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17:37 EDT 21st July 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "West Nile Virus Infections Pipeline Review 2018 Report" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 35,000+

Prevalence of chronic comorbidities in dengue fever and West Nile virus: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Flavivirus diseases such as dengue fever (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), Zika and yellow fever represent a substantial global public health concern. Preexisting chronic conditions such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, and asthma were thought to predict risk of progression to severe infections.

Outbreak of West Nile Virus disease in Israel (2015): A retrospective analysis of notified cases.

West Nile Virus (WNV) is mosquito-borne virus that is endemic in Israel. In 2015, national disease surveillance demonstrated a sharp increase in disease cases, with 149 cases diagnosed.

Assessing the zoonotic potential of arboviruses of African origin.

Several African arboviruses have emerged over the past decade in new regions where they caused major outbreaks in humans and/or animals including West Nile virus, Chikungunya virus and Zika virus. This raise questions regarding the importance of less known zoonotic arboviruses in local epidemics in Africa and their potential to emerge internationally. Syndromic surveillance in animals may serve as an early warning system to detect zoonotic arbovirus outbreaks. Rift Valley fever and Wesselsbronvirus are for ...

Neurological Respiratory Failure.

West Nile virus infection in humans is mostly asymptomatic. Less than 1% of neuro-invasive cases show a fatality rate of around 10%. Acute flaccid paralysis of respiratory muscles leading to respiratory failure is the most common cause of death. Although the peripheral nervous system can be involved, isolated phrenic nerve palsy leading to respiratory failure is rare and described in only two cases in the English literature. We present another case of neurological respiratory failure due to West Nile virus-...

Serosurvey of West Nile virus in household-reared pigeons in Bauchi metropolis, Nigeria.

In Nigeria not much is known about West Nile virus (WNV) in pigeons. This study determined the involvement of household-reared pigeons in the circulation of WNV in Nigeria.

Turning Up Your Nose for a Flaviviral Encephalitis Cure.

siRNA approaches have demonstrated promise in treating viral infections in animal models, but poor delivery limits clinical application. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Beloor et al. (2018) report that nose-to-brain delivery of viral-targeted siRNA cures mice from West Nile virus encephalitis, with potential implications for human infection.

Nucleic Acid Amplification Test For Detection Of West Nile Virus Infection In Pakistani Blood Donors.

The study was planned to determine the presence of West Nile Virus (WNV) infection in Pakistani blood donors, using Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAT).

Human monoclonal antibodies against West Nile virus from Japanese encephalitis-vaccinated volunteers.

West Nile virus (WNV) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) serocomplex of the Flaviviridae family and causes mosquito-borne infections. Although most human infection cases are asymptomatic, approximately one in 150 infected individuals develops meningoencephalitis, with a mortality rate of 4-14%. While the development of human neutralizing antibody therapeutics against WNV is strongly anticipated, WNV is difficult to study in conventional labo...

Diagnosis of Zika Virus Infections: Challenges and Opportunities.

Accurate diagnosis of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections has become a pressing need for the effective prevention and control of the epidemic. The findings that ZIKV infections are associated with birth defects and neurologic disease, and that the virus can be sexually transmitted, accentuate the need for accurate diagnostic testing for different applications new to the arbovirus field. Antibody response to related flaviviruses has long been known to be cross-reactive, and antibody detection of ZIKV is nonspecific...

West Nile virus and other mosquito-borne viruses present in Eastern Europe.

Eastern Europe (EE) has been severely affected by mosquito-borne viruses (moboviruses). In this review, we summarize the epidemiology of moboviruses, with particular attention to West Nile virus (WNV). The study of WNV human cases in EE between 2010 and 2016, revealed that the epidemiology of WNV in EE is complex with the combination of introduction of different WNV strains from lineages 1 and 2, and the establishment of endemic cycles. We found a positive correlation between the risk of WNV re-emergence in...

Co-circulation of Flanders Virus and West Nile Virus in Culex Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Chicago, Illinois.

West Nile virus (WNV) and Flanders virus (FLAV) co-occur in regions of North America. Because both viruses are maintained in a transmission cycle involving Culex mosquitoes and birds, screening mosquitoes for FLAV has been suggested as an enhancement to WNV surveillance and epidemic prediction. Using samples collected in 2010 and 2012 in Chicago, IL, USA, we demonstrate the presence of FLAV in four out of 287 (1.4%) Culex pools. We estimated minimum infection rates for WNV and FLAV to be 5.66 and 1.22 in 20...

A Mouse Model of West Nile Virus Infection.

The use of a mouse model to study the breadth of symptoms and disease severity seen in human West Nile virus (WNV) infection can provide insight into the kinetics of the immune response and the specific pathways responsible for control of WNV infection and viral clearance. Here, we provide protocols for performing WNV infection of mice, as well as complete immunophenotyping analysis of the cellular immune response to infection in both the periphery and the central nervous system in a mouse model of WNV infe...

Evaluation of the protective ability of plasma from Japanese individuals against mosquito-borne viral infections.

Most of the Japanese population is seropositive for anti-Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) antibodies because of previous JEV vaccination or natural infection. Because the virological characteristics of JEV are similar to those of West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue virus (DENV), we hypothesized that anti-JEV antibodies can cross-react with WNV and DENV antigens, leading to protection against infection by these viruses.


The objective of this study was to determine evidence of previous West Nile virus (WNV) infection in northern California owls. Owl serum samples were collected from birds presenting to a veterinary medical teaching hospital between 2007 and 2014 and were screened for the presence of WNV antibodies by an indirect enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Only one of 71 samples (1.41%) tested was positive by EIA and confirmed by a plaque reduction neutralization test; it was the most recent sample collected. The reason for t...

Transmission of West Nile Virus Through a Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant.

Enhanced production and immunological characterization of recombinant West Nile virus envelope domain III protein.

West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus which is responsible for severe and fatal encephalitis in humans and for which there is no licensed vaccine or therapeutic available to prevent infection. The envelope domain III protein (EDIII) of WNV was over-expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using a two-step chromatography process which included immobilized metal affinity chromatography and ion exchange chromatography. E. coli cells were grown in a bioreactor to high density using batch a...

Critical West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease.

Data to guide neurointensivists seeing patients with West Nile Neuroinvasive disease (WNND) are lacking. We present a comparatively large series of patients with WNND admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and provide data on their early diagnosis, triage to the ICU and predictors of short-term outcomes.

Emerging Viral Infections and Their Impact on the Global Burden of Neurological Disease.

Emerging viral infections of the nervous system represent a major global public health concern in the 21st century. They are caused primarily by RNA viruses and are mostly associated with acute or subacute encephalitis. The spectrum of associated central or peripheral nervous system disorders is broad, and results either from a direct viral effect or due to the host immune responses against the infection. Emerging viral infections impose substantial neurological morbidity and mortality, particularly in low-...

Confirmation of Zika virus infection through hospital-based sentinel surveillance of acute febrile illness in Uganda, 2014-2017.

Zika virus (ZIKV), transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes, was first isolated in Uganda in 1947. From February 2014 to October 2017, the Uganda Virus Research Institute, in collaboration with the US Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention, conducted arbovirus surveillance in acute febrile illness (AFI) patients at St Francis hospital in Nkonkonjeru. Three hundred and eighty-four serum samples were collected and tested for IgM antibodies to yellow fever virus (YFV), West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (...

Vital Signs: Trends in Reported Vectorborne Disease Cases - United States and Territories, 2004-2016.

Vectorborne diseases are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In the United States, the most common vectorborne pathogens are transmitted by ticks or mosquitoes, including those causing Lyme disease; Rocky Mountain spotted fever; and West Nile, dengue, and Zika virus diseases. This report examines trends in occurrence of nationally reportable vectorborne diseases during 2004-2016.

Splenic macrophages are required for protective innate immunity against West Nile virus.

Although the spleen is a major site for West Nile virus (WNV) replication and spread, relatively little is known about which innate cells in the spleen replicate WNV, control viral dissemination, and/or prime innate and adaptive immune responses. Here we tested if splenic macrophages (MΦs) were necessary for control of WNV infection. We selectively depleted splenic MΦs, but not draining lymph node MΦs, by injecting mice intravenously with clodronate liposomes several days prior to infecting them with WNV...

Correction: An ImmunoSignature test distinguishes Trypanosoma cruzi, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and West Nile virus seropositivity among asymptomatic blood donors.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005882.].

Phospholipase A2 activity during the replication cycle of the flavivirus West Nile virus.

Positive-sense RNA virus intracellular replication is intimately associated with membrane platforms that are derived from host organelles and comprised of distinct lipid composition. For flaviviruses, such as West Nile virus strain Kunjin virus (WNVKUN) we have observed that these membrane platforms are derived from the endoplasmic reticulum and are rich in (at least) cholesterol. To extend these studies and identify the cellular lipids critical for WNVKUN replication we utilized a whole cell lipidomics app...

Increases in the competitive fitness of West Nile virus isolates after introduction into California.

To investigate the phenotypic evolution of West Nile virus (WNV) in California, we competed sixteen isolates made during 2007-08 against COAV997-5nt, a genetically marked clone from the founding 2003 California isolate COAV997-2003. Using in vivo fitness competitions in House Finches (HOFI) and Culex tarsalis mosquitoes, we found that the majority of WNV WN02 and SW03 genotype isolates exhibited elevated replicative fitness in both hosts compared to COAV997-5nt. Increased replicative capacity in HOFIs was n...

Full-Genome Characterization and Genetic Evolution of West African Isolates of Bagaza Virus.

Bagaza virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, first isolated in 1966 in Central African Republic. It has currently been identified in mosquito pools collected in the field in West and Central Africa. Emergence in wild birds in Europe and serological evidence in encephalitis patients in India raise questions on its genetic evolution and the diversity of isolates circulating in Africa. To better understand genetic diversity and evolution of Bagaza virus, we describe the full-genome characterization of 11 West ...

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