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PubMed Journals Articles About "Tumor Microenvironment Confers MTOR Inhibitor Resistance Invasive Intestinal" RSS

03:23 EST 19th February 2018 | BioPortfolio

Tumor Microenvironment Confers MTOR Inhibitor Resistance Invasive Intestinal PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Tumor Microenvironment Confers MTOR Inhibitor Resistance Invasive Intestinal articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Tumor microenvironment confers mTOR inhibitor resistance invasive intestinal" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 20,000+

Tumor microenvironment confers mTOR inhibitor resistance in invasive intestinal adenocarcinoma.

Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) is frequently activated in cancers and can be counteracted with the clinical mTORC1 inhibitors everolimus and temsirolimus. Although mTORC1 and dual mTORC1/2 inhibitors are currently under development to treat various malignancies, the emergence of drug resistance has proven to be a major complication. Using the cis-Apc/Smad4 mouse model of locally invasive intestinal adenocarcinoma, we show that administration of everolimus or the dual mTORC1/2 inhi...


A Molecular Cascade Modulates MAP1B and Confers Resistance to mTOR Inhibition in Human Glioblastoma.

Clinical trials of therapies directed against nodes of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling axis in Glioblastoma (GBM) have had disappointing results. Resistance to mTOR inhibitors limits their efficacy.

RAPTOR up-regulation contributes to resistance of renal cancer cells to PI3K-mTOR inhibition.

The outlook for patients with advanced renal cell cancer (RCC) has been improved by targeted agents including inhibitors of the PI3 kinase (PI3K)-AKT-mTOR axis, although treatment resistance is a major problem. Here, we aimed to understand how RCC cells acquire resistance to PI3K-mTOR inhibition. We used the RCC4 cell line to generate a model of in vitro resistance by continuous culture in PI3K-mTOR kinase inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 (BEZ235, Dactolisib). Resistant cells were cross-resistant to mTOR inhibitor AZD2...


Myeloid Cell-Derived Reactive Oxygen Species Induce Epithelial Mutagenesis.

Increased oxidative stress has been suggested to initiate and promote tumorigenesis by inducing DNA damage and to suppress tumor development by triggering apoptosis and senescence. The contribution of individual cell types in the tumor microenvironment to these contrasting effects remains poorly understood. We provide evidence that during intestinal tumorigenesis, myeloid cell-derived H2O2 triggers genome-wide DNA mutations in intestinal epithelial cells to stimulate invasive growth. Moreover, increased rea...

Imaging the Tumor Microenvironment.

The tumor microenvironment consists of tumor, stromal, and immune cells, as well as extracellular milieu. Changes in numbers of these cell types and their environments have an impact on cancer growth and metastasis. Non-invasive imaging of aspects of the tumor microenvironment can provide important information on the aggressiveness of the cancer, whether or not it is metastatic, and can also help to determine early response to treatment. This chapter provides an overview on non-invasive in vivo imaging in h...

Dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235 as a promising therapeutic strategy against paclitaxel-resistant gastric cancer via targeting PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.

Paclitaxel (PTX) is widely used in the front-line chemotherapy for gastric cancer (GC), but resistance limits its use. Due to the lack of proper models, mechanisms underlying PTX resistance in GC were not well studied. Using established PTX-resistant GC cell sublines HGC-27R, we for the first time integrated biological traits and molecular mechanisms of PTX resistance in GC. Data revealed that PTX-resistant GC cells were characterized by microtubular disorders, an EMT phenotype, reduced responses to antimit...

Adaptive Resistance to Cancer Immunotherapy.

Immunosuppressive mechanisms within the tumor microenvironment have emerged as a major impediment to cancer immunotherapy. While a broad range of secreted factors, receptors/ligands, and cell populations have been described that contribute to the immunosuppression, the involvement of these processes in immune evasion by tumors is typically considered to be an intrinsic property of the tumor. Evidence is now emerging that the processes underlying immune suppression within the tumor are, in fact, triggered by...

Development and characterisation of a panel of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase - mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor resistant lung cancer cell lines.

The PI3K-mTOR pathway is involved in regulating all hallmarks of cancer, and is often dysregulated in NSCLC, making it an attractive therapeutic target in this setting. Acquired resistance to PI3K-mTOR inhibition is a major hurdle to overcome in the success of PI3K-mTOR targeted agents. H460, A549, and H1975 resistant cells were generated by prolonged treatment in culture with Apitolisib (GDC-0980), a dual PI3K-mTOR inhibitor over a period of several months, from age-matched parent cells. Resistance was dee...

Halfway between 2D and Animal Models: Are 3D Cultures the Ideal Tool to Study Cancer-Microenvironment Interactions?

An area that has come to be of tremendous interest in tumor research in the last decade is the role of the microenvironment in the biology of neoplastic diseases. The tumor microenvironment (TME) comprises various cells that are collectively important for normal tissue homeostasis as well as tumor progression or regression. Seminal studies have demonstrated the role of the dialogue between cancer cells (at many sites) and the cellular component of the microenvironment in tumor progression, metastasis, and r...

Identification of Topological Features in Renal Tumor Microenvironment Associated with Patient Survival.

As a highly heterogeneous disease, the progression of tumor is not only achieved by unlimited growth of the tumor cells, but also supported, stimulated, and nurtured by the microenvironment around it. However traditional qualitative and/or semi-quantitative parameters obtained by pathologist's visual examination have very limited capability to capture this interaction between tumor and its microenvironment. With the advent of digital pathology, computerized image analysis may provide a better tumor characte...

Overriding TKI resistance of renal cell carcinoma by combination therapy with IL-6 receptor blockade.

Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a tumor entity with poor prognosis due to limited therapy options. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) represent the standard of care for RCCs, however a significant proportion of RCC patients develop resistance to this therapy. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is considered to be associated with poor prognosis in RCCs. We therefore hypothesized that TKI resistance and IL-6 secretion are causally connected. We first analyzed IL-6 expression after TKI treatment in RCC cells and RCC ...

Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis mimicking organizing pneumonia after mTOR inhibitor therapy: a case report.

A 67-year old man visited our hospital with complaints of fever and cough. He had a past medical history of renal cell carcinoma and had just started treatment with temsirolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor. A 1-week course of antibiotics did not have any effect on his symptoms. Chest computed tomography (CT) scan showed reversed halo sign (RHS). Organizing pneumonia induced by mTOR inhibitor treatment was initially considered. However, transbronchial biopsy revealed clusters of fungal ...

Impact of Interventional Oncology Therapies on Tumor Microenvironment and Strategies to Enhance Their Efficacy.

We provide a brief review of the tumor microenvironment, the impact of six interventional radiology treatments on the tumor microenvironment, and potential methods to improve treatment efficacy.

Exosomes of invasive urothelial carcinoma cells are characterized by a specific miRNA expression signature.

Muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) represents a highly aggressive tumor type compared to non-muscle-invasive tumors. MIBC is characterized by specific molecular alterations, which may also modulate extracellular tumorigenic effects. Tumor-associated exosomes, especially exosomal miRNAs, are important regulators in the interaction between tumor cells and tumor microenvironment by affecting tumor-promoting processes in target cells. It is important to analyze whether their exosomal patterns also reflect th...

Plk2 Loss Commonly Occurs in Colorectal Carcinomas but not Adenomas: Relationship to mTOR Signaling.

Plk2 is a target of p53. Our previous studies demonstrated that with wild-type p53, Plk2 impacts mTOR signaling in the same manner as TSC1, and Plk2-deficient tumors grew larger than control. Other investigators have demonstrated that Plk2 phosphorylates mutant p53 in a positive feedback loop. We investigated Plk2's tumor suppressor functions in relationship to mTOR signaling. Archival specimens from 12 colorectal adenocarcinomas were stained for markers including Plk2, phosphorylated mTOR (serine 2448) and...

PD-1 Checkpoint Blockade in Combination with an mTOR Inhibitor Restrains Hepatocellular Carcinoma Growth Induced by Hepatoma Cell-Intrinsic PD-1.

Inhibitors of PD-1 administered as single agents have resulted in durable tumor regression in advanced cancer patients. However, only a minority of cancer patients respond to anti PD-1 immunotherapy. Here, we show that PD-1 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) promotes tumor growth independently of adaptive immunity. Knockdown of PD-1 suppress tumor growth, whereas PD-1 overexpression enhances tumorigenesis in immunodeficient xenografted mice. Mechanistically, PD-1 binds the downstream mTOR effector...

De novo induction of intratumoral lymphoid structures and vessel normalization enhances immunotherapy in resistant tumors.

The tumor microenvironment confers profound resistance to anti-cancer immunotherapy. By targeting LIGHT, a member of the TNF superfamily of cytokines, to tumor vessels via a vascular targeting peptide (VTP), we developed a reagent with the dual ability to modulate the angiogenic vasculature and to induce tertiary lymphoid structures (TLSs). LIGHT-VTP triggered the influx of endogenous T cells into autochthonous or syngeneic tumors, which are resistant to immunotherapy. LIGHT-VTP in combination with checkpoi...

Microfluidics Enabled Bottom-Up Engineering of 3D Vascularized Tumor for Drug Discovery.

Development of high-fidelity 3D models to recapitulate the tumor microenvironment is essential for studying tumor biology and screening anticancer drugs. Here we report a method to engineer the 3D microenvironment of human tumor, by encapsulating cancer cells in the core of microcapsules with a hydrogel shell for miniaturized 3D culture to obtain avascular microtumors first. The microtumors are then used as the building blocks for assembling with endothelial cells and other stromal cells to create macroscal...

Integrin Alpha V Beta 3 Targeted Dendrimer-Rapamycin Conjugate Reduces Fibroblast-Mediated Prostate Tumor Progression and Metastasis.

Therapeutic strategies targeting both cancer cells and associated cells in the tumor microenvironment offer significant promise in cancer therapy. We previously reported that generation 5 (G5) dendrimers conjugated with cyclic-RGD peptides target cells expressing integrin alpha V beta 3. In this study, we report a novel dendrimer conjugate modified to deliver the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, rapamycin. In vitro analyses demonstrated that this drug conjugate, G5-FI-RGD-rapamycin, binds to ...

Combinatorial Microenvironments Impose a Continuum of Cellular Responses to a Single Pathway-Targeted Anti-cancer Compound.

Tumor microenvironments are a driver of resistance to anti-cancer drugs. Dissecting cell-microenvironment interactions into tractable units of study presents a challenge. Here, we assess the impact of hundreds of tumor-inspired microenvironments, in parallel, on lapatinib responses in four cancer cell lines. Combinations of ECM and soluble factors were printed on stiffness-tunable substrata to generate a collection of controlled microenvironments in which to explore cell-based functional responses. Proli...

Inhibition of colony stimulating factor-1 receptor abrogates microenvironment-mediated therapeutic resistance in gliomas.

Glioblastomas represent the most aggressive glioma grade and are associated with a poor patient prognosis. The current standard of care, consisting of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, only results in a median survival of 14 months, underscoring the importance of developing effective new therapeutic strategies. Among the challenges in treating glioblastomas are primary resistance and the rapid emergence of recurrent disease, which can result from tumor cell-intrinsic mechanisms in addition to tumor micro...

Unshielding Exosomal RNA Unleashes Tumor Growth And Metastasis.

Reciprocal interactions between tumor cells and their microenvironment drive cancer progression and therapy resistance. In this issue, Nabet et al. demonstrate that dynamic feedback between tumor and stroma subverts normal inflammatory responses by triggering the release of exosomes containing unshielded RNAs that activate pattern recognition receptors, thereby promoting tumor growth and metastasis.

Role of the microenvironment across histological subtypes of NHL.

Recent progress in next-generation sequencing strategies has revealed the genetic landscape of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, but the tumor microenvironment is increasingly recognized as crucial to sustaining malignant B-cell survival and growth, subclonal evolution, and drug resistance. The tumor niche is made up of a dynamic and organized network of strongly heterogeneous immune and stromal cell subsets characterized by specific phenotypic, transcriptomic, and functional features. Nonmalignant cell recruitm...

IL-4 blockade alters the tumor microenvironment and augments the response to cancer immunotherapy in a mouse model.

Recent findings show that immune cells constitute a large fraction of the tumor microenvironment and that they modulate tumor progression. Clinical data indicate that chronic inflammation is present at tumor sites and that IL-4, in particular, is upregulated. Thus, we tested whether IL-4 neutralization would affect tumor immunity. Current results demonstrate that the administration of a neutralizing antibody against IL-4 enhances anti-tumor immunity and delays tumor progression. IL-4 blockade also alters in...

Co-targeting PI3K, mTOR, and IGF1R with small molecule inhibitors for treating undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma.

Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas (UPSs) are aggressive mesenchymal malignancies with no definitive cell of origin or specific recurrent genetic hallmarks. These tumors are largely chemoresistant; thus, identification of potential therapeutic targets is necessary to improve patient outcome. Previous studies demonstrated that high expression of activated protein kinase B (AKT) in patients with UPS corresponds to poor disease-specific survival. Here, we demonstrate that inhibiting phosphatidylinositol-3-k...


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