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PubMed Journals Articles About "What Flowers Looked Like Million Years" RSS

02:01 EDT 19th July 2018 | BioPortfolio

What Flowers Looked Like Million Years PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest What Flowers Looked Like Million Years articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "What Flowers Looked Like Million Years" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 12,000+

A late Cretaceous fagalean inflorescence preserved in amber from New Jersey.

An inflorescence with three pistillate flowers in amber from the early Upper Cretaceous (Turonian, ~90-94 million years ago) of central New Jersey represents the oldest known flowers with features present in an early stem complex of the Fagales. The inflorescence has characteristics of Nothofagaceae, but also has strikingly distinct characters that suggest it is intermediate between Nothofagus and other Fagales. This intermediacy is consistent with its northern hemisphere distribution.


Occurrence of Functional Molecules in the Flowers of Tea (Camellia sinensis) Plants: Evidence for a Second Resource.

Tea () is an important crop, and its leaves are used to make the most widely consumed beverage, aside from water. People have been using leaves from tea plants to make teas for a long time. However, less attention has been paid to the flowers of tea plants, which is a waste of an abundant resource. In the past 15 years, researchers have attempted to discover, identify, and evaluate functional molecules from tea flowers, and have made insightful and useful discoveries. Here, we summarize the recent investiga...

Metabolomic Profiling of the White, Violet, and Red Flowers ofMaxim.

Maxim. is a garden plant that is also used for natural medicines as a consequence of the biological activities of its diverse metabolites. We accordingly profiled two anthocyanins and 40 primary and secondary metabolites in the three different colored flowers. The major anthocyanins found in the flowers were cyanidins. The red flowers exhibited the highest accumulation of anthocyanins (1.02 ± 0.02 mg/g dry weight). Principal component analysis was applied to the GC‒TOFMS data. The levels of key tri...


Evolution: Vertebrate Limb Control over 420 Million Years.

The neural circuits that control elasmobranch fins and the mammalian limbs have been found to exhibit striking similarities at the molecular, cellular and behavioral levels. The implication is that the neural substrate underlying limb control had already evolved 420 million years ago.

A record of deep-ocean dissolved O2 from the oxidation state of iron in submarine basalts.

The oxygenation of the deep ocean in the geological past has been associated with a rise in the partial pressure of atmospheric molecular oxygen (O2) to near-present levels and the emergence of modern marine biogeochemical cycles. It has also been linked to the origination and diversification of early animals. It is generally thought that the deep ocean was largely anoxic from about 2,500 to 800 million years ago, with estimates of the occurrence of deep-ocean oxygenation and the linked increase in the part...

Study of the biochemical formation pathway of aroma compound 1-phenylethanol in tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) flowers and other plants.

After tea leaves, tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers are becoming a second tea plant resource because they contain not only functional metabolites similar to those found in tea leaves, but also predominant amounts of functional metabolites that only occur in tea leaves in small amounts. 1-Phenylethanol (1PE) is a predominant aroma compound found in tea flowers. A 1PE synthase in tea flowers was isolated, functionally characterized, and shown to have the highest catalytic efficiency for the conversion of acetop...

Fossil flowers from the early Palaeocene of Patagonia, Argentina, with affinity to Schizomerieae (Cunoniaceae).

Early Palaeocene (Danian) plant fossils from Patagonia provide information on the recovery from the end-Cretaceous extinction and Cenozoic floristic change in South America. Actinomorphic flowers with eight to ten perianth parts are described and evaluated in a phylogenetic framework. The goal of this study is to determine the identity of these fossil flowers and to discuss their evolutionary, palaeoecological and biogeographical significance.

Phylogenomic analyses reveal extensive gene flow within the magic flowers (Achimenes).

The Neotropical Gesneriaceae is a lineage known for its colorful and diverse flowers, as well as an extensive history of intra- and intergeneric hybridization, particularly among Achimenes (the magic flowers) and other members of subtribe Gloxiniinae. Despite numerous studies seeking to elucidate the evolutionary relationships of these lineages, relatively few have sought to infer specific patterns of gene flow despite evidence of widespread hybridization.

Chemical constituents from the flowers of Satsuma mandarin and their free radical scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities.

Flowers of Citrus plants are used as mild sedatives and for the treatment of insomnia in traditional medicines. In Japan, tea made from the flowers of Satsuma mandarin is consumed as healthy drink. Hesperidin (1), hesperetin (2), rutin (3), quercetin (4), nicotiflorin (5), eriocitrin (6), narirutin (7), phenylethyl glucoside (8) and unshuoside A (9) were isolated from the MeOH extract of fresh flowers. Structure elucidation of these compounds was performed on the basis of NMR spectroscopic data. Among them,...

Adult psychosocial outcomes of men and women who were looked-after or adopted as children: prospective observational study.

To investigate whether men and women who were looked-after (in public care) or adopted as children are at increased risk of adverse psychological and social outcomes in adulthood.

Fossil filamentous microorganisms associated with plants in early terrestrial environments.

Microorganisms are ubiquitous in modern environments, where they have a variety of essential functions but little is known about their diversity and roles in early terrestrial environments. The earliest direct evidence of filamentous microorganisms associated with plants occurs around 407 million years ago in landscapes dominated by an herbaceous flora. 100 million years later, forests were well established and associations had increased in diversity. After more than a century since the first descriptions, ...

Rates of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke from various indoor environments among US children and nonsmoker adolescents and adults.

Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2013-2014 were used to compute rates of exposure (ROE) to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) from various indoor environments among US children and nonsmoking adolescents and adults. In a typical week in USA, 473,000 infants (ROE, 11%), 3.36 million children aged 1-5 years (ROE, 16.4%), and 4.59 million children aged 6-11 years (ROE, 18.6%) are exposed to ETS from indoor environments only. ROE among children was found to be highest by inhaling ...

Exposure of a diurnal mosquito vector to floral mimics: foraging responses, feeding patterns, and significance for sugar bait technology.

Food location by mosquitoes is mediated by resource-derived olfactory and visual signals. Smell sensation is intermittent and dependent on the environment, whereas visual signals are continual and precede olfactory cues. Success of mosquito bait technology, where olfactory cues are used for attraction, is being impeded by reduced attractiveness. Despite proof that mosquitoes respond to colored objects, including those mimicking floral shape, and that they can discriminate among flowers, the impacts of artif...

Asthma Mortality Among Persons Aged 15-64 Years, by Industry and Occupation - United States, 1999-2016.

In 2015, an estimated 18.4 million U.S. adults had current asthma, and 3,396 adult asthma deaths were reported (1). An estimated 11%-21% of asthma deaths might be attributable to occupational exposures (2). To describe asthma mortality among persons aged 15-64 years,* CDC analyzed multiple cause-of-death data† for 1999-2016 and industry and occupation information collected from 26 states§ for the years 1999, 2003, 2004, and 2007-2012. Proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs)¶ for asthma among persons aged ...

Long-Term Effectiveness of the Live Zoster Vaccine in Preventing Shingles: A Cohort Study.

A live attenuated zoster vaccine was licensed in the United States in 2006 for prevention of shingles in persons aged 60 years or older; the indication was extended in 2011 to cover those aged 50-59 years. We assessed vaccine effectiveness (VE) against shingles for 8 years after immunization at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. VE was estimated by Cox regression with a calendar timeline that was stratified by birth year. We adjusted for demographics and time-varying covariates, including comorbidities ...

Flavonoids from Trollius europaeus flowers and evaluation of their biological activity.

This article describes the flavonoid composition of the flowers of Trollius europaeus and the method of isolation thereof and provides an attempt at investigating the antioxidant activity of the isolated flavonoids and the antityrosinase activity of the extracts from the investigated material.

Breeding system and bumblebee drone pollination of an explosive pollen-releasing plant, Meliosma tenuis (Sabiaceae).

Explosive pollen release is a mechanism by some angiosperms that serves to attach pollen to a pollinator's body. It is usually adopted by species with zygomorphic tubular flowers and pollinated by birds and bees. The tree genus Meliosma (Sabiaceae, Proteales) has unique disc-like flowers that are externally actinomorphic, but internally zygomorphic, and release pollen explosively. To elucidate the adaptive significance of explosive pollen release, we observed flowering behavior, the breeding system, and pol...

The development of functional mapping by three sex-related loci on the third whorl of different sex types of Carica papaya L.

Carica papaya L. is an important economic crop worldwide and is used as a model plant for sex-determination research. To study the different flower sex types, we screened sex-related genes using alternative splicing sequences (AS-seqs) from a transcriptome database of the three flower sex types, i.e., males, females, and hermaphrodites, established at 28 days before flowering using 15 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) of C. papaya L. After screening, the cDNA regions of the three sex-related loci, inc...

Extensive marine-terminating ice sheets in Europe from 2.5 million years ago.

Geometries of Early Pleistocene [2.58 to 0.78 million years (Ma) ago] ice sheets in northwest Europe are poorly constrained but are required to improve our understanding of past ocean-atmosphere-cryosphere coupling. Ice sheets are believed to have changed in their response to orbital forcing, becoming, from about 1.2 Ma ago, volumetrically larger and longer-lived. We present a multiproxy data set for the North Sea, extending to over a kilometer below the present-day seafloor, which demonstrates spatially ex...

Transoceanic dispersal and plate tectonics shaped global cockroach distributions: evidence from mitochondrial phylogenomics.

Following the acceptance of plate tectonics theory in the latter half of the 20th century, vicariance became the dominant explanation for the distributions of many plant and animal groups. In recent years, however, molecular-clock analyses have challenged a number of well-accepted hypotheses of vicariance. As a widespread group of insects with a fossil record dating back 300 million years, cockroaches provide an ideal model for testing hypotheses of vicariance through plate tectonics vs transoceanic dispers...

Humans' Relationship to Flowers as an Example of the Multiple Components of Embodied Aesthetics.

This paper phenomenologically and qualitatively explores the relationship between humans and flowers as a relationship that throws light on the synergetic dynamics of embodied aesthetics. Its methods include qualitative description and thematic analyses of preferred flower types, as well as concept maps of the general term 'flower' by 120 students in Israel. The results revealed the interactive perceptual-compositional elements, as well as embodied, relational, and socially embedded elements of the aestheti...

The incidence, prevalence, and survival of systemic sclerosis in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink.

To estimate the incidence, prevalence, and survival of systemic sclerosis in the United Kingdom. We conducted a historical cohort study using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). We calculated the incidence and survival of systemic sclerosis between 1994 and 2013 and examined its association with age, sex, and socioeconomic status. We calculated point prevalence on 1 July 2013 and examined its association with the same exposures. We identified 1327 cases with incident systemic sclerosis...

Novel computed tomography-based tools reliably quantify plant reproductive investment.

The flower is a bisexual reproductive unit where both genders compete for resources. Counting pollen and ovules in flowers is essential to understand how much is invested in each gender. Classical methods to count very numerous pollen grains and ovules are inefficient when pollen grains are tightly aggregated, and when fertilization rates of ovules are unknown. In this study we have therefore developed novel counting techniques based on computed tomography. In order to demonstrate the potential of our metho...

Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of the Echinocystis lobata (Michx.) Torr. et A.Gray flowers.

Echinocystis lobata (Michx.) Torr. et A.Gray is a spontaneous species in the Romanian flora, lesser studied by scientific literature, but which has proved significant activities in traditional medicine. The present study is aimed to provide data on the polyphenolic compounds in the composition of the flowers of this species and to test their biological potential. Polyphenols were identified and quantified using an HPLC-MS method. Tested biological activities were the cytotoxic, anti-plasmodial and antioxida...

NO inhibitors function as potential anti-neuroinflammatory agents for AD from the flowers of Inula japonica.

The extensive pathology studies revealed that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is closely related to neuroinflammation and anti-neuroinflammatory agents may be potentially useful for the treatment of AD. Inula japonica is a member of the Asteraceae plant family and its flowers have been used as a healthy tea and a traditional Chinese medicine. Our continuous search for new nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory substances as anti-neuroinflammatory agents for AD resulted in the isolation of two new sesquiterpenes and ten know...


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