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Showing "Updating Measles Guidelines HCWs" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 2,800+

Occupational tuberculosis in South Africa: are health care workers adequately protected?

A provincial tertiary hospital in Gauteng province, South Africa, with a high burden of tuberculosis (TB) patients and high risk of TB exposure among health care workers (HCWs).To determine HCWs' adherence to recommended TB infection prevention and control practices, TB training and access to health services and HCW TB rates.Interviews with 285 HCWs using a structured questionnaire as part of a large, international mixed-methods study.Despite 10 HCWs (including seven support HCWs) acquiring clinical TB duri...

Public Health Responses during Measles Outbreaks in Elimination Settings: Strategies and Challenges.

In late September 2016, the Americas became the first region in the world to have eliminated endemic transmission of measles virus. Several other countries have also verified measles elimination, and countries in all six World Health Organization regions have adopted measles elimination goals. The public health strategies used to respond to measles outbreaks in elimination settings are thus becoming relevant to more countries. This review highlights the strategies used to limit measles spread in elimination...

Measles in Children.

Measles, which until recently had been a rare disease in the United States, is re-emerging in our communities due to a combination of increased global mobility and decreased vaccinations across the country. As providers, we need to reacquaint ourselves with this disease so that we may diagnose it as well as educate our patients on how to prevent it. With public resistance to vaccinations on the rise, it is also important to be prepared to answer questions about the measles vaccine, its efficacy, and its sid...

Measles control in a measles-eliminated country, Japan.

Incidence of biological accidents at work and immune status for vaccine-preventable diseases among resident physicians in specialist training at Ferrara University Hospital.

The hospital as a work environment is particularly characterized by various risks for healthcare workers (HCWs). The main risk is represented by biological accidents, associated with the parenteral transmission of pathogens. Biological injuries can occur during the care service and the manipulation of biological fluids. Hepatitis B (and hepatitis D), hepatitis C and HIV are the most common infections transmitted by biological injuries. Physicians should acquire awareness of the risks associated with their p...

Serological survey of measles immunity in the Czech Republic, 2013.

The aim of the serological survey of measles was to obtain information on the prevalence of antibodies against measles and to verify the effectiveness of vaccination in the Czech population in order to protect public health.

Measles vaccination in an increasingly immunized and developed world.

Increased measles immunization has led to a significant decline in measles incidence and mortality. During 2016 it is estimated that fewer than 100,000 died from measles for the first time in recorded history. In highly immunized countries measles epidemiology has changed. Threats to national elimination goals and public health include aging cohorts of naïve people that exist from imperfect vaccination rates during the early years of immunization programs. This may be complemented by some loss of immunity ...

Progress Toward Measles Elimination - Western Pacific Region, 2013-2017.

In 2005, the Regional Committee for the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region (WPR)* established a goal for measles elimination by 2012 (1). To achieve this goal, the 37 WPR countries and areas implemented the recommended strategies in the WPR Plan of Action for Measles Elimination (2) and the Field Guidelines for Measles Elimination (3). The strategies include 1) achieving and maintaining ≥95% coverage with 2 doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) through routine immunization services...

Evaluation of nationwide supplementary immunization in Lao People's Democratic Republic: Population-based seroprevalence survey of anti-measles and anti-rubella IgG in children and adults, mathematical modelling and a stability testing of the vaccine.

Measles outbreaks have occurred in some countries despite supplementary immunization activities (SIA) using measles-containing vaccine with high vaccination coverage. We conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence survey to estimate population immunity in Lao People's Democratic Republic where repeated mass immunization has failed to eliminate measles.

Burnout and self-reported suboptimal patient care amongst health care workers providing HIV care in Malawi.

The well-documented shortages of health care workers (HCWs) in sub-Saharan Africa are further intensified by the increased human resource needs of expanding HIV treatment programs. Burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and a sense of low personal accomplishment (PA). HCWs' burnout can negatively impact the delivery of health services. Our main objective was to examine the prevalence of burnout amongst HCWs in Malawi and explore its relationship to self-reported suboptim...

Risk factors for measles mortality and the importance of decentralized case management during an unusually large measles epidemic in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo in 2013.

In 2013, a large measles epidemic occurred in the Aketi Health Zone of the Democratic Republic of Congo. We conducted a two-stage, retrospective cluster survey to estimate the attack rate, the case fatality rate, and the measles-specific mortality rate during the epidemic. 1424 households containing 7880 individuals were included. The estimated attack rate was 14.0%, (35.0% among children aged

Assessment of vaccine effectiveness during measles outbreak in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2014-2015.

Between February 2014 and September 2015 a large measles outbreak (5,084 cases) occurred in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FB&H). The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of routine measles vaccination in the FB&H.

Case-based surveillance of measles in Sicily during 2012-2017: The changing molecular epidemiology and implications for vaccine strategies.

Following the indication of the World Health Organization, a national plan for the elimination of measles was approved in Italy and this included the improvement of the molecular surveillance of measles viruses and the interruption of indigenous transmission of the disease. Nevertheless, large outbreaks continue to occur in almost all regions of the country, including Sicily. Here we describe the epidemiology and molecular dynamics of measles viruses as a result of the measles surveillance activity carried ...

Prevalence and risk factors of measles seronegativity in a cohort of HIV-positive subjects: a retrospective study.

Measles infection is a vaccine-preventable disease currently resurging in Europe. HIV-infected subjects are at higher risk of complications following measles infection. We investigated the risk factors associated with being seronegative in a cohort of HIV-infected subjects.

Occupational tuberculosis in healthcare workers in sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review.

This article investigates the incidence, prevalence and factors associated with occupational tuberculosis (TB) in healthcare workers (HCWs) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Studies were extracted from MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and SCOPUS databases following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement from inception to the 2 of June 2017. Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. The median prevalence of latent TB infection in HCWS was 62% (IQR 22%) an...

Use of the revised World Health Organization cluster survey methodology to classify measles-rubella vaccination campaign coverage in 47 counties in Kenya, 2016.

To achieve measles elimination, two doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) are provided through routine immunization services or vaccination campaigns. In May 2016, Kenya conducted a measles-rubella (MR) vaccination campaign targeting 19 million children aged 9 months-14 years, with a goal of achieving ≥95% coverage. We conducted a post-campaign cluster survey to estimate national coverage and classify coverage in Kenya's 47 counties.

Feasibility of using postal and web-based surveys to estimate the prevalence of tuberculosis among health care workers in South Africa.

Health Care Workers (HCWs) are among the highest risk groups for contracting tuberculosis (TB), which is ranked the third most common occupational health disease in South Africa. Little is known about the true extent of the burden of TB among South African HCWs and current surveillance approaches are inadequate. The study aimed to determine the feasibility of using postal and web-based surveys accessed through registries of registered professionals to estimate the prevalence of TB among HCWs in South Africa...

Fever and Rash: Revisiting Measles.

Fever and rash are a common combination of symptoms in the young adult patient. The etiologic investigation is usually oriented towards the most common diseases, but atypical presentations of less frequent conditions should also be recalled. We describe the case of a 44 year-old Portuguese woman who presented with fever, conjunctivitis, cough and rash, rapidly evolving to hepatitis and extensive pneumonia with respiratory failure. Although she claimed to be vaccinated according to the national immunisati...

Treatment efficiency of a hybrid constructed wetland system for municipal wastewater and its suitability for crop irrigation.

Design and implementation of wastewater treatment is inevitable due to toxic effects of wastewater irrigation on crops, soil and human health. Current investigation is the pioneer attempt on full-scale hybrid constructed wetland system (HCWS) built for municipal wastewater treatment from Pakistan. HCWS was comprised of vertical sub-surface flow constructed wetland (VSSF-CW) and five phyto-treatment ponds connected in series. Higher environmental risk was associated with untreated municipal wastewater usage ...

Measles high school vaccination program, 2014-2015: online survey of parents in NSW, Australia.

In 2014, a high school-based measles supplementary immunisation activity (SIA) took place in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, in response to a large number of adolescents being identified as undervaccinated or unvaccinated against measles. The program focused on areas of NSW where previous measles outbreaks had occurred and where large numbers of undervaccinated adolescents lived. More than 11 000 students were vaccinated in 2014, and the program continued in 2015, when more than 4000 students in Years 11 ...

A Microneedle Patch for Measles and Rubella Vaccination Is Immunogenic and Protective in Infant Rhesus Macaques.

New methods to increase measles and rubella (MR) vaccination coverage are needed to achieve global and regional MR elimination goals.

hCD46 receptor is not required for measles vaccine Schwarz strain replication in vivo: Type-I IFN is the species barrier in mice.

Measles virus has been successfully attenuated on chicken embryo cells to obtain a highly efficient and safe live attenuated vaccine, administered thus far to billions of children. Measles virus attenuation has long been described to involve a modification of cellular tropism with the use of human CD46 ubiquitous receptor. Nevertheless, the use of this receptor in vivo is not obvious. In this study we use four different mouse models to decipher the respective part of hCD46 receptor and type-I interferon res...

Global spatiotemporal transmission dynamics of measles virus clade D genotypes in the context of the measles elimination goal 2020 in India.

Measles viruses (MeV) circulating in India mainly belong to genoypes D4 and D8 of clade D. In the context of measles elimination goal 2020 in India, molecular clock and phylogeography studies would help to identify the timescales of evolution and track the transmission pathways of MeV. We used nucleoprotein gene sequences (n = 756) from GenBank, representing 86 countries (1973-2016), to study the spatiotemporal transmission dynamics of clade D. Genotype D4 was introduced into India around 1991 and genot...

Development of a robust and standardized immunoserological assay for detection of anti-measles IgG antibodies in human sera.

Because of measles outbreaks there is a need for continuous monitoring of immunological protection against infection at population level. For such monitoring to be feasible, a cost-effective, reliable and high-throughput assay is necessary. Herein we describe an ELISA protocol for assessment of anti-measles antibody levels in human serum samples that fulfills the above criteria and is easily adaptable by various laboratories. A serum bank of anonymous patient sera was established (N > 3000 samples). Ser...

Epidemiological and molecular investigation of a measles outbreak in Punjab Pakistan, 2013-2015.

Despite the availability of an effective vaccine, measles virus continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. Molecular characterization of wild type measles strains is an invaluable component of epidemiological studies/surveillance systems that provides important information pertinent to outbreak linkages and transmission pathways. Serum samples and throat swabs were collected from suspected measles cases from Punjab province of Pakistan (2013-2015) and further tested for me...

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