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Yellow fever (YF) is an emerging expanding fatal arboviral disease that has been imported at least six times in Europe during the first half of 2018, while only seven travel-associated YF cases have been reported in the last 20 years, and none from Brazil. YF has a history of transmission in Europe which could become recurrent considering the wide globalization of competent vectors. This article argues that epidemiological current changes put Europe at risk of YF transmission. Risk assessment and strategies...
In the past decade, a large influx of migrants presented in Europe. Their country of origin was mainly either Syria or Eritrea. Public health institutions in host countries in Europe are challenged to screen and care for migrant populations with regard to infectious diseases.
Of ∼10.2 million people with chronic HCV infection in Europe, most are living in Eastern Europe (6.7 million) followed by Western Europe (2.3 million) and Central Europe (1.2 million). HCV transmission continues to occur - mainly through injection drug use and to a lesser degree, via nosocomial transmission - in parallel with an increasing HCV-related liver disease burden, the result of an ageing population infected during peak HCV epidemics decades prior. In 2016, the World Health Organization set target...
I review the evolutionary history of human populations in Europe with an emphasis on what has been learned in recent years through the study of ancient DNA. Human populations in Europe ∼430-39kya (archaic Europeans) included Neandertals and their ancestors, who were genetically differentiated from other archaic Eurasians (such as the Denisovans of Siberia), as well as modern humans. Modern humans arrived to Europe by ∼45kya, and are first genetically attested by ∼39kya when they were still mixing with...
In industrialized areas of the world, including Europe, Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) is considered an emerging pathogen. In fact, autochthonous cases caused by HEV genotype 3 (HEV-3) are increasingly reported. Several studies described the human HEV-3 subtypes and strains circulating in West Europe countries; in contrast, very little is known about the HEV strains responsible for acute hepatitis E in countries of East Europe/Balkans, such as Bulgaria.
Public attention on female genital mutilation (FGM) in diaspora communities is increasing in Europe, as health and social welfare implications become better understood. This study explored the role of potentially affected communities within interventions to address FGM in Europe, examining current practices, promising interventions and remaining gaps.
Little is known about alcohol consumption among Africans living in rural and urban Africa compared to African migrants in Europe. We compared the patterns of alcohol consumption in a group of Ghanaians living in different locations in Ghana and in Europe and examined the factors associated with drinking alcohol.
We analyzed the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 epizootic of 2016-17 in Europe by epidemiologic and genetic characteristics and compared it with 2 previous epizootics caused by the same H5 Guangdong lineage. The 2016-17 epizootic was the largest in Europe by number of countries and farms affected and greatest diversity of wild birds infected. We observed significant differences among the 3 epizootics regarding region affected, epidemic curve, seasonality, and outbreak duration, making it difficu...
Drought stress during reproductive development could drastically reduce grain number and wheat yield, but quantitative evaluation of such effect is unknown under climate change. The objectives of this study were to a) evaluate potential yield benefits of drought tolerance during reproductive development for wheat ideotypes under climate change in Europe, and b) identify potential cultivar parameters for improvement. We used the Sirius wheat model to optimise drought tolerant (DT) and drought sensitive (DS) ...
With an estimated 15 million infected persons in Europe, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is still one of the leading causes of chronic liver disease and associated mortality. The HBV infection prevalence in the general population depends on the region and ranges from 0.01% in Scandinavia to 10.3% in Kyrgyzstan. The prevalence of the 10 HBV genotypes (A-J) varies among different parts of the world, with genotypes A and D being most prevalent in Europe. Other HBV genotypes are mainly imported into Europe fr...
Alcohol use disorders (AUD) in older people have been the subject of increasing interest in Europe and worldwide. However, thus far, no reliable data exist regarding the prevalence of AUD in people over the age of 65 years in Europe.
Translational cancer research covers the whole cancer research continuum from basic to preclinical to early clinical, late clinical and outcomes research. Basic-preclinical research is the "engine" for early clinical research bridging the early translational research gap. Cancer Core Europe has been created to construct a sustainable, high level, shared research infrastructure platform with research collaborations and taskforces (data sharing, clinical trials, genomics, immunotherapy, imaging, legal & ethic...
The present study presents a multidimensional analysis of land-use efficiency in terms of per-capita built-up area over 417 metropolitan regions from 27 European countries. The study period encompasses two urban phases including economic expansion (2000-2007) and crisis (2008-2015). Multiple geographical gradients were identified as relevant predictors of land-use efficiency across Europe. The socioeconomic variables most associated with high land-use efficiency were per-capita disposable income (in Western...
Pancreatic (PC) and biliary tract (BTC) cancers have higher incidence and mortality in Europe than elsewhere. We analysed time-trends in PC/BTC incidence, mortality, and survival across Europe. Since the European standard population (ESP) was recently revised to better represent European age structure, we also assessed the effect of adopting the revised ESP to age-standardise incidence and mortality data.
To examine if family ties are strong predictors of functional limitation in older adults in Europe.
While lung cancer screening has been implemented in the United States, it is still under consideration in Europe. So far, lung cancer screening trials in Europe were not able to replicate the results of the National Lung Screening Trial, but they do show a stage shift in the lung cancers that were detected. While eagerly awaiting the final result of the only lung cancer screening trial with sufficient statistical power, the NELSON trial, a number of European countries and medical societies have published re...
The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is widely distributed in the world; in central Europe, it is the most numerous wild species of the family Canidae. It can play the role of a definitive host for many intestinal parasites, including zoonotic helminths. Poland, with its geographical location (central Europe), is an interesting area for parasitological investigations of this species. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the prevalence of intestinal helminths in red foxes in different regions of Poland.
Cefiderocol (S-649266) is a parenteral siderophore cephalosporin currently in Phase III of clinical development. In this study, we determined the in vitro susceptibility of a 2015-2016 collection of 8,954 clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacilli (GNB), provided by 100 clinical laboratories in North America and Europe, to cefiderocol and comparators using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method. Iron-depleted cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth was used to test cefideroc...
The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and incidence of retinal vein occlusions (RVO) in Europe.
A young, healthy traveler returning to the United States presented with fever, night sweats, splenomegaly, and pancytopenia. Bone marrow biopsy revealed leishmaniasis (Leishmania infantum), likely acquired in southern France. Although many cases of endemic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) have been reported in Europe, this is a rare case of imported VL in a healthy traveler returning from Europe to the US. Despite successful initial treatment with liposomal amphotericin B (LamB), relapse occurred. Treatments for...
During the last decades, arboviruses that are endemic in Europe have expanded their geographic range and caused an increasing number of human outbreaks. These viruses include West Nile virus, which is expanding its area of circulation in central and southern Europe; Usutu virus, with increasing evidence of a role in human disease; tick-borne encephalitis virus, which is being detected in northern areas and at higher altitudes as a consequence of climate warming; Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, which ...
Five-year relative survival (RS) of adults with bone and soft-tissue cancers in Europe was still
To investigate trends and factors associated with antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Acinetobacter spp. in Europe.
Unprecedented numbers of migrants have arrived in Europe, including children and adolescents. Little is known about their unique health needs. Prospective data collection has been sparse. Mobile applications may help to facilitate global health surveillance.
In order to investigate associations between air pollution and adverse health effects consistent fine spatial air pollution surfaces are needed across large areas to provide cohorts with comparable exposures. The aim of this paper is to develop and evaluate fine spatial scale land use regression models for four major health relevant air pollutants (PM, NO, BC, O) across Europe.