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Barrett's esophagus progresses to esophageal adenocarcinoma in a stepwise histological fashion of no dysplasia, low grade dysplasia, high grade dysplasia and cancer. Hence the progression to cancer from various histological stages is different. Progression to cancer from low grade dysplasia is highly variable in the literature due to high inter-observer variability between pathologists in diagnosing it. Studies have shown the utility of having confirmation of low grade dysplasia by expert pathologists or do...
Osteoblastoma-like osteosarcoma is a rare variant of osteosarcoma (1% of all osteosarcomas), histologically similar to osteoblastoma. In the current WHO classification osteoblastoma-like osteosarcoma is classified within the group of conventional (high-grade) osteosarcomas. However, several published cases have been actually regarded as low-grade malignant tumors. Since strict morphologic criteria to distinguish between low-grade and high-grade lesions are not available we reviewed our series of osteoblasto...
Gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) are classified based upon morphology and graded upon proliferation rate as either well-differentiated low-grade (G1-G2) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) or poorly differentiated high-grade (G3) neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). Recently, a new subgroup of well-differentiated high-grade pancreatic tumours (NET G3) has been defined. The GEP NEN G3 group consisting of both NEC and NET G3, has recently been shown to be a quite heterogeneous patient group con...
The aim of the study was to determine rates of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 or greater in high-risk, racially diverse, young women with low-grade cytology.
Tumor angiogenesis has attracted increasing attention because of its potential as a valuable marker in the differential diagnosis of brain tumors as well as a novel therapeutic target. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is expressed by the neovasculature endothelium of some tumors, with little to no expression by the tumor cells or normal vasculature endothelium. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of PSMA for the evaluation of the tumor neovasculature of various brain tumors and t...
High-grade gliomas are associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). This retrospective study with a parallel cohort design investigates the influence of continuing prophylactic anticoagulation post-discharge on the rate of VTE and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in patients operated for a high-grade glioma.
High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN2/3; HGAIN) is highly prevalent in HIV+ men who have sex with men (MSM), but only a minority will eventually progress to cancer. Currently the cancer risk cannot be established, and therefore all HGAIN are treated, resulting in overtreatment. We assessed the potential of host cell DNA methylation markers for detecting HGAIN and anal cancer.
This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of stereotactic radiotherapy combined with bevacizumab (SRT-Bv) compared with Bv treatment for recurrent high-grade gliomas (HGGs).
The aim of this multicenter study was to investigate the prognostic impact of residual T1 high-grade (HG)/G3 tumors at re-transurethral resection (TUR of bladder tumor) in a large multi-institutional cohort of patients with primary T1 HG/G3 bladder cancer (BC).
Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) measures have been shown to provide increased sensitivity relative to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in detecting pathologies.
Preoperative identification of high-grade gliomas is critical to optimize treatment strategy and to predict prognosis. To determine whether perilesional apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values differ between high- and low-grade tumors, we assessed water diffusivity within normal-appearing brain parenchyma (NABP) surrounding gliomas in twenty-one treatment-naïve patients. This showed significantly lower mean and 25th percentile (Q1) ADC values in high- grade compared to low-grade gliomas respectively in...
Chronic visual loss is a disabling feature in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). It was recently shown that MD1003 (high-dose pharmaceutical-grade biotin or hdPB) may improve disability in patients with progressive MS.
Objective To evaluate the expression of survivin protein in low- and high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ. Methods Breast tissue fragments obtained by incisional biopsy and surgical procedures of 37 women with ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast were subdivided into two groups: Group A, composed of women with low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ, and Group B, women with high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ. Survivin protein expression test was performed by immunohistochemistry, using a monoclonal antibody cl...
The aim of this study was to determine whether intraoperative cytological evaluation of squash preparations is of benefit for differentiating high-grade from low-grade astrocytomas.
Preinvasive squamous neoplasms of the lower genital tract are currently classified using a two-tier system (high- or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) as directed by the Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology (LAST) guidelines but may also be subclassified as intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (-IN1), -IN2, or -IN3. The LAST recommended that all diagnoses of -IN2 be supported by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for p16. We examined whether p16 and Ki-67 IHC are necessary to diagnose -IN2 when the lesion ha...
Glioma is a wide category of brain tumor originates from glial cells. Lower-Grade Glioma (LGG) consists of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II and grade III gliomas. Since the LGGs can infiltrate into adjacent areas, the complete removal of tumor is difficult and it results in recurrence and malignant progression to high grade glioma. Our study uncovers robust survival indicators in LGG which can be checked by immunohistochemistry to predict the outcome of lower grade. In addition, it unravelled the no...
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines protect against HPV types 16/18, but do not eliminate the need to detect pre-cancerous lesions. Australian women vaccinated as teenage girls are now entering their mid-thirties. Since other oncogenic HPV types have been shown to be more prevalent in women ≥30 years old, understanding high grade cervical lesions in older women is still important. Hormonal contraceptives (HC) and smoking are recognised cofactors for the development of pre-malignant lesions.
To compare accuracy of detecting high-grade cervical lesions (squamous intraepithelial lesions or greater, HSIL+) by high-risk HPV messenger RNA (hrHPV-RNA) testing between physician- and self-collected specimens, and by conventional cytology.
Upon diagnosis, distant metastases are encountered in 21-50% of neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). However, few systemic treatment options are available for the well-differentiated NETs in the metastatic stage. Lu-DOTATATE is one of the most effective treatments in this limited patient group. We retrospectively investigated its efficacy and effect on the survival in patients with both well-differentiated and grade III NETs who had high uptake in pretherapeutic Ga-DOTATATE PET/computed tomography scans.
High-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsies are the gold standard for identifying anal intraepithelial neoplasia, but diagnosing high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions depends on the skills of the anoscopist.
A few studies previously suggested that human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 messenger RNA (mRNA) may exist uniformly in all grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), whereas the detection rate of E7 mRNA may increase with disease progression from low-grade CIN to invasive carcinoma. The aim of this study was to clarify the different roles of E6 and E7 mRNAs in cervical carcinogenesis. The presence of each E6 and E7 mRNA was analyzed in 171 patients with pathologically-diagnosed CIN or cervical carcinoma...
The consequences of ventricular entry during resection of high-grade gliomas (HGG) are uncertain and often not detectable clinically.
Studies have shown that 5α-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) decrease the risk for low-grade prostate cancer (PC), but results are conflicting concerning high-grade PCs. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the association between 5-ARI treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms and the risk for PC.
BKV-HC is a serious complication of allogeneic HSCT. To characterize the incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes of post-HSCT BKV-HC, we retrospectively analyzed 112 patients who underwent one or more allogeneic HSCTs at our hospital between 2001 and 2017. Twenty underwent second or third HSCT thereafter. Ten patients developed BKV-HC at a median of 30 days after HSCT. The 100-day cumulative incidences of grade 0-4 and grade 2-4 BKV-HC were 7.8% and 6.2%, respectively. HSCTs performed in 2011-2017 a...
Patients with large, high-grade extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS) are at high risk for both local and distant recurrence. RTOG 95-14, using a regimen of neoadjuvant interdigitated chemoradiotherapy with mesna, doxorubicin, ifosfamide, and dacarbazine followed by surgery and 3 cycles of adjuvant mesna, doxorubicin, ifosfamide, and dacarbazine, demonstrated high rates of disease control at the cost of significant toxicity (83% grade 4, 5% grade 5). As such, this regimen has not been widely adopted. Herein, ...