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The benefit of influenza vaccines is difficult to estimate due to the complexity of accurately assessing the burden of influenza. To improve the efficacy of influenza vaccines, vaccine manufacturers have developed quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) formulations for seasonal vaccination by including both influenza B lineages. Three parallel approaches for producing influenza vaccines are attracting the interest of many vaccine manufacturing companies. The first and oldest is the conventional egg-derived in...
Quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (Q/LAIV) has not been assessed in Japanese children.
Vaccination against influenza is the most effective approach for reducing influenza morbidity and mortality. However, influenza vaccines are unique among all licensed vaccines as they are updated and administered annually to antigenically match the vaccine strains and currently circulating influenza strains. Vaccine efficacy of each selected influenza virus vaccine varies depending on the antigenic match between circulating strains and vaccine strains, as well as the age and health status of the vaccine rec...
Reduced seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) was observed in individuals who received repeated annual vaccinations. Pre-existing influenza antibody levels were also found inversely correlated with post-vaccination titers. These reports suggest that pre-existing immunity may affect contemporary seasonal vaccine performance.
No reports have described the immunogenicity and boosting effect of the quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (QIV) in adults with inflammatory bowel disease.
Intranasally administered live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was initially licensed in the United States in 2003 as a trivalent formulation (LAIV3) (FluMist, MedImmune, LLC). Quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4) (FluMist Quadrivalent, MedImmune) has been licensed in the United States since 2012 and was first available during the 2013-14 influenza season, replacing LAIV3. During the 2016-17 and 2017-18 influenza seasons, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommen...
The imperfect effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccines is often blamed on antigenic mismatch, but even when the match appears good, effectiveness can be surprisingly low. Seasonal influenza vaccines also stand out for their variable effectiveness by age group from year to year and by recent vaccination status. These patterns suggest a role for immune history in influenza vaccine effectiveness, but inference is complicated by uncertainty about the contributions of bias to the estimates themselves. In thi...
Influenza virus causes contagious respiratory illness and remains a major burden on healthcare systems and the economy. Seasonal influenza vaccine is the most cost-effective way to combat the disease. However, underestimation of disease severity and controversy over vaccine safety and effectiveness hampers public confidence in vaccination. Action is needed to restore public confidence and improve vaccine uptake. Tailoring seasonal influenza vaccines according to immune responsiveness and infection/vaccinati...
Influenza viruses infect approximately 20% of the global population annually, resulting in hundreds of thousands of deaths. While there are Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved antiviral drugs for combating the disease, vaccination remains the best strategy for preventing infection. Due to the rapid mutation rate of influenza viruses, vaccine formulations need to be updated every year to provide adequate protection. In recent years, a great amount of effort has been focused on the development of a un...
The study was aimed at comparative evaluation of seasonal influenza vaccine RIBSP versus commercial vaccine VAXIGRIP® for immunogenicity and safety in the course of clinical trial phase II on healthy volunteers aged 18-60 years.
Since the mid-1980s, two lineages of influenza B viruses have been distinguished. These can co-circulate, limiting the protection provided by inactivated trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs). This has prompted efforts to formulate quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIVs), to enhance protection against circulating influenza B viruses. This review describes the results obtained from seven phase III clinical trials evaluating the immunogenicity, safety, and lot-to-lot consistency of a new quadrivalent split-virio...
To inform national healthcare authorities whether quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIVs) provide better value for money than trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs), we assessed the cost-effectiveness of TIV and QIV in low-and-middle income communities based in South Africa and Vietnam and contrasted these findings with those from a high-income community in Australia.
Australia's novel, active surveillance system, AusVaxSafety, monitors the post-market safety of vaccines in near real time. We analysed cumulative surveillance data for children aged 6 months to 4 years who received seasonal influenza vaccine in 2015 and/or 2016 to determine: adverse event following immunisation (AEFI) rates by vaccine brand, age and concomitant vaccine administration.
We predict vaccine efficacy with a measure of antigenic distance between influenza A(H3N2) and candidate vaccine viruses based on amino acid substitutions in the dominant epitopes. In 2016-2017, our model predicts 19% efficacy compared to 20% observed. This tool assists candidate vaccine selection by predicting human protection against circulating strains.
Safety and Immunogenicity of an Egg-Cultivated Quadrivalent Inactivated Split-virion Influenza Vaccine (GC3110A) in Healthy Korean Children: a Randomized, Double-blinded, Active-controlled Phase III Study.
The frequency with which the 2 B lineages have been found to cocirculate in a season has been on the rise, which has spurred the need for a quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) to protect against both B lineages. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that QIV include both B lineages beginning in the 2013-2014 flu season. This study was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of an egg-cultivated QIV in healthy Korean children and adolescents aged ≥ 6 months to < 19 years.
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that countries prioritize pregnant women for influenza vaccination, yet few low- or middle-income countries (LMICs) have implemented maternal influenza immunization programs. To inform vaccine decision-making and operational planning in LMICs, there is a need to document and share experiences from countries that provide seasonal influenza vaccine to pregnant women, particularly those with high coverage, like El Salvador.
In Ireland, there is year-on-year variation in the seasonal influenza vaccine uptake for people aged 65 years and older. We obtained aggregate vaccine uptake data (2004/05-2014/15) by area and age group and applied the 2011 relative deprivation score and GP-density by area. Using Poisson regression model, we estimated the associations between those variables and uptake before and after the 2009 pandemic. After adjusting for age, deprivation status and GP-density, overall persons aged ?65 years were less lik...
The study examined the influence of sex and mouse strain on germinal center (GC) reaction and antibody responses to seasonal split trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV).
Numerous modern technological and scientific advances have changed the vaccine industry. However, nearly 70 years of influenza vaccine usage have passed without substantial changes in the underlying principles of the vaccine. The challenge of vaccinating against influenza lies in the constantly changing nature of the virus itself. Influenza viruses undergo antigenic evolution through antigenic drift and shift in their surface glycoproteins. This has forced frequent updates of vaccine antigens to ensure that...
Human influenza is predominantly caused by influenza A virus (IAV) - A/H1N1 and/or A/H3N2 - and influenza B virus (IBV) - B/Victoria and/or B/Yamagata, which co-circulate each season. Influenza surveillance provides important information on seasonal disease burden and circulation, and vaccine content for the following season. To study the circulating influenza subtypes/lineages in western Turkey. Community-based sentinel surveillance results during 2003-2016 (weeks 40-20 each season; but week 21, 2009 throu...
Influenza burden in Brazil is considerable with 4.2-6.4 million cases in 2008 and influenza-like-illness responsible for 16.9% of hospitalizations. Cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination may be assessed by different types of models, with limitations due to data availability, assumptions, and modelling approach.
Seasonal influenza is caused by two subtypes of influenza A and two lineages of influenza B. Although trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs) contain both circulating A strains, they contain only a single B-lineage strain. This can lead to mismatches between the vaccine and predominant circulating B lineages, a concern especially for at-risk populations. Quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIVs) containing a strain from both B lineages have been developed to improve protection against influenza. Here, we used a co...
The Colombian health authorities introduced the pneumococcal conjugated vaccine and the seasonal influenza vaccine into the national immunization schedule for children in 2009 and 2007, respectively. Despite this, the health authorities continue to be concerned about the high economic and disease burden among children from low-income households caused by these vaccine-preventable diseases.
In the 2014 - 2015 season, most influenza infections were due to A (H3N2) viruses. More than two-thirds of circulating A (H3N2) viruses are antigenically and genetically different (drifted) from the A (H3N2) vaccine component of 2014 - 2015 northern and southern Hemisphere seasonal influenza vaccines. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of seasonal influenza A non-H1N1 infection that occurred in June 2015 in an adult cystic fibrosis patient with severe lung disease previously vaccinated with the a...