PubMed Journals Articles About "Vestibulo Sympathetic Reflex Patients With Bilateral Vestibular Loss" RSS

18:29 EST 12th November 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Vestibulo Sympathetic Reflex Patients With Bilateral Vestibular Loss" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 40,000+

Vestibulo-sympathetic reflex in patients with bilateral vestibular loss.

This study assessed cardiovascular control during Head‑Down Neck Flexion (HDNF) in a group of patients suffering from total bilateral idiopathic vestibular loss (BVL) for 7 ± 2 years. Nine adult patients (age 54 ± 6 years) with BVL were recruited. Calf blood flow (CBF), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) were measured with eyes closed in two lying body positions: ventral prone (VP) and lateral (LP) on the left side. Vascular resistance (CVR) was calculated as MAP/CBF. The HDNF protocol consis...

Changes in gain of horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex during spaceflight.

The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is a basic function of the vestibular system that stabilizes gaze during head movement. Investigations on how spaceflight affects VOR gain and phase are few, and the magnitude of observed changes varies considerably and depends on the protocols used.

Vestibular implant: does it really work? A systematic review.

People with vestibular loss present a deficit in the vestibular system, which is primarily responsible for promoting postural control, gaze stabilization, and spatial orientation while the head moves. There is no effective treatment for a bilateral loss of vestibular function. Recently, a vestibular implant was developed for people with bilateral loss of vestibular function to improve this function and, consequently, the quality of life of these patients.

Impact of Bilateral Vestibulopathy on Spatial and Nonspatial Cognition: A Systematic Review.

Hearing loss is considered an independent risk factor for dementia. Growing evidence in animal and human studies suggest that not only hearing loss but also vestibular loss might result in cognitive deficits. The objective of this study is to evaluate the presence of spatial and nonspatial cognitive deficits in patients with bilateral vestibulopathy. As different causes of bilateral vestibulopathy are associated with hearing loss, the objective is to evaluate if these cognitive deficits are due to the vesti...

Endre Hőgyes (1847-1906), Forgotten Father of the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex.

Throughout the history of vestibular research, the discovery of the vestibulo-ocular reflex in 1881 by Endre Hőgyes (1847-1906) is rarely mentioned. The aim of this study is to review Hőgyes' vestibular research articles, all originally written in Hungarian and emphasize their epoch-making content.

Non-Human Primate Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Responses to Prosthetic Vestibular Stimulation are Robust to Pulse Timing Errors Caused by Temporal Discretization.

Electrical stimulation of vestibular afferent neurons to partially restore semicircular canal sensation of head rotation and the stabilizing reflexes that sensation supports has potential to effectively treat individuals disabled by bilateral vestibular hypofunction. Ideally, a vestibular implant system using this approach would be integrated with a cochlear implant, which would provide clinicians with a means to simultaneously treat loss of both vestibular and auditory sensation. Despite obvious similariti...

Aminoglycoside Vestibulotoxicity.

Many pharmaceuticals have ototoxicity (both cochlear and/or vestibular) as part of their adverse medication profile. The aminoglycoside class of antimicrobials has been especially well studied in this regard. Many questions remain unanswered as to how to best monitor and prevent this complication. A bilateral vestibular loss profoundly affects an individual's quality of life, physical activities, and overall independence. Paradoxically, the effects of gentamicin ototoxicity have provided further insight int...

Horizontal Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Gain Measures During Convergence Using a Monocular Video Technique.

Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) response measures during convergence, which are clinically important to measure peripheral vestibular organ function during rotational and translational rapid head movements, can be implemented using existing clinically available monocular video-oculography (VOG) systems.

Vertical nystagmus in Wernicke's encephalopathy: pathogenesis and role of central processing of information from the otoliths.

Patients with Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) often have unusual patterns of vertical nystagmus. Initially there is often a spontaneous upbeating nystagmus that may change to downbeat nystagmus with a change in the direction of gaze, convergence or with vestibular stimuli. Patients also often show a profound loss of the horizontal but not the vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Furthermore, the acute upbeat nystagmus may change to a chronic downbeat nystagmus. We present hypotheses for these features bas...

Vestibulo masseteric reflex and acoustic masseteric Reflex. Normative data and effects of age and gender.

To provide normative data for the Vestibulo-Masseteric Reflex (VMR) and Acoustic-Masseteric Reflex (AMR) in healthy subjects, stratified for age and gender.

Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Function in Adolescents With Sport-Related Concussion: Preliminary Results.

Oculomotor impairments, dizziness, and imbalance are common after sports-related concussion (SRC) in adolescents and suggest a relationship between SRC and vestibular system dysfunction. However, it is not clear if the source of these problems is attributable to the peripheral or central vestibular system.

Presbyvestibulopathy: Diagnostic criteria Consensus document of the classification committee of the Bárány Society.

This paper describes the diagnostic criteria for presbyvestibulopathy (PVP) by the Classification Committee of the Bárány Society. PVP is defined as a chronic vestibular syndrome characterized by unsteadiness, gait disturbance, and/or recurrent falls in the presence of mild bilateral vestibular deficits, with findings on laboratory tests that are between normal values and thresholds established for bilateral vestibulopathy.The diagnosis of PVP is based on the patient history, bedside examination and labor...

Angular vestibulo-ocular reflex responses in Otop1 mice. II. Otolith sensor input improves compensation after unilateral labyrinthectomy.

The role of the otoliths in mammals on the normal angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) was characterised in an accompanying study based on the Otopetrin1 (Otop1) mouse, which lacks functioning otoliths due to failure to develop otoconia but seems to have otherwise normal peripheral anatomy and neural circuitry. That study showed that otoliths do not contribute to the normal horizontal (rotation about Earth-vertical axis parallel to dorso-ventral axis) and vertical angular VOR (rotation about Earth-vertical...

Large gaze shift generation whilst standing up - the role of the vestibular system.

The functional significance of vestibular information for the generation of gaze shifts is controversial and less well established than the vestibular contribution to gaze stability. Here, we asked seven bilaterally avestibular patients to execute voluntary, whole-body pivot turns to visual targets up to 180° whilst standing. In these conditions not only the demands imposed on gaze transfer mechanisms are more challenging but also neck-proprioceptive input represents an inadequate source of head-in-space m...

Electrical Vestibular Stimulation in Humans: A Narrative Review.

In patients with bilateral vestibulopathy, the regular treatment options, such as medication, surgery, and/or vestibular rehabilitation, do not always suffice. Therefore, the focus in this field of vestibular research shifted to electrical vestibular stimulation (EVS) and the development of a system capable of artificially restoring the vestibular function. Key Message: Currently, three approaches are being investigated: vestibular co-stimulation with a cochlear implant (CI), EVS with a vestibular implant (...

Video Head Impulse Testing.

The bedside head impulse, first described nearly 20 years ago, is the single most useful clinical test of the human vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). The video head impulse test (vHIT), its laboratory counterpart, now enables the objective assessment of the VOR. We examine how the vHIT can be utilized in three common clinical scenarios: the acute vestibular syndrome, recurrent spontaneous vertigo, and chronic imbalance. Combined with vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs), vHIT enables assessment of all...

Self-motion perception is sensitized in vestibular migraine: pathophysiologic and clinical implications.

Vestibular migraine (VM) is the most common cause of spontaneous vertigo but remains poorly understood. We investigated the hypothesis that central vestibular pathways are sensitized in VM by measuring self-motion perceptual thresholds in patients and control subjects and by characterizing the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and vestibular and headache symptom severity. VM patients were abnormally sensitive to roll tilt, which co-modulates semicircular canal and otolith organ activity, but not to motions that...

Advances in Vestibular Rehabilitation.

Vestibular rehabilitation is an exercise-based program that has been in existence for over 70 years. A growing body of evidence supports the use of vestibular rehabilitation in patients with vestibular disorders, and evolving research has led to more efficacious interventions. Through central compensation, vestibular rehabilitation is able to improve symptoms of imbalance, falls, fear of falling, oscillopsia, dizziness, vertigo, motion sensitivity and secondary symptoms such as nausea and anxiety. Early int...

Cochlear Dead Regions in Sporadic Unilateral Vestibular Schwannomas Using the Threshold-Equalizing Noise Test.

Vestibular schwannoma (VS) is a benign intracranial neoplasm originating in the Schwann cells of the vestibular nerve. Despite its origin, the most common symptom is sensorineural hearing loss which is presented in more than 90% of patients. The underlying pathophysiology of this hearing loss has not been fully understood.

Using Unidirectional Rotations to Improve Vestibular System Asymmetry in Patients with Vestibular Dysfunction.

The vestibular system provides information about head movement and mediates reflexes that contribute to balance control and gaze stabilization during daily activities. Vestibular sensors are located in the inner ear on both sides of the head and project to the vestibular nuclei in the brainstem. Vestibular dysfunction is often due to an asymmetry between input from the two sides. This results in asymmetrical neural inputs from the two ears, which can produce an illusion of rotation, manifested as vertigo. T...

A review on screening tests for vestibular disorders.

Although many studies have reported on tests of the vestibular system a valid and reliable, evidence-based screening battery for easy clinical use remains elusive. Many screening tests attempt to assess the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Therefore, head shaking, the Dix-Hallpike maneuver, the supine roll test and head impulse tests are discussed. Other tests address the spatial orientation functions of the vestibular system, such as the Bucket Test and the Fukuda Stepping test. Still other tests are based on the ...

Vestibular Testing-Rotary Chair and Dynamic Visual Acuity Tests.

The human vestibular system is exquisitely sensitive to detect linear and rotational head acceleration signals, processed in the brainstem and subsequently relayed to the extraocular motor neurons to generate a compensatory eye rotation. This vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) ensures clear and stable vision during head rotation, enabling humans to keep gaze on their desired target. In this chapter, we describe the rotary chair - one physiologic measure of the VOR, and the dynamic visual acuity (DVA) test - one ...

Interhemispheric Control of Sensory Cue Integration and Self-Motion Perception.

Spatial orientation necessitates the integration of visual and vestibular sensory cues, in-turn facilitating self-motion perception. However, the neural mechanisms underpinning sensory integration remain unknown. Recently we have illustrated that spatial orientation and vestibular thresholds are influenced by interhemispheric asymmetries associated with the posterior parietal cortices (PPC) that predominantly house the vestibulo-cortical network. Given that sensory integration is a prerequisite to both spat...

Unilateral vestibular deafferentation impairs embodied spatial cognition.

A growing number of studies indicate that cognitive complaints are common in patients with peripheral vestibular disorders. A better understanding of how vestibular disorders influence cognition in these patients requires a clear delineation of the cognitive domains affected by vestibular disorders. Here, we compared the consequences of left and right vestibular neurectomy on third-person perspective taking-a visuo-spatial task requiring mainly own-body mental imagery, and on 3D objects mental rotation imag...

Trends in hearing rehabilitation use among vestibular schwannoma patients.

Most patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS) have significant hearing loss in the affected ear as a result of either their tumor or treatment. There is a paucity of data on which hearing rehabilitation options, if any, are preferred by patients with VS. Our study analyzed the use of hearing rehabilitation devices among VS patients.

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