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PubMed Journals Articles About "What Flowers Looked Like Million Years" RSS

02:59 EST 22nd January 2018 | BioPortfolio

What Flowers Looked Like Million Years PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest What Flowers Looked Like Million Years articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "What Flowers Looked Like Million Years" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 12,000+

Eating flowers? Exploring attitudes and consumers' representation of edible flowers.

Edible flowers have gained more attention in recent years thanks to their perceived health benefits. Despite this attention, it seems that edible flowers are not popularized for consumption in South America, being considered unfamiliar for some cultures from this continent. In this context, the general goal of the present study was to investigate the three dimensions of social representation theory, the representational field, the information and the attitude of the two conditions of edible flowers: a more ...


A record of deep-ocean dissolved O2 from the oxidation state of iron in submarine basalts.

The oxygenation of the deep ocean in the geological past has been associated with a rise in the partial pressure of atmospheric molecular oxygen (O2) to near-present levels and the emergence of modern marine biogeochemical cycles. It has also been linked to the origination and diversification of early animals. It is generally thought that the deep ocean was largely anoxic from about 2,500 to 800 million years ago, with estimates of the occurrence of deep-ocean oxygenation and the linked increase in the part...

Jasmonate signaling makes flowers attractive to pollinators and repellant to florivores in nature.

Flowers are required for the Darwinian fitness of flowering plants, but flowers' advertisements for pollination services can attract florivores. Previous glasshouse work with Nicotiana attenuata revealed the role of jasmonate (JA) signaling in flower development, advertisement and defense. However, whether JA signaling mediates flowers' filtering of floral visitors in nature remained unknown. This field study revealed that silencing JA signaling resulted in flowers that produce less nectar and benzyl aceton...


Antioxidant activity and chemical composition of oleoresin from leaves and flowers of Brunfelsia uniflora.

In this study, the temperature and pressure of supercritical CO2 extraction were evaluated to obtain oleoresin of Brunfelsia uniflora leaves and flowers. The oleoresin compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by three different methods. The highest oleoresin yields were 3.32% at 40°C and 200 bar for the leaves, and 1.03% at 60°C and 200 bar for the flowers. The main extracted compounds from leaves were phytol varying from 11.95 to 36.42% and...

Fossil flowers from the early Palaeocene of Patagonia, Argentina, with affinity to Schizomerieae (Cunoniaceae).

Early Palaeocene (Danian) plant fossils from Patagonia provide information on the recovery from the end-Cretaceous extinction and Cenozoic floristic change in South America. Actinomorphic flowers with eight to ten perianth parts are described and evaluated in a phylogenetic framework. The goal of this study is to determine the identity of these fossil flowers and to discuss their evolutionary, palaeoecological and biogeographical significance.

Educational Progress of Looked-After Children in England: A Study Using Group Trajectory Analysis.

Looked-after children in local authority care are among the most disadvantaged, and measures of their well-being, including educational outcomes, are poorer than other children's.

Early members of 'living fossil' lineage imply later origin of modern ray-finned fishes.

Modern ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) comprise half of extant vertebrate species and are widely thought to have originated before or near the end of the Middle Devonian epoch (around 385 million years ago). Polypterids (bichirs and ropefish) represent the earliest-diverging lineage of living actinopterygians, with almost all Palaeozoic taxa interpreted as more closely related to other extant actinopterygians than to polypterids. By contrast, the earliest material assigned to the polypterid lineage is ...

The Impact of Individual-Level Social Capital in Non-Medical use of Pain Medications Among Individuals 50 Years or Older from Diverse Racial/Ethnic Backgrounds.

In 2014, there were 21.5 million Americans (12 years old or older) that had a substance abuse disorder and almost 2 million of them had a substance use disorder involving prescription pain relievers (SAMHSA, 2014). The misuse of non-medical pain medication (NMPM) is a significant public health problem. This study examines the impact of individual-level social capital in non-medical use of pain medications (NMPM) among individuals 50 years or older.

Effects of small-scale clustering of flowers on pollinator foraging behaviour and flower visitation rate.

Plants often grow in clusters of various sizes and have a variable number of flowers per inflorescence. This small-scale spatial clustering affects insect foraging strategies and plant reproductive success. In our study, we aimed to determine how visitation rate and foraging behaviour of pollinators depend on the number of flowers per plant and on the size of clusters of multiple plants using Dracocephalum moldavica (Lamiaceae) as a target species. We measured flower visitation rate by observations of insec...

Chemical constituents from the flowers of Satsuma mandarin and their free radical scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities.

Flowers of Citrus plants are used as mild sedatives and for the treatment of insomnia in traditional medicines. In Japan, tea made from the flowers of Satsuma mandarin is consumed as healthy drink. Hesperidin (1), hesperetin (2), rutin (3), quercetin (4), nicotiflorin (5), eriocitrin (6), narirutin (7), phenylethyl glucoside (8) and unshuoside A (9) were isolated from the MeOH extract of fresh flowers. Structure elucidation of these compounds was performed on the basis of NMR spectroscopic data. Among them,...

Generation of blue chrysanthemums by anthocyanin B-ring hydroxylation and glucosylation and its coloration mechanism.

Various colored cultivars of ornamental flowers have been bred by hybridization and mutation breeding; however, the generation of blue flowers for major cut flower plants, such as roses, chrysanthemums, and carnations, has not been achieved by conventional breeding or genetic engineering. Most blue-hued flowers contain delphinidin-based anthocyanins; therefore, delphinidin-producing carnation, rose, and chrysanthemum flowers have been generated by overexpression of the gene encoding flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxyl...

Stimulus fear relevance and the speed, magnitude, and robustness of vicariously learned fear.

Superior learning for fear-relevant stimuli is typically indicated in the laboratory by faster acquisition of fear responses, greater learned fear, and enhanced resistance to extinction. Three experiments investigated the speed, magnitude, and robustness of UK children's (6-10 years; N = 290; 122 boys, 168 girls) vicariously learned fear responses for three types of stimuli. In two experiments, children were presented with pictures of novel animals (Australian marsupials) and flowers (fear-irrelevant stim...

Asthma Mortality Among Persons Aged 15-64 Years, by Industry and Occupation - United States, 1999-2016.

In 2015, an estimated 18.4 million U.S. adults had current asthma, and 3,396 adult asthma deaths were reported (1). An estimated 11%-21% of asthma deaths might be attributable to occupational exposures (2). To describe asthma mortality among persons aged 15-64 years,* CDC analyzed multiple cause-of-death data† for 1999-2016 and industry and occupation information collected from 26 states§ for the years 1999, 2003, 2004, and 2007-2012. Proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs)¶ for asthma among persons aged ...

Long-Term Effectiveness of the Live Zoster Vaccine in Preventing Shingles: A Cohort Study.

A live attenuated zoster vaccine was licensed in the United States in 2006 for prevention of shingles in persons aged 60 years or older; the indication was extended in 2011 to cover those aged 50-59 years. We assessed vaccine effectiveness (VE) against shingles for 8 years after immunization at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. VE was estimated by Cox regression with a calendar timeline that was stratified by birth year. We adjusted for demographics and time-varying covariates, including comorbidities ...

Neuropharmacological and acute toxicological evaluation of ethanolic extract of Allamanda cathartica L. flowers and plumieride.

Psychiatric diseases affect more than 350 million people all over the world, and medicinal plants have been considered the basis for pharmacological research. The study investigates the anticonvulsant and antidepressant-like activities and acute toxicological effects of ethanolic extract of Allamanda cathartica flowers, and plumieride. The extract was analyzed by HPLC and plumieride was isolated. Toxicity studies were carried out on females Wistar rats (2000 mg/kg). Toxicity was evaluated by measuring bioc...

Short-course versus long-course intravenous therapy with the same antibiotic for severe community-acquired pneumonia in children aged two months to 59 months.

Pneumonia is a leading cause of childhood mortality from infectious disease, responsible for an estimated 1.3 million deaths annually in children under five years of age, many of which are in low-income countries. The World Health Organization recommends intravenous antibiotics for five days as first-line treatment for children with severe pneumonia. Although controversy exists regarding the specific clinical features used to diagnose pneumonia, the criteria for diagnosis of severe pneumonia are better defi...

Analysis of the spotted gar genome suggests absence of causative link between ancestral genome duplication and transposable element diversification in teleost fish.

Teleost fish have been shown to contain many superfamilies of transposable elements (TEs) that are absent from most tetrapod genomes. Since theories predict an increase in TE activity following polyploidization, such diversity might be linked to the 3R whole-genome duplication that occurred approximately 300 million years ago before the teleost radiation. To test this hypothesis, we have analyzed the genome of the spotted gar Lepisosteus oculatus, which diverged from the teleost lineage before the 3R duplic...

Relative size predicts competitive outcome through 2 million years.

Competition is an important biotic interaction that influences survival and reproduction. While competition on ecological timescales has received great attention, little is known about competition on evolutionary timescales. Do competitive abilities change over hundreds of thousands to millions of years? Can we predict competitive outcomes using phenotypic traits? How much do traits that confer competitive advantage and competitive outcomes change? Here we show, using communities of encrusting marine bryozo...

Novel computed tomography-based tools reliably quantify plant reproductive investment.

The flower is a bisexual reproductive unit where both genders compete for resources. Counting pollen and ovules in flowers is essential to understand how much is invested in each gender. Classical methods to count very numerous pollen grains and ovules are inefficient when pollen grains are tightly aggregated, and when fertilization rates of ovules are unknown. In this study we have therefore developed novel counting techniques based on computed tomography. In order to demonstrate the potential of our metho...

Perceptions of Unprofessional Attitudes and Behaviors: Implications for Faculty Role Modeling and Teaching Professionalism During Pathology Residency.

- Changes occurring in medicine have raised issues about medical professionalism. Professionalism is included in the Core Competencies and Milestones for all pathology residents. Previous studies have looked at resident professionalism attitudes and behaviors in primary care but none have looked specifically at pathology.

Genetic control of number of flowers and pod set in common bean.

This article aimed to study the genetic control of some flowers and pod set of common bean and to verify if its estimate varies with environmental conditions and gene pool. A complete diallel was used among six lines, but no reciprocal ones. The treatments were evaluated in three harvests/generations - F2, F3, and F4 - in 2015/2016, in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The plot consisted of 3 lines with 4 m. In the center line, a receptacle to collect the aborted flowers/pods was pl...

Multimodal cues provide redundant information for bumblebees when the stimulus is visually salient, but facilitate red target detection in a naturalistic background.

Our understanding of how floral visitors integrate visual and olfactory cues when seeking food, and how background complexity affects flower detection is limited. Here, we aimed to understand the use of visual and olfactory information for bumblebees (Bombus terrestris terrestris L.) when seeking flowers in a visually complex background. To explore this issue, we first evaluated the effect of flower colour (red and blue), size (8, 16 and 32 mm), scent (presence or absence) and the amount of training on the ...

Occurrences, biosynthesis and properties of aurones as high-end evolutionary products.

Recent years have witnessed a considerable renewed interest for the uncommon flavonoid class of aurones. The characterization of two major biosynthetic machineries involved in their biosynthesis in flowers has encouraged the revival of phytochemical studies and identification of original structures, a process started almost seventy-five years ago. This review draws up an exhaustive map of natural occurrences of aurones their biosynthetic pathways and roles, with the aim to link their original structural pro...

New Antifeedant Grayanane Diterpenoids from the Flowers of Pieris formosa.

Three new grayanane diterpenoids, pierisoids C‒E (1-3), as well as 10 known ones (4-13), were evaluated from the flowers of Pieris formosa, which is used as an insecticide in rural areas of China. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analyses. Significant antifeedant activity of 1, 3 and 10 against the beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) was found, indicating that these diterpenoids might also be involved in the plant defense against insect herbivores.

Phenylpyruvate Contributes to the Synthesis of Fragrant Benzenoid-Phenylpropanoids in Petunia × hybrida Flowers.

Phenylalanine (Phe) is a precursor for a large group of plant specialized metabolites, including the fragrant volatile benzenoid-phenylpropanoids (BPs). In plants, the main pathway leading to production of Phe is via arogenate, while the pathway via phenylpyruvate (PPY) is considered merely an alternative route. Unlike plants, in most microorganisms the only pathway leading to the synthesis of Phe is via PPY. Here we studied the effect of increased PPY production in petunia on the formation of BPs volatiles...


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