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00:51 EDT 21st October 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "West Nile Virus Infections Pipeline Review 2018 Report" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 36,000+

Emergence of human West Nile Virus infection among paediatric population in Madhya Pradesh, India.

Human infections caused by West Nile Virus (WNV) mostly remain subclinical and self limited. However, nearly 20% infected people suffer from febrile illness and very few of them (

Prevalence of chronic comorbidities in dengue fever and West Nile virus: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Flavivirus diseases such as dengue fever (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), Zika and yellow fever represent a substantial global public health concern. Preexisting chronic conditions such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, and asthma were thought to predict risk of progression to severe infections.

West Nile Virus infection in Northern Italy: Case-crossover study on the short-term effect of climatic parameters.

Changes in climatic conditions are hypothesized to play a role in the increasing number of West Nile Virus (WNV) outbreaks observed in Europe in recent years.

Outbreak of West Nile Virus disease in Israel (2015): A retrospective analysis of notified cases.

West Nile Virus (WNV) is mosquito-borne virus that is endemic in Israel. In 2015, national disease surveillance demonstrated a sharp increase in disease cases, with 149 cases diagnosed.

Mortality of Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) Due to West Nile Virus Lineage 2.

In 2017, we isolated and identified West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 from two dead captive goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), for the first time in the Czech Republic. Goshawk might serve as an early indicator species for the ongoing WNV emergence in several European countries.

Serosurvey of West Nile virus in household-reared pigeons in Bauchi metropolis, Nigeria.

In Nigeria not much is known about West Nile virus (WNV) in pigeons. This study determined the involvement of household-reared pigeons in the circulation of WNV in Nigeria.

Seroprevalence of West Nile and Dengue virus in the human population of the Bolivian Chaco.

To determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against Dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile Virus (WNV) in the human population of the Bolivian Chaco, we tested 256 inhabitants of 2 rural communities. The seroprevalence, confirmed by Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test, was 7.8%, and 2.7% for DENV and WNV, respectively. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease Presenting as Elsberg Syndrome.

Elsberg syndrome (ES) is a rarely recognized cause of cauda equina syndrome and lower thoracic myelitis, mainly linked to reactivation, or occasionally primary, infection with herpes simplex virus type 2. West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease is rarely considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with ES.

Turning Up Your Nose for a Flaviviral Encephalitis Cure.

siRNA approaches have demonstrated promise in treating viral infections in animal models, but poor delivery limits clinical application. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Beloor et al. (2018) report that nose-to-brain delivery of viral-targeted siRNA cures mice from West Nile virus encephalitis, with potential implications for human infection.

Human monoclonal antibodies against West Nile virus from Japanese encephalitis-vaccinated volunteers.

West Nile virus (WNV) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) serocomplex of the Flaviviridae family and causes mosquito-borne infections. Although most human infection cases are asymptomatic, approximately one in 150 infected individuals develops meningoencephalitis, with a mortality rate of 4-14%. While the development of human neutralizing antibody therapeutics against WNV is strongly anticipated, WNV is difficult to study in conventional labo...

West Nile virus and other mosquito-borne viruses present in Eastern Europe.

Eastern Europe (EE) has been severely affected by mosquito-borne viruses (moboviruses). In this review, we summarize the epidemiology of moboviruses, with particular attention to West Nile virus (WNV). The study of WNV human cases in EE between 2010 and 2016, revealed that the epidemiology of WNV in EE is complex with the combination of introduction of different WNV strains from lineages 1 and 2, and the establishment of endemic cycles. We found a positive correlation between the risk of WNV re-emergence in...

Immunology of West Nile Virus Infection and the Role of Alpha-Synuclein as a Viral Restriction Factor.

West Nile virus (WNV) is a single-stranded RNA flavivirus and is a major cause of viral encephalitis worldwide. Experimental models of WNV infection in mice are commonly used to define acute neuroinflammatory responses in the brain. Alpha-synuclein (Asyn) is a protein of primarily neuronal origin and is a major cause of Parkinson's disease (PD), a disorder characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons. Both WNV and PD pathologies are largely mediated by inflammation of the central nervous system (neuroinfla...

Co-circulation of Flanders Virus and West Nile Virus in Culex Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Chicago, Illinois.

West Nile virus (WNV) and Flanders virus (FLAV) co-occur in regions of North America. Because both viruses are maintained in a transmission cycle involving Culex mosquitoes and birds, screening mosquitoes for FLAV has been suggested as an enhancement to WNV surveillance and epidemic prediction. Using samples collected in 2010 and 2012 in Chicago, IL, USA, we demonstrate the presence of FLAV in four out of 287 (1.4%) Culex pools. We estimated minimum infection rates for WNV and FLAV to be 5.66 and 1.22 in 20...

West Nile virus season in Europe.

Mosquito excreta: A sample type with many potential applications for the investigation of Ross River virus and West Nile virus ecology.

Emerging and re-emerging arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) cause human and animal disease globally. Field and laboratory investigation of mosquito-borne arboviruses requires analysis of mosquito samples, either individually, in pools, or a body component, or secretion such as saliva. We assessed the applicability of mosquito excreta as a sample type that could be utilized during studies of Ross River and West Nile viruses, which could be applied to the study of other arboviruses.

A Discrete Time West Nile Virus Transmission Model with Optimal Bird- and Vector-Specific Controls.

A discrete-time model describing the west nile virus transmission among the mosquito, wild bird, and domestic bird populations is constructed. The expressions for the basic reproduction number R and the disease-free fixed point of the model are computed. The local stability of the disease-free fixed point is established based on R. Optimal control theory is used to devise the most effective administration profile of mosquito larvicide, mosquito adulticide and domestic bird-protection in controlling the viru...

Zika Virus and Other Emerging Arboviral Central Nervous System Infections.

In recent years, we have observed the emergence and reemergence of a number of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). Zika virus is the most recent addition to this group, first causing sporadic cases of uncomplicated febrile illness followed by sizeable outbreaks in the Pacific. However, the epidemiology and clinical features of Zika virus infection have changed rapidly and dramatically; it is now recognized as causing Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in children and adults and congenital abnormalities in in...

Breathing new life into West Nile virus therapeutics; discovery and study of zafirlukast as an NS2B-NS3 protease inhibitor.

The West Nile virus (WNV) has spread throughout the world causing neuroinvasive diseases with no treatments available. The viral NS2B-NS3 protease is essential for WNV survival and replication in host cells and is a promising drug target. Through an enzymatic screen of the National Institute of Health clinical compound library, we report the discovery of zafirlukast, an FDA approved treatment for asthma, as an inhibitor for the WNV NS2B-NS3 protease. Zafirlukast was determined to inhibit the protease throug...

Enhanced production and immunological characterization of recombinant West Nile virus envelope domain III protein.

West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus which is responsible for severe and fatal encephalitis in humans and for which there is no licensed vaccine or therapeutic available to prevent infection. The envelope domain III protein (EDIII) of WNV was over-expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using a two-step chromatography process which included immobilized metal affinity chromatography and ion exchange chromatography. E. coli cells were grown in a bioreactor to high density using batch a...

Co-circulation dynamics and persistence of newly introduced clades of 2012 outbreak associated West Nile Virus in Texas, 2012-2015.

The second largest outbreak of West Nile encephalitis and West Nile fever ever recorded occurred in the United States (U.S) in the summer of 2012. The outbreak was related to the widespread circulation of closely related clades, or groups, of West Nile virus (WNV) into multiple states where they were not previously found. Whether the invading 2012 strains were able to circulate and overwinter in states with their own endemic population of WNV is unknown and the effect of viral genetics on adaptation and per...

Emerging Viral Infections and Their Impact on the Global Burden of Neurological Disease.

Emerging viral infections of the nervous system represent a major global public health concern in the 21st century. They are caused primarily by RNA viruses and are mostly associated with acute or subacute encephalitis. The spectrum of associated central or peripheral nervous system disorders is broad, and results either from a direct viral effect or due to the host immune responses against the infection. Emerging viral infections impose substantial neurological morbidity and mortality, particularly in low-...

West Nile virus induces a post-infectious pro-inflammatory state that explains transformation of stable ocular myasthenia gravis to myasthenic crises.

West Nile virus (WNV) infection has been reported to promote myasthenia gravis (MG) and various other diseases that have a presumed autoimmune pathogenesis. Molecular mimicry between WNV proteins and host proteins has been postulated as the major mechanism for WNV-triggered breaking of immunological self-tolerance. We present a patient with stable ocular MG and positive anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies who progressed to myasthenic crisis after WNV neuroinvasive disease. In this case of stable autoimmu...

Confirmation of Zika virus infection through hospital-based sentinel surveillance of acute febrile illness in Uganda, 2014-2017.

Zika virus (ZIKV), transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes, was first isolated in Uganda in 1947. From February 2014 to October 2017, the Uganda Virus Research Institute, in collaboration with the US Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention, conducted arbovirus surveillance in acute febrile illness (AFI) patients at St Francis hospital in Nkonkonjeru. Three hundred and eighty-four serum samples were collected and tested for IgM antibodies to yellow fever virus (YFV), West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (...

Infectious Disease in Contact Sports.

Infections are common in contact sports. This review aims to describe the epidemiology, presenting signs and symptoms, treatment guidelines, and regulations for several common infections seen in contact sport athletes. The conditions discussed include bacterial skin infections, herpes simplex virus, molluscum contagiosum, common warts, tinea, scabies, head lice, conjunctivitis, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, and vaccine-preventable illnesses.

Vital Signs: Trends in Reported Vectorborne Disease Cases - United States and Territories, 2004-2016.

Vectorborne diseases are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In the United States, the most common vectorborne pathogens are transmitted by ticks or mosquitoes, including those causing Lyme disease; Rocky Mountain spotted fever; and West Nile, dengue, and Zika virus diseases. This report examines trends in occurrence of nationally reportable vectorborne diseases during 2004-2016.

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