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PubMed Journals Articles About "Tumor Microenvironment Confers MTOR Inhibitor Resistance Invasive Intestinal" RSS

00:55 EST 25th November 2017 | BioPortfolio

Tumor Microenvironment Confers MTOR Inhibitor Resistance Invasive Intestinal PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Tumor Microenvironment Confers MTOR Inhibitor Resistance Invasive Intestinal articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Tumor microenvironment confers mTOR inhibitor resistance invasive intestinal" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 20,000+

Tumor microenvironment confers mTOR inhibitor resistance in invasive intestinal adenocarcinoma.

Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) is frequently activated in cancers and can be counteracted with the clinical mTORC1 inhibitors everolimus and temsirolimus. Although mTORC1 and dual mTORC1/2 inhibitors are currently under development to treat various malignancies, the emergence of drug resistance has proven to be a major complication. Using the cis-Apc/Smad4 mouse model of locally invasive intestinal adenocarcinoma, we show that administration of everolimus or the dual mTORC1/2 inhi...


A Molecular Cascade Modulates MAP1B and Confers Resistance to mTOR Inhibition in Human Glioblastoma.

Clinical trials of therapies directed against nodes of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling axis in Glioblastoma (GBM) have had disappointing results. Resistance to mTOR inhibitors limits their efficacy.

Tumor-derived fibulin-3 activates pro-invasive NF-κB signaling in glioblastoma cells and their microenvironment.

Molecular profiling of glioblastomas has revealed the presence of key signaling hubs that contribute to tumor progression and acquisition of resistance. One of these main signaling mechanisms is the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway, which integrates multiple extracellular signals into transcriptional programs for tumor growth, invasion and maintenance of the tumor-initiating population. We show here that an extracellular protein released by glioblastoma cells, fibulin-3, drives oncogenic NF-κB in th...


Pro-tumor activities of macrohpages in the progression of melanoma.

Macrophages are located in essentially all tissues due to their "janitor" function. Macrophages can exert either anti- or pro-tumor activities depending upon the specific tumor microenvironment they inhabit. Substantial evidence indicates that macrophages, owing to their plasticity, can be reeducated to adopt a protumoral phenotype within a tumor microenvironment through the help of growth factors in the microenvironment and intercellular interactions. As the lethality of malignant melanoma is due to its ag...

Critical focus on mechanisms of resistance and toxicity of m-TOR inhibitors in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are rare neoplasms representing less than 2% of all pancreatic malignancies. The PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway is often deregulated in pNETs and seems to play a key role in tumorigenesis. Everolimus, an inhibitor of the mTOR pathway, has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of pNETs. Nevertheless de novo or acquired drug resistance is responsible for disease progression and represents a major obstacle to overcome by clinicians. Blocking the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway may cover ...

Identification of Topological Features in Renal Tumor Microenvironment Associated with Patient Survival.

As a highly heterogeneous disease, the progression of tumor is not only achieved by unlimited growth of the tumor cells, but also supported, stimulated, and nurtured by the microenvironment around it. However traditional qualitative and/or semi-quantitative parameters obtained by pathologist's visual examination have very limited capability to capture this interaction between tumor and its microenvironment. With the advent of digital pathology, computerized image analysis may provide a better tumor characte...

Overriding TKI resistance of renal cell carcinoma by combination therapy with IL-6 receptor blockade.

Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a tumor entity with poor prognosis due to limited therapy options. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) represent the standard of care for RCCs, however a significant proportion of RCC patients develop resistance to this therapy. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is considered to be associated with poor prognosis in RCCs. We therefore hypothesized that TKI resistance and IL-6 secretion are causally connected. We first analyzed IL-6 expression after TKI treatment in RCC cells and RCC ...

A High-Throughput Screening Model of the Tumor Microenvironment for Ovarian Cancer Cell Growth.

The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in the processes of tumor growth, metastasis, and drug resistance. We have used a multilayered 3D primary cell culture model that reproduces the human ovarian cancer metastatic microenvironment to study the effect of the microenvironment on the pharmacological responses of different classes of drugs on cancer cell proliferation. A collection of oncology drugs was screened to identify compounds that inhibited the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells growing...

Tumor Cell Invadopodia: Invasive Protrusions that Orchestrate Metastasis.

Invadopodia are a subset of invadosomes that are implicated in the integration of signals from the tumor microenvironment to support tumor cell invasion and dissemination. Recent progress has begun to define how tumor cells regulate the plasticity necessary for invadopodia to assemble and function efficiently in the different microenvironments encountered during dissemination in vivo. Exquisite mapping by many laboratories of the pathways involved in integrating diverse invadopodium initiation signals, from...

Exosomes of invasive urothelial carcinoma cells are characterized by a specific miRNA expression signature.

Muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) represents a highly aggressive tumor type compared to non-muscle-invasive tumors. MIBC is characterized by specific molecular alterations, which may also modulate extracellular tumorigenic effects. Tumor-associated exosomes, especially exosomal miRNAs, are important regulators in the interaction between tumor cells and tumor microenvironment by affecting tumor-promoting processes in target cells. It is important to analyze whether their exosomal patterns also reflect th...

Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Dimorpholine Substituted Thienopyrimidines as Potential Class I PI3K/ mTOR Dual Inhibitors.

Dysfunctional signaling of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in cancer, and its crucial role in cell growth and survival have made it a much desired target for cancer therapeutics. A series of dimorpholine substituted thienopyrimidine derivatives had been prepared and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Among them, compound 14o was identified as a dual Class I PI3K and mTOR kinase inhibitor, which had an approximately 8-fold improvement in mTOR inhibition relative to the class I PI3K inhibitor 1 (pictilisib, GDC-0941)....

PD-1 Checkpoint Blockade in Combination with an mTOR Inhibitor Restrains Hepatocellular Carcinoma Growth Induced by Hepatoma Cell-Intrinsic PD-1.

Inhibitors of PD-1 administered as single agents have resulted in durable tumor regression in advanced cancer patients. However, only a minority of cancer patients respond to anti PD-1 immunotherapy. Here, we show that PD-1 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) promotes tumor growth independently of adaptive immunity. Knockdown of PD-1 suppress tumor growth, whereas PD-1 overexpression enhances tumorigenesis in immunodeficient xenografted mice. Mechanistically, PD-1 binds the downstream mTOR effector...

The "good-cop bad-cop" TGF-beta role in breast cancer modulated by non-coding RNAs.

Lack of early diagnosis methods and the development of drug resistance are among the main reasons for increased mortality rates within breast cancer patients. These two aspects are governed by specific pro-carcinogenic modifications, where TGBß-induced EMT is one of the leading actors. Endowment of the epithelial cells with mesenchymal characteristics allows them to migrate and invade secondary tissues in order to form malignant sites and also confers chemoresistance. TGFß which role switches from the tum...

De novo induction of intratumoral lymphoid structures and vessel normalization enhances immunotherapy in resistant tumors.

The tumor microenvironment confers profound resistance to anti-cancer immunotherapy. By targeting LIGHT, a member of the TNF superfamily of cytokines, to tumor vessels via a vascular targeting peptide (VTP), we developed a reagent with the dual ability to modulate the angiogenic vasculature and to induce tertiary lymphoid structures (TLSs). LIGHT-VTP triggered the influx of endogenous T cells into autochthonous or syngeneic tumors, which are resistant to immunotherapy. LIGHT-VTP in combination with checkpoi...

Microfluidics Enabled Bottom-Up Engineering of 3D Vascularized Tumor for Drug Discovery.

Development of high-fidelity 3D models to recapitulate the tumor microenvironment is essential for studying tumor biology and screening anticancer drugs. Here we report a method to engineer the 3D microenvironment of human tumor, by encapsulating cancer cells in the core of microcapsules with a hydrogel shell for miniaturized 3D culture to obtain avascular microtumors first. The microtumors are then used as the building blocks for assembling with endothelial cells and other stromal cells to create macroscal...

mTOR-mediated Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange affects cell proliferation and metastasis of melanoma cells.

Melanoma is a common malignant tumor, which is associated with high mortality rate. The multiple-drug resistance of tumor cells often results in failure of chemotherapy. The aim of our study is to investigate the expression of Nav 1.6 in human melanoma cells and human epidermal melanocytes. Additionally, the effect of Na+channels on Ca+ current and mTOR activity in melanoma cells were also analyzed. The protein expression levels of Nav1.6 in human melanocyte PIG1, WM266 and WM115 cells were investigated by ...

Combinatorial Microenvironments Impose a Continuum of Cellular Responses to a Single Pathway-Targeted Anti-cancer Compound.

Tumor microenvironments are a driver of resistance to anti-cancer drugs. Dissecting cell-microenvironment interactions into tractable units of study presents a challenge. Here, we assess the impact of hundreds of tumor-inspired microenvironments, in parallel, on lapatinib responses in four cancer cell lines. Combinations of ECM and soluble factors were printed on stiffness-tunable substrata to generate a collection of controlled microenvironments in which to explore cell-based functional responses. Proli...

Acquired Tamoxifen Resistance in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells Requires Hyperactivation of eIF4F-Mediated Translation.

While selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as tamoxifen, have contributed to increased survival in patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, the development of resistance to these therapies has led to the need to investigate other targetable pathways involved in oncogenic signaling. Approval of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in the therapy of secondary endocrine resistance demonstrates the validity of this approach. Importantly, mTOR activation regulates eukaryotic messenger RNA translat...

Targeting c-FOS and DUSP1 abrogates intrinsic resistance to tyrosine-kinase inhibitor therapy in BCR-ABL-induced leukemia.

Tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy for human cancers is not curative, and relapse occurs owing to the continued presence of tumor cells, referred to as minimal residual disease (MRD). The survival of MRD stem or progenitor cells in the absence of oncogenic kinase signaling, a phenomenon referred to as intrinsic resistance, depends on diverse growth factors. Here we report that oncogenic kinase and growth-factor signaling converge to induce the expression of the signaling proteins FBJ osteosarcoma oncog...

Inhibition of colony stimulating factor-1 receptor abrogates microenvironment-mediated therapeutic resistance in gliomas.

Glioblastomas represent the most aggressive glioma grade and are associated with a poor patient prognosis. The current standard of care, consisting of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, only results in a median survival of 14 months, underscoring the importance of developing effective new therapeutic strategies. Among the challenges in treating glioblastomas are primary resistance and the rapid emergence of recurrent disease, which can result from tumor cell-intrinsic mechanisms in addition to tumor micro...

Combined activity of temozolomide and the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus in metastatic melanoma involves DKK1.

The BRAFV600E inhibitor vemurafenib achieves remarkable clinical responses in patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma, but its effects are limited by the onset of drug resistance. In the case of resistance, chemotherapy can still be applied as second line therapy. However, it yields low response rates and strategies are urgently needed to potentiate its effects. In a previous study, we showed that the inhibition of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway significantly increases sensitivity of melanoma cells to chemotherapeuti...

Insulin-like growth factor 2 axis supports the serum-independent growth of malignant rhabdoid tumor and is activated by microenvironment stress.

Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are rare, lethal, pediatric tumors predominantly found in the kidney, brain and soft tissues. MRTs are driven by loss of tumor suppressor SNF5/INI1/SMARCB1/BAF47. The prognosis of MRT is poor using currently available treatments, so new treatment targets need to be identified to expand treatment options for patients experiencing chemotherapy resistance. The growth hormone insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) signaling pathway is a promising target to overcome drug resistance ...

Unshielding Exosomal RNA Unleashes Tumor Growth And Metastasis.

Reciprocal interactions between tumor cells and their microenvironment drive cancer progression and therapy resistance. In this issue, Nabet et al. demonstrate that dynamic feedback between tumor and stroma subverts normal inflammatory responses by triggering the release of exosomes containing unshielded RNAs that activate pattern recognition receptors, thereby promoting tumor growth and metastasis.

Biomimetic Model of Tumor Microenvironment on Microfluidic Platform.

The "Tumor microenvironment" (TME) is a complex, interacting system of the tumor and its surrounding environment. The TME has drawn more attention recently in attempts to overcome current drug resistance and the recurrence of cancer by understanding the cancer and its microenvironment systematically, beyond past reductionist approaches. However, a lack of experimental tools to dissect the intricate interactions has hampered in-depth research into the TME. Here, a biomimetic TME model using a microfluidic pl...

Co-targeting PI3K, mTOR, and IGF1R with small molecule inhibitors for treating undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma.

Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas (UPSs) are aggressive mesenchymal malignancies with no definitive cell of origin or specific recurrent genetic hallmarks. These tumors are largely chemoresistant; thus, identification of potential therapeutic targets is necessary to improve patient outcome. Previous studies demonstrated that high expression of activated protein kinase B (AKT) in patients with UPS corresponds to poor disease-specific survival. Here, we demonstrate that inhibiting phosphatidylinositol-3-k...


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