PubMed Journals Articles About "West Nile Virus Infections Pipeline Review 2018 Report" RSS

17:15 EDT 24th April 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "West Nile Virus Infections Pipeline Review 2018 Report" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 34,000+

Assessing the zoonotic potential of arboviruses of African origin.

Several African arboviruses have emerged over the past decade in new regions where they caused major outbreaks in humans and/or animals including West Nile virus, Chikungunya virus and Zika virus. This raise questions regarding the importance of less known zoonotic arboviruses in local epidemics in Africa and their potential to emerge internationally. Syndromic surveillance in animals may serve as an early warning system to detect zoonotic arbovirus outbreaks. Rift Valley fever and Wesselsbronvirus are for ...

Neurological Respiratory Failure.

West Nile virus infection in humans is mostly asymptomatic. Less than 1% of neuro-invasive cases show a fatality rate of around 10%. Acute flaccid paralysis of respiratory muscles leading to respiratory failure is the most common cause of death. Although the peripheral nervous system can be involved, isolated phrenic nerve palsy leading to respiratory failure is rare and described in only two cases in the English literature. We present another case of neurological respiratory failure due to West Nile virus-...

Turning Up Your Nose for a Flaviviral Encephalitis Cure.

siRNA approaches have demonstrated promise in treating viral infections in animal models, but poor delivery limits clinical application. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Beloor et al. (2018) report that nose-to-brain delivery of viral-targeted siRNA cures mice from West Nile virus encephalitis, with potential implications for human infection.

Biological and phylogenetic characteristics of West African lineages of West Nile virus.

The West Nile virus (WNV), isolated in 1937, is an arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) that infects thousands of people each year. Despite its burden on global health, little is known about the virus' biological and evolutionary dynamics. As several lineages are endemic in West Africa, we obtained the complete polyprotein sequence from three isolates from the early 1990s, each representing a different lineage. We then investigated differences in growth behavior and pathogenicity for four distinct West African...

Nucleic Acid Amplification Test For Detection Of West Nile Virus Infection In Pakistani Blood Donors.

The study was planned to determine the presence of West Nile Virus (WNV) infection in Pakistani blood donors, using Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAT).

Human monoclonal antibodies against West Nile virus from Japanese encephalitis-vaccinated volunteers.

West Nile virus (WNV) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) serocomplex of the Flaviviridae family and causes mosquito-borne infections. Although most human infection cases are asymptomatic, approximately one in 150 infected individuals develops meningoencephalitis, with a mortality rate of 4-14%. While the development of human neutralizing antibody therapeutics against WNV is strongly anticipated, WNV is difficult to study in conventional labo...

Diagnosis of Zika Virus Infections: Challenges and Opportunities.

Accurate diagnosis of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections has become a pressing need for the effective prevention and control of the epidemic. The findings that ZIKV infections are associated with birth defects and neurologic disease, and that the virus can be sexually transmitted, accentuate the need for accurate diagnostic testing for different applications new to the arbovirus field. Antibody response to related flaviviruses has long been known to be cross-reactive, and antibody detection of ZIKV is nonspecific...

Are we prepared for emerging flaviviruses in Europe? Challenges for vaccination.

Tick-borne encephalitis and West Nile fever are endemic flavivirus diseases in Europe. Climate change, virus evolution, and social factors may increase the risk of these flavivirus infections and may lead to the emergence of other flaviviruses in Europe that are endemic in (sub)tropical regions of the world. Control of the spread of flaviviruses is very difficult considering the cycling of flaviviruses between arthropod vectors and animal reservoir hosts. The increasing threat of flavivirus infections empha...

Unilateral faciobrachial weakness: An unusual neuromuscular presentation of West Nile Virus infection.

West Nile virus (WNV) first gained entry into North America in the New York City outbreak of 1999 and subsequently spread to other areas of the United States. (1) The clinical manifestations range from a mild febrile illness to West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) characterized by meningitis, encephalitis and/or asymmetric flaccid paralysis (AFP). (2,3) However, patients with WNND may lack the classic clinical features of meningitis or encephalitis, which may confound the diagnosis. We describe 2 patients...

Acute viral infections of the central nervous system, 2014-2016, Greece.

In order to investigate the viral etiology of acute infections of central nervous system (CNS), multiplex and single PCRs combined with serology for arboviruses were applied on samples from 132 hospitalized patients in Greece during May 2014 to December 2016. A viral pathogen was detected in 52 of 132 (39.4%) cases with acute CNS infection. Enteroviruses predominated (15/52, 28.8%), followed by West Nile virus (9/52, 17.3%). Phleboviruses, varicella-zoster virus and Epstein-Barr virus accounted for 15.4%, 1...

A Mouse Model of West Nile Virus Infection.

The use of a mouse model to study the breadth of symptoms and disease severity seen in human West Nile virus (WNV) infection can provide insight into the kinetics of the immune response and the specific pathways responsible for control of WNV infection and viral clearance. Here, we provide protocols for performing WNV infection of mice, as well as complete immunophenotyping analysis of the cellular immune response to infection in both the periphery and the central nervous system in a mouse model of WNV infe...

Co-circulation of Flanders Virus and West Nile Virus in Culex Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Chicago, Illinois.

West Nile virus (WNV) and Flanders virus (FLAV) co-occur in regions of North America. Because both viruses are maintained in a transmission cycle involving Culex mosquitoes and birds, screening mosquitoes for FLAV has been suggested as an enhancement to WNV surveillance and epidemic prediction. Using samples collected in 2010 and 2012 in Chicago, IL, USA, we demonstrate the presence of FLAV in four out of 287 (1.4%) Culex pools. We estimated minimum infection rates for WNV and FLAV to be 5.66 and 1.22 in 20...

Evaluation of the protective ability of plasma from Japanese individuals against mosquito-borne viral infections.

Most of the Japanese population is seropositive for anti-Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) antibodies because of previous JEV vaccination or natural infection. Because the virological characteristics of JEV are similar to those of West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue virus (DENV), we hypothesized that anti-JEV antibodies can cross-react with WNV and DENV antigens, leading to protection against infection by these viruses.

Dengue, West Nile virus, chikungunya, Zika-and now Mayaro?

Lack of Detection of Avian Influenza, Newcastle Disease, and West Nile Viruses in Wild Birds of Northeastern Brazil.

We tested 529 wild birds captured in northeastern Brazil for infection by avian influenza, Newcastle disease, and West Nile. Viruses were not detected by real-time PCR with the exception of one Tropical Gnatcatcher (Polioptila plumbea) positive for influenza virus, but this could not be confirmed by viral isolation or gene sequencing.


The objective of this study was to determine evidence of previous West Nile virus (WNV) infection in northern California owls. Owl serum samples were collected from birds presenting to a veterinary medical teaching hospital between 2007 and 2014 and were screened for the presence of WNV antibodies by an indirect enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Only one of 71 samples (1.41%) tested was positive by EIA and confirmed by a plaque reduction neutralization test; it was the most recent sample collected. The reason for t...

Transmission of West Nile Virus Through a Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant.

Critical West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease.

Data to guide neurointensivists seeing patients with West Nile Neuroinvasive disease (WNND) are lacking. We present a comparatively large series of patients with WNND admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and provide data on their early diagnosis, triage to the ICU and predictors of short-term outcomes.

Serological Survey of Hantavirus and Flavivirus Among Wild Rodents in Central Italy.

Hantaviruses are a group of zoonotic viruses carried by rodents. Puumala virus (PUUV) and Dobrava virus (DOBV) are the causative agents of human hantavirus infections in Europe. Knowledge about hantavirus circulation in Italy is very scarce. West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are emerging neuropathogenic flaviviruses, both endemic in most part of the Italian territories. To monitor the circulation of PUUV, DOBV, WNV, and USUV in natural environment in central Italy, we carried out serological surv...

Splenic macrophages are required for protective innate immunity against West Nile virus.

Although the spleen is a major site for West Nile virus (WNV) replication and spread, relatively little is known about which innate cells in the spleen replicate WNV, control viral dissemination, and/or prime innate and adaptive immune responses. Here we tested if splenic macrophages (MΦs) were necessary for control of WNV infection. We selectively depleted splenic MΦs, but not draining lymph node MΦs, by injecting mice intravenously with clodronate liposomes several days prior to infecting them with WNV...

Correction: An ImmunoSignature test distinguishes Trypanosoma cruzi, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and West Nile virus seropositivity among asymptomatic blood donors.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005882.].

How host metabolism impacts on virus pathogenesis.

The outcome of virus infections depends on multiple factors. This review deals with the role of host metabolism as one such factor. We describe how different cells in the immune system employ differential metabolic pathways and how this relates to the outcome of virus infections. We also discuss how nutritional and metabolic diseases can influence the nature of viral pathogenesis as well as how targeted therapies against metabolic processes can impact on the outcome of virus infections. The case is also mad...

Increases in the competitive fitness of West Nile virus isolates after introduction into California.

To investigate the phenotypic evolution of West Nile virus (WNV) in California, we competed sixteen isolates made during 2007-08 against COAV997-5nt, a genetically marked clone from the founding 2003 California isolate COAV997-2003. Using in vivo fitness competitions in House Finches (HOFI) and Culex tarsalis mosquitoes, we found that the majority of WNV WN02 and SW03 genotype isolates exhibited elevated replicative fitness in both hosts compared to COAV997-5nt. Increased replicative capacity in HOFIs was n...

Zika virus: what we need to know?

Zika virus is one of the emerging viruses and is of significant threat to human health globally. It is a mosquito borne flavivirus similar to dengue, yellow fever, and West Nile viruses. It was reported about 5 decades ago and then it spreads to different parts of the world. Large outbreaks were reported on Yap Islands in 2007. Now it has gained wide attention globally by health communities. Major vector for virus transmission is Aedes aegypti mosquito. ZIKV infection is mostly asymptomatic but it is also r...

Potential Reservoir and Associated Factors for West Nile Virus in Three Distinct Climatological Zones.

West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonotic single-strand RNA arbovirus (family Flaviviridae: Flavivirus), transmitted among avian hosts in enzootic cycles by a mosquito vector. The virus has a significant disease effect on humans and equines when it bridges into a cycle with various sequelae with epidemic potential. This study was carried out to identify the potential spectrum of WNV hosts in three geographic areas with climatologically distinct features: Malaysia, Qatar, and the United States of America (U.S.). S...

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