-59 months during the malaria transmission season, is a new strategy recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for malaria control in Sahelian countries such as Mali with seasonal transmission. The strategy is a highly cost-effective approach to reduce malaria burden in these areas. Despite the substantial benefits of SMC on malaria infection and disease, the optimal approac...

Analysis of the process of malaria transmission elimination with a spatial approach to incidence variation in the Brazilian Amazon, 2016.

to identify areas where malaria transmission has been eliminated and levels of malaria incidence variation in the Brazilian Amazon in 2016, and to present an indicator of priorities for control actions.

Brief Report: Antimalarial Benefit of HIV Antiretroviral Therapy in Areas of Low to Moderate Malaria Transmission Intensity.

We previously used mathematical modeling to predict reduced malaria incidence in children with protease inhibitor (PI)-, compared with nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-, based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), in moderate to high malaria transmission areas. These effects were accounted for, in part, by pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions between PIs and artemether-lumefantrine (AL).

Human immunization with a polymorphic malaria vaccine candidate induced antibodies to conserved epitopes that promote functional antibodies to multiple parasite strains.

Overcoming antigenic diversity is a key challenge in the development of effective P. falciparum malaria vaccines. Strategies that promote the generation of antibodies targeting conserved epitopes of vaccine antigens may provide protection against diverse parasites strains. Understanding differences between vaccine-induced and naturally-acquired immunity is important to achieving this goal.

From human antibody structure and function towards the design of a novel Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein malaria vaccine.

Malaria is a life-threatening vector-borne disease caused by Plasmodium parasites that infect millions of people in endemic areas every year. The most advanced malaria vaccine candidate RTS,S targets the immune response against circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum (PfCSP), the most deadly Plasmodium species in humans. PfCSP plays a fundamental role in parasite development as well as the establishment of the infection and is a molecular target of protective antibodies. However, RTS,S shows overa...

A Controlled Trial of Mass Drug Administration to Interrupt Transmission of Multi Drug Resistant Falciparum Malaria in Cambodian Villages.

The increase in multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Southeast Asia suggests a need for acceleration of malaria elimination. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of mass drug administrations (MDA) to interrupt malaria transmission.

Malaria and the microbiome: a systematic review.

The microbiome influences malaria parasite fitness and transmission efficiency in mosquitoes, and appears to affect malaria dynamics in mammalian hosts as well. Nascent research examining the interrelationship of malaria and the mammalian host microbiome has yielded interesting insights inviting further study.

Immunization of malaria pre-exposed volunteers with PfSPZ Vaccine elicits long-lived IgM invasion-inhibitory and complement-fixing antibodies.

The assessment of antibody responses after immunization with radiation attenuated, aseptic, purified, cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoites (SPZ) (Sanaria® PfSPZ Vaccine) has focused on IgG isotype antibodies. Here, we aimed to investigate if Pf sporozoite binding and invasion inhibitory IgM antibodies are induced following immunization of malaria pre-exposed volunteers with PfSPZ Vaccine. We found that in addition to anti-PfCSP IgG, Malaria pre-exposed volunteers developed anti-PfCSP IgM an...

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Malaria Chemoprophylaxis and Early Diagnosis for Korean Soldiers in Malaria Risk Regions.

Chemoprophylaxis has been used to prevent malaria among soldiers and secondary transmission, as it effectively facilitates a decline in disease occurrence and secondary prevention. However, poor compliance and decreased risk of exposure to malaria necessitate that control strategies be reestablished.

Long-lasting insecticidal net use and asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia among household members of laboratory-confirmed malaria patients attending selected health facilities in Abuja, Nigeria, 2016: A cross-sectional survey.

In Nigeria, malaria remains a major burden. There is the presupposition that household members could have common exposure to malaria parasite and use of long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) could reduce transmission. This study was conducted to identify factors associated with asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia and LLIN use among households of confirmed malaria patients in Abuja, Nigeria.

The current malaria morbidity and mortality in different transmission settings in Western Kenya.

Passive surveillance of malaria in health facilities remains vital for implementation of control and elimination programs. It is therefore essential understanding current age profile of clinical malaria morbidity, mortality and presentations in areas with variant infection susceptibility. This study aimed at understanding the current malaria morbidity and mortality in Western Kenya.

Out of the net: An agent-based model to study human movements influence on local-scale malaria transmission.

Though malaria control initiatives have markedly reduced malaria prevalence in recent decades, global eradication is far from actuality. Recent studies show that environmental and social heterogeneities in low-transmission settings have an increased weight in shaping malaria micro-epidemiology. New integrated and more localized control strategies should be developed and tested. Here we present a set of agent-based models designed to study the influence of local scale human movements on local scale malaria t...

Modelling the effect of bednet coverage on malaria transmission in South Sudan.

A campaign for malaria control, using Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs) was launched in South Sudan in 2009. The success of such a campaign often depends upon adequate available resources and reliable surveillance data which help officials understand existing infections. An optimal allocation of resources for malaria control at a sub-national scale is therefore paramount to the success of efforts to reduce malaria prevalence. In this paper, we extend an existing SIR mathematical model to capture the eff...

Identification and validation of a novel panel of Plasmodium knowlesi biomarkers of serological exposure.

Plasmodium knowlesi is the most common cause of malaria in Malaysian Borneo, with reporting limited to clinical cases presenting to health facilities and scarce data on the true extent of transmission. Serological estimations of transmission have been used with other malaria species to garner information about epidemiological patterns. However, there are a distinct lack of suitable serosurveillance tools for this neglected disease.

Modeling the impact of biolarvicides on malaria transmission.

Biolarvicides are in use in several parts of the world for malaria vector control. We propose a five compartment dynamical systems model to study malaria transmission when biolarvicides are administered, to study the impact of this environmentally safe method on malaria spread. A comprehensive analysis of the model is presented. Model analysis shows that the basic reproductive rate R is larger in the absence of biolarvicides as compared to their presence. Theoretical analysis is corroborated by data from fi...

Promising approach to reducing Malaria transmission by ivermectin: Sporontocidal effect against Plasmodium vivax in the South American vectors Anopheles aquasalis and Anopheles darlingi.

The mosquito resistance to the insecticides threatens malaria control efforts, potentially becoming a major public health issue. Alternative methods like ivermectin (IVM) administration to humans has been suggested as a possible vector control to reduce Plasmodium transmission. Anopheles aquasalis and Anopheles darlingi are competent vectors for Plasmodium vivax, and they have been responsible for various malaria outbreaks in the coast of Brazil and the Amazon Region of South America.

Females of HbAS genotype have reduced concentration of the malaria protective deoxyhemoglobin S than males.

The quantity of the intra-erythrocytic deoxyhemoglobin S (Hb S) affects the level of protection against malaria and also the sickling phenomenon. This study reports on significantly lower concentration of Hb S in females than males. Data came from 350 children, aged 12-47 months who participated in a phase 2b malaria vaccine trial. Hemoglobinopathy and G6PD deficiency typing was necessary to ascertain equal representation of these malaria protective traits across the vaccine cohorts. Hemoglobin types (HbAA,...

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