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PubMed Journals Articles About "What Flowers Looked Like Million Years" RSS

16:03 EST 20th November 2017 | BioPortfolio

What Flowers Looked Like Million Years PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest What Flowers Looked Like Million Years articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "What Flowers Looked Like Million Years" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 12,000+

Eating flowers? Exploring attitudes and consumers' representation of edible flowers.

Edible flowers have gained more attention in recent years thanks to their perceived health benefits. Despite this attention, it seems that edible flowers are not popularized for consumption in South America, being considered unfamiliar for some cultures from this continent. In this context, the general goal of the present study was to investigate the three dimensions of social representation theory, the representational field, the information and the attitude of the two conditions of edible flowers: a more ...


Jasmonate signaling makes flowers attractive to pollinators and repellant to florivores in nature.

Flowers are required for the Darwinian fitness of flowering plants, but flowers' advertisements for pollination services can attract florivores. Previous glasshouse work with Nicotiana attenuata revealed the role of jasmonate (JA) signaling in flower development, advertisement and defense. However, whether JA signaling mediates flowers' filtering of floral visitors in nature remained unknown. This field study revealed that silencing JA signaling resulted in flowers that produce less nectar and benzyl aceton...

Antioxidant activity and chemical composition of oleoresin from leaves and flowers of Brunfelsia uniflora.

In this study, the temperature and pressure of supercritical CO2 extraction were evaluated to obtain oleoresin of Brunfelsia uniflora leaves and flowers. The oleoresin compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by three different methods. The highest oleoresin yields were 3.32% at 40°C and 200 bar for the leaves, and 1.03% at 60°C and 200 bar for the flowers. The main extracted compounds from leaves were phytol varying from 11.95 to 36.42% and...


Flowering after disaster: Early Danian buckthorn (Rhamnaceae) flowers and leaves from Patagonia.

Southern-Hemisphere terrestrial communities from the early Paleocene are poorly known, but recent work on Danian plant fossils from the Salamanca Formation in Chubut Province, Argentina are providing critical data on earliest Paleocene floras. The fossils described here come from a site in the Salamanca Formation dating to ca. 1 million years or less after the end-Cretaceous extinction event; they are the first fossil flowers reported from the Danian of South America, and possible the entire Southern Hemisp...

Educational Progress of Looked-After Children in England: A Study Using Group Trajectory Analysis.

Looked-after children in local authority care are among the most disadvantaged, and measures of their well-being, including educational outcomes, are poorer than other children's.

Early members of 'living fossil' lineage imply later origin of modern ray-finned fishes.

Modern ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) comprise half of extant vertebrate species and are widely thought to have originated before or near the end of the Middle Devonian epoch (around 385 million years ago). Polypterids (bichirs and ropefish) represent the earliest-diverging lineage of living actinopterygians, with almost all Palaeozoic taxa interpreted as more closely related to other extant actinopterygians than to polypterids. By contrast, the earliest material assigned to the polypterid lineage is ...

The Impact of Individual-Level Social Capital in Non-Medical use of Pain Medications Among Individuals 50 Years or Older from Diverse Racial/Ethnic Backgrounds.

In 2014, there were 21.5 million Americans (12 years old or older) that had a substance abuse disorder and almost 2 million of them had a substance use disorder involving prescription pain relievers (SAMHSA, 2014). The misuse of non-medical pain medication (NMPM) is a significant public health problem. This study examines the impact of individual-level social capital in non-medical use of pain medications (NMPM) among individuals 50 years or older.

Effects of small-scale clustering of flowers on pollinator foraging behaviour and flower visitation rate.

Plants often grow in clusters of various sizes and have a variable number of flowers per inflorescence. This small-scale spatial clustering affects insect foraging strategies and plant reproductive success. In our study, we aimed to determine how visitation rate and foraging behaviour of pollinators depend on the number of flowers per plant and on the size of clusters of multiple plants using Dracocephalum moldavica (Lamiaceae) as a target species. We measured flower visitation rate by observations of insec...

Volatiles Emitted at Different Flowering Stages of Jasminum sambac and Expression of Genes Related to α-Farnesene Biosynthesis.

Fresh jasmine flowers have been used to make jasmine teas in China, but there has been no complete information about volatile organic compound emissions in relation to flower developmental stages and no science-based knowledge about which floral stage should be used for the infusion. This study monitored volatile organic compounds emitted from living flowers of Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait. 'Bifoliatum' at five developmental stages and also from excised flowers. Among the compounds identified, α-farnesene, lin...

Generation of blue chrysanthemums by anthocyanin B-ring hydroxylation and glucosylation and its coloration mechanism.

Various colored cultivars of ornamental flowers have been bred by hybridization and mutation breeding; however, the generation of blue flowers for major cut flower plants, such as roses, chrysanthemums, and carnations, has not been achieved by conventional breeding or genetic engineering. Most blue-hued flowers contain delphinidin-based anthocyanins; therefore, delphinidin-producing carnation, rose, and chrysanthemum flowers have been generated by overexpression of the gene encoding flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxyl...

Stimulus fear relevance and the speed, magnitude, and robustness of vicariously learned fear.

Superior learning for fear-relevant stimuli is typically indicated in the laboratory by faster acquisition of fear responses, greater learned fear, and enhanced resistance to extinction. Three experiments investigated the speed, magnitude, and robustness of UK children's (6-10 years; N = 290; 122 boys, 168 girls) vicariously learned fear responses for three types of stimuli. In two experiments, children were presented with pictures of novel animals (Australian marsupials) and flowers (fear-irrelevant stim...

Short-course versus long-course intravenous therapy with the same antibiotic for severe community-acquired pneumonia in children aged two months to 59 months.

Pneumonia is a leading cause of childhood mortality from infectious disease, responsible for an estimated 1.3 million deaths annually in children under five years of age, many of which are in low-income countries. The World Health Organization recommends intravenous antibiotics for five days as first-line treatment for children with severe pneumonia. Although controversy exists regarding the specific clinical features used to diagnose pneumonia, the criteria for diagnosis of severe pneumonia are better defi...

Neuropharmacological and acute toxicological evaluation of ethanolic extract of Allamanda cathartica L. flowers and plumieride.

Psychiatric diseases affect more than 350 million people all over the world, and medicinal plants have been considered the basis for pharmacological research. The study investigates the anticonvulsant and antidepressant-like activities and acute toxicological effects of ethanolic extract of Allamanda cathartica flowers, and plumieride. The extract was analyzed by HPLC and plumieride was isolated. Toxicity studies were carried out on females Wistar rats (2000 mg/kg). Toxicity was evaluated by measuring bioc...

Anthocyanin Profiles in Flowers of Grape Hyacinth.

Grape hyacinth (Muscari spp.) is a popular ornamental bulbous perennial famous for its blue flowers. To understand the chemical basis of the rich blue colors in this plant, anthocyanin profiles of six blue flowering grape hyacinths as well as one pink and one white cultivar were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Along with two known compounds, eight putative anthocyanins were identified in the tepals of grape hyacinth for the first time. The accumulation and dist...

33 million year old Myotis (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) and the rapid global radiation of modern bats.

The bat genus Myotis is represented by 120+ living species and 40+ extinct species and is found on every continent except Antarctica. The time of divergence of Myotis has been contentious as has the time and place of origin of its encompassing group the Vespertilionidae, the most diverse (450+ species) and widely distributed extant bat family. Fossil Myotis species are common, especially in Europe, beginning in the Miocene but earlier records are poor. Recent study of new specimens from the Belgian early Ol...

Analysis of the spotted gar genome suggests absence of causative link between ancestral genome duplication and transposable element diversification in teleost fish.

Teleost fish have been shown to contain many superfamilies of transposable elements (TEs) that are absent from most tetrapod genomes. Since theories predict an increase in TE activity following polyploidization, such diversity might be linked to the 3R whole-genome duplication that occurred approximately 300 million years ago before the teleost radiation. To test this hypothesis, we have analyzed the genome of the spotted gar Lepisosteus oculatus, which diverged from the teleost lineage before the 3R duplic...

Relative size predicts competitive outcome through 2 million years.

Competition is an important biotic interaction that influences survival and reproduction. While competition on ecological timescales has received great attention, little is known about competition on evolutionary timescales. Do competitive abilities change over hundreds of thousands to millions of years? Can we predict competitive outcomes using phenotypic traits? How much do traits that confer competitive advantage and competitive outcomes change? Here we show, using communities of encrusting marine bryozo...

Perceptions of Unprofessional Attitudes and Behaviors: Implications for Faculty Role Modeling and Teaching Professionalism During Pathology Residency.

- Changes occurring in medicine have raised issues about medical professionalism. Professionalism is included in the Core Competencies and Milestones for all pathology residents. Previous studies have looked at resident professionalism attitudes and behaviors in primary care but none have looked specifically at pathology.

Increased trend in the incidence of diabetes among youths in the United States, 2002-2012.

The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study (SEARCH Study) reported on estimated trends in the incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes (T1D and T2D) among youths at five centers in the United States during 2002-2012 (1) . The SEARCH Study previously demonstrated increases in the prevalence of both types of diabetes during 2001-2009 (2) . After calculating the annual incidence rates for the period from 2002 to 2012, the incidence trends were analyzed by generalized autoregressive moving-average models with 2-year...

Occurrences, biosynthesis and properties of aurones as high-end evolutionary products.

Recent years have witnessed a considerable renewed interest for the uncommon flavonoid class of aurones. The characterization of two major biosynthetic machineries involved in their biosynthesis in flowers has encouraged the revival of phytochemical studies and identification of original structures, a process started almost seventy-five years ago. This review draws up an exhaustive map of natural occurrences of aurones their biosynthetic pathways and roles, with the aim to link their original structural pro...

Glaucoma is a heterogeneous group of diseases which all share retinal ganglion cell loss leading to a typical optic disc cupping and characteristic visual field defects. Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness affecting 8.4 million people. In 2013, 65 million people suffered from glaucoma worldwide and the number will increase to about 112 million in 2040. This review provides an overview about the classification and genetic basics in glaucoma.

Genetic control of number of flowers and pod set in common bean.

This article aimed to study the genetic control of some flowers and pod set of common bean and to verify if its estimate varies with environmental conditions and gene pool. A complete diallel was used among six lines, but no reciprocal ones. The treatments were evaluated in three harvests/generations - F2, F3, and F4 - in 2015/2016, in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The plot consisted of 3 lines with 4 m. In the center line, a receptacle to collect the aborted flowers/pods was pl...

Multimodal cues provide redundant information for bumblebees when the stimulus is visually salient, but facilitate red target detection in a naturalistic background.

Our understanding of how floral visitors integrate visual and olfactory cues when seeking food, and how background complexity affects flower detection is limited. Here, we aimed to understand the use of visual and olfactory information for bumblebees (Bombus terrestris terrestris L.) when seeking flowers in a visually complex background. To explore this issue, we first evaluated the effect of flower colour (red and blue), size (8, 16 and 32 mm), scent (presence or absence) and the amount of training on the ...

New Antifeedant Grayanane Diterpenoids from the Flowers of Pieris formosa.

Three new grayanane diterpenoids, pierisoids C‒E (1-3), as well as 10 known ones (4-13), were evaluated from the flowers of Pieris formosa, which is used as an insecticide in rural areas of China. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analyses. Significant antifeedant activity of 1, 3 and 10 against the beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) was found, indicating that these diterpenoids might also be involved in the plant defense against insect herbivores.

Correction: Skeleton of an unusual, cat-sized marsupial relative (Metatheria: Marsupialiformes) from the middle Eocene (Lutetian: 44-43 million years ago) of Turkey.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0181712.].


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