PubMed Journals Articles About "What Flowers Looked Like Million Years" RSS

00:11 EDT 17th October 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "What Flowers Looked Like Million Years" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 12,000+

A late Cretaceous fagalean inflorescence preserved in amber from New Jersey.

An inflorescence with three pistillate flowers in amber from the early Upper Cretaceous (Turonian, ~90-94 million years ago) of central New Jersey represents the oldest known flowers with features present in an early stem complex of the Fagales. The inflorescence has characteristics of Nothofagaceae, but also has strikingly distinct characters that suggest it is intermediate between Nothofagus and other Fagales. This intermediacy is consistent with its northern hemisphere distribution.

Occurrence of Functional Molecules in the Flowers of Tea (Camellia sinensis) Plants: Evidence for a Second Resource.

Tea () is an important crop, and its leaves are used to make the most widely consumed beverage, aside from water. People have been using leaves from tea plants to make teas for a long time. However, less attention has been paid to the flowers of tea plants, which is a waste of an abundant resource. In the past 15 years, researchers have attempted to discover, identify, and evaluate functional molecules from tea flowers, and have made insightful and useful discoveries. Here, we summarize the recent investiga...

Metabolomic Profiling of the White, Violet, and Red Flowers ofMaxim.

Maxim. is a garden plant that is also used for natural medicines as a consequence of the biological activities of its diverse metabolites. We accordingly profiled two anthocyanins and 40 primary and secondary metabolites in the three different colored flowers. The major anthocyanins found in the flowers were cyanidins. The red flowers exhibited the highest accumulation of anthocyanins (1.02 ± 0.02 mg/g dry weight). Principal component analysis was applied to the GC‒TOFMS data. The levels of key tri...

80 Years Old, and Never Looked Better: Rebranding in 2019.

Study of the biochemical formation pathway of aroma compound 1-phenylethanol in tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) flowers and other plants.

After tea leaves, tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers are becoming a second tea plant resource because they contain not only functional metabolites similar to those found in tea leaves, but also predominant amounts of functional metabolites that only occur in tea leaves in small amounts. 1-Phenylethanol (1PE) is a predominant aroma compound found in tea flowers. A 1PE synthase in tea flowers was isolated, functionally characterized, and shown to have the highest catalytic efficiency for the conversion of acetop...

Study of the growth mechanisms of nanoporous Ag flowers for non-enzymatic glucose detection.

Highly sensitive and selective non-enzymatic glucose detection was developed using nanoporous Ag flowers on a Ni substrate. The cyclic scanning electrodeposition (CSE) method was used to fabricate Ag flowers on a Ni substrate in an alkaline electrolyte. The nanoporous Ag flowers were then formed by repeated CSE in NaOH. The growth mechanisms of the nanoporous Ag flowers were systematically studied, and these mechanisms can be extended to the formation of other metal, bimetallic or metal oxides. The synthesi...

Phylogenomic analyses reveal extensive gene flow within the magic flowers (Achimenes).

The Neotropical Gesneriaceae is a lineage known for its colorful and diverse flowers, as well as an extensive history of intra- and intergeneric hybridization, particularly among Achimenes (the magic flowers) and other members of subtribe Gloxiniinae. Despite numerous studies seeking to elucidate the evolutionary relationships of these lineages, relatively few have sought to infer specific patterns of gene flow despite evidence of widespread hybridization.

Variation in Childhood Diarrheal Morbidity and Mortality in Africa, 2000-2015.

Diarrheal diseases are the third leading cause of disease and death in children younger than 5 years of age in Africa and were responsible for an estimated 30 million cases of severe diarrhea (95% credible interval, 27 million to 33 million) and 330,000 deaths (95% credible interval, 270,000 to 380,000) in 2015. The development of targeted approaches to address this burden has been hampered by a paucity of comprehensive, fine-scale estimates of diarrhea-related disease and death among and within countries.

Patterns, trends and determinants of e-cigarette use in 28 European Union Member States 2014-2017.

There is a lack of nationally representative data on regular e-cigarette use, as well as on the transitioning from experimentation to regular use. This study examines changes in these in Europe between 2014 and 2017. Data come from the 2014 (n = 27,801) and 2017 (n = 27,901) adult Special Eurobarometer for Tobacco Survey, providing nationally representative surveys of 28 EU member states. We defined regular use of e-cigarettes as daily or weekly use from a question on frequency of e-cigarette use. A...

Geographic differences in the prevalence of hypertension in Uganda: Results of a national epidemiological study.

Hypertension accounts for more than 212 million global disability-adjusted life-years, and more than 15 million in sub-Saharan Africa. Identifying factors underlying the escalating burden of hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa may inform delivery of targeted public health interventions.

One for all and all for one: retention of colour-unchanged old flowers increases pollinator attraction in a hermaphroditic plant.

Long-lived flowers increase pollen transfer rates, but they entail higher water and carbon maintenance costs. The retention of pollinated and rewardless old flowers enhances pollinator visitation to young receptive flowers by increasing floral display size. This mechanism is associated with acropetal inflorescences or changes in flower colour and openness, but the retention of unchanging solitary flowers remains overlooked. We examined pollination-dependent variation in floral longevity and determined stigm...

Fossil filamentous microorganisms associated with plants in early terrestrial environments.

Microorganisms are ubiquitous in modern environments, where they have a variety of essential functions but little is known about their diversity and roles in early terrestrial environments. The earliest direct evidence of filamentous microorganisms associated with plants occurs around 407 million years ago in landscapes dominated by an herbaceous flora. 100 million years later, forests were well established and associations had increased in diversity. After more than a century since the first descriptions, ...

Determinants of teenage pregnancy in Degua Tembien District, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A community-based case-control study.

Approximately 16 million teenagers aged 15-19 years and 2 million teenagers under the age of 15 years give birth annually, with 95% of these births occurring in developing countries. Ethiopia has one of the highest teenage fertility rates in Sub-Saharan Africa; however determinants of teenage pregnancy are not well studied. Therefore, this study aimed to identify determinants of teenage pregnancy among female teenagers in Degua Tembien district, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia, in 2015.

Structure and development of flowers and inflorescences in Peraceae and Euphorbiaceae and the evolution of pseudanthia in Malpighiales.

Pseudanthia are reduced and compact inflorescences which apparently had independent evolution in Euphorbiaceae and Peraceae within Malpighiales. In order to analyze the hypothesis that the different pseudanthia found in Malpighiales have non-homologous developmental steps, we studied the inflorescence and flower development in the three Malpighiales genera that present this type of inflorescence-Dalechampia (Acalyphoideae/Euphorbiaceae), Euphorbia (Euphorbioideae/Euphorbiaceae), and Pera (Peraceae)-and comp...

Rates of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke from various indoor environments among US children and nonsmoker adolescents and adults.

Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2013-2014 were used to compute rates of exposure (ROE) to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) from various indoor environments among US children and nonsmoking adolescents and adults. In a typical week in USA, 473,000 infants (ROE, 11%), 3.36 million children aged 1-5 years (ROE, 16.4%), and 4.59 million children aged 6-11 years (ROE, 18.6%) are exposed to ETS from indoor environments only. ROE among children was found to be highest by inhaling ...

Exposure of a diurnal mosquito vector to floral mimics: foraging responses, feeding patterns, and significance for sugar bait technology.

Food location by mosquitoes is mediated by resource-derived olfactory and visual signals. Smell sensation is intermittent and dependent on the environment, whereas visual signals are continual and precede olfactory cues. Success of mosquito bait technology, where olfactory cues are used for attraction, is being impeded by reduced attractiveness. Despite proof that mosquitoes respond to colored objects, including those mimicking floral shape, and that they can discriminate among flowers, the impacts of artif...

Cost-effectiveness of the recombinant zoster vaccine in the German population aged ≥60 years old.

Each year, around 300,000 Herpes Zoster (HZ) cases are observed in the German population, resulting in costs over €182 million to society. The objective of this study was to estimate the potential public health and economic impact of the new Adjuvanted Recombinant Zoster Vaccine (RZV, Shingrix) in the German population ≥ 60 years of age (YOA) and to identify the optimal age of vaccination. We used a static, multi-cohort Markov model that followed a hypothetical cohort of 1 million people ≥ 60 YOA l...

Effects of flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on nutritional quality of banana (Zingiberales: Musaceae) buds.

The abundance of banana flower thrips (Thrips hawaiiensis Morgan) in a banana (Musa acuminata Colla "Williams" cultivar) plantation was investigated using yellow sticky traps (29.70 cm × 21.00 cm) in 2015. Banana flower thrips occurred throughout the year with monthly variation, and the maximum occurrence was observed in October and November during the bud burst (73.80 ± 6.32 adults/trap) and young fruit (70.06 ± 5.69 adults/trap) periods. The damage rates were as follows: interior flowers >3rd-layer flo...

The farm level economic and environmental contribution of Intacta soybeans in South America: the first five years.

This study assesses the economic and environmental impacts that have arisen from the adoption and use of genetically modified (GM) herbicide tolerant (HT) and insect resistant (IR) soybeans in South America in the five years since first planted in 2013/14. A total of 73.6 million hectares have been planted to soybeans containing these traits since 2013/14, with farmers benefiting from an increase in income of $7.64 billion. For every extra $1 spent on this seed relative to conventional seed, farmers have ga...

The development of functional mapping by three sex-related loci on the third whorl of different sex types of Carica papaya L.

Carica papaya L. is an important economic crop worldwide and is used as a model plant for sex-determination research. To study the different flower sex types, we screened sex-related genes using alternative splicing sequences (AS-seqs) from a transcriptome database of the three flower sex types, i.e., males, females, and hermaphrodites, established at 28 days before flowering using 15 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) of C. papaya L. After screening, the cDNA regions of the three sex-related loci, inc...

Extensive marine-terminating ice sheets in Europe from 2.5 million years ago.

Geometries of Early Pleistocene [2.58 to 0.78 million years (Ma) ago] ice sheets in northwest Europe are poorly constrained but are required to improve our understanding of past ocean-atmosphere-cryosphere coupling. Ice sheets are believed to have changed in their response to orbital forcing, becoming, from about 1.2 Ma ago, volumetrically larger and longer-lived. We present a multiproxy data set for the North Sea, extending to over a kilometer below the present-day seafloor, which demonstrates spatially ex...

"Hurdles on the path to 90-90-90 and beyond": Qualitative analysis of barriers to engagement in HIV care among individuals in rural East Africa in the context of test-and-treat.

Despite substantial progress, gaps in the HIV care cascade remain large: globally, while about 36.7 million people were living with HIV in 2015, 11.9 million of these individuals did not know their HIV status, 12.7 million were in need of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 13.0 million were not virally suppressed. We sought to deepen understanding of the barriers to care engagement at three critical steps of the care cascade proposed to make greatest impact for attaining the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets aimed at s...

The incidence, prevalence, and survival of systemic sclerosis in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink.

To estimate the incidence, prevalence, and survival of systemic sclerosis in the United Kingdom. We conducted a historical cohort study using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). We calculated the incidence and survival of systemic sclerosis between 1994 and 2013 and examined its association with age, sex, and socioeconomic status. We calculated point prevalence on 1 July 2013 and examined its association with the same exposures. We identified 1327 cases with incident systemic sclerosis...

Bioassay-guided isolation and UHPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS quantification of potential anti-inflammatory phenolic compounds from flowers of Inula montana L.

Flowers of Inula montana L. (Asteraceae), commonly known as "Arnica de Provence", are used in the traditional medicine of Provence in France with the same indication as Arnica montana, for the relief of bruises, as an anti-inflammatory agent.

Salvia verticillata: Linking glandular trichomes, volatiles and pollinators.

Plants have developed a plethora of signals to interact with other organisms, finally building up a sophisticate language for communication. In this context, we investigated Salvia verticillata L. (Lamiaceae), with the primary goal to link secondary metabolites and actual biotic relationships. We specifically analysed the volatile organic compounds (VOC) spontaneously emitted by leaves and flowers and determined the composition of the essential oils obtained from the aerial parts across 2015 and 2016. We me...

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