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Approximately the same percentage of male high school students in the United States currently uses conventional smokeless tobacco as smokes cigarettes, resulting in toxin exposure.
Cannabis - including blunts (cannabis rolled in tobacco-containing cigar casing) - is commonly the first substance used among adolescents, and may increase the likelihood of subsequent initiation of combustible tobacco products.
Many real-world systems use mission aborts to enhance their survivability. Specifically, a mission can be aborted when a certain malfunction condition is met and a risk of a system loss in the case of a mission continuation becomes too high. Usually, the rescue or recovery procedure is initiated upon the mission abort. Previous works have discussed a setting when only one attempt to complete a mission is allowed and this attempt can be aborted. However, missions with a possibility of multiple attempts can o...
A 21 tobacco age of sale has been proposed for European nations. We review past studies of underage purchase policies and their enforcement. Past evaluations and modeling studies indicate important public health gains from 21 tobacco age of sale laws. However, further attention should be given to issues of compliance, the availability of social sources and the breadth of coverage. In particular, the application of the law to e-cigarettes merits further attention.
A debate on the adoption of a tobacco age-of-sale of 21 in Europe has not occurred, with the recent exception of the U.K. The current legally set age of 18 years is proving to be inadequate as adolescents continue to access cigarettes. Tobacco 21 laws have the potential to further limit access to cigarettes by minors. We believe that soon the time will be ripe for this discussion to spread throughout Europe, specifically among countries that have adopted a smoke-free generation movement.
We describe the development and pilot testing of the experimental tobacco and nicotine product marketplace (ETM)-a method for studying tobacco and nicotine product (TNP) choices and use behavior in a standardized way.
Tobacco products remain widely available and unplanned purchasing of tobacco has been implicated in cessation relapse. Little is known however about the frequency of consumers' unplanned tobacco purchases or the type of retail outlets where this is more likely to occur.
To implement and evaluate a blended online and in-person training to help mentors of early-career researchers appreciate the complexities of Tobacco Regulatory Science (TRS), refine TRS mentoring skills, and become acquainted with resources for providing effective guidance to TRS mentees.
Previous work has demonstrated the Affordable Care Act (ACA) increased young adults' health care access during its first years. However, it is unclear if these trends continued through 2017; recent policies enacted by the Trump administration may have decreased the ACA's effectiveness. Our purpose was to determine changes in young adults' health care access during the transition from Obama to Trump administrations.
This study examined relations of two affective vulnerabilities, high anxiety sensitivity (AS) and low distress tolerance (DT), with tobacco dependence, withdrawal, smoking cessation, and pharmacotherapy response.
Understanding which tobacco products adolescents use first can lead to insights for tobacco prevention interventions and policies. We used cross-sectional data from high school students who reported ever using a tobacco product from the 2017 North Carolina Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 1,053). In multivariable regressions, we examined how demographic and psychosocial factors were associated with adolescents' first product tried and how first product tried was associated with current tobacco use (i.e., no use, u...
There is evidence to suggest that tobacco use is associated with suicide attempts. However, it is unclear whether such an association can be extended to include second-hand smoke exposure. Using nationally representative data of school-attending adolescents from 33 countries, we examined the association of tobacco use and exposure to second-hand smoke with suicide attempts.
Twitter was an integral part of Donald Trump's communication platform during his 2016 campaign. Although its topical content has been examined by researchers and the media, we know relatively little about the style of the language used on the account or how this style changed over time. In this study, we present the first detailed description of stylistic variation on the Trump Twitter account based on a multivariate analysis of grammatical co-occurrence patterns in tweets posted between 2009 and 2018. We i...
There is an absence of evidence regarding the impact of treating tobacco smoking and vaping equivalently in workplace policies. We aimed to describe and compare smoking and vaping policies in acute non-specialist NHS Trusts (n=131) and Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) (n=131) in England.
A nationally representative sample (N = 1050) responded to a survey testing possible connections between Americans' attention to media about President Donald J. Trump's preference for fast food, their perceptions of Trump, and public perceptions and behavioral intentions regarding fast food consumption. This survey utilized measures aimed at integrating theory about audience responses to celebrity health issues with the Theory of Planned Behavior and found a significant positive relationship between att...
The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibits the inclusion of characterizing flavors (e.g., candy or fruit) other than tobacco and menthol in cigarettes; however, characterizing flavors are not currently prohibited in other tobacco products at the federal level.* Flavored tobacco products can appeal to youths and young adults and influence initiation and establishment of tobacco-use patterns (1). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC analyzed data from the 2014-2018 National...
The rate of nicotine metabolism, estimated by the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), is an important determinant of tobacco dependence. This study investigated the effect of NMR on smoking behavior due to nicotine reinforcement during ad libitum smoking.
Although tobacco is the leading preventable cause of death in the USA, it is routinely sold in pharmacies. In 2008, San Francisco became the first city in the USA to pass a tobacco-free pharmacy ordinance. Over the next decade, 171 municipalities enacted similar policies, and in 2018, Massachusetts banned tobacco sales in pharmacies. Our objective was to assess the perceived effects of tobacco-free pharmacy policies on displays, sales, customer visits and counselling.
The 2016 U.S. presidential election coincided with the rise of the "alternative right," or . Alt-right associates have wielded considerable influence on the current administration and on social discourse, but the movement's loose organizational structure has led to disparate portrayals of its members' psychology and made it difficult to decipher its aims and reach. To systematically explore the alt-right's psychology, we recruited two U.S. samples: An exploratory sample through Amazon's Mechanical Turk ( = ...
To assess tobacco promotion intensity, retailer behaviours and tobacco company efforts to link retailer marketing to online channels.