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PubMed Journals Articles About "What Flowers Looked Like Million Years" RSS

07:50 EDT 23rd April 2018 | BioPortfolio

What Flowers Looked Like Million Years PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest What Flowers Looked Like Million Years articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "What Flowers Looked Like Million Years" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 12,000+

Eating flowers? Exploring attitudes and consumers' representation of edible flowers.

Edible flowers have gained more attention in recent years thanks to their perceived health benefits. Despite this attention, it seems that edible flowers are not popularized for consumption in South America, being considered unfamiliar for some cultures from this continent. In this context, the general goal of the present study was to investigate the three dimensions of social representation theory, the representational field, the information and the attitude of the two conditions of edible flowers: a more ...


Occurrence of Functional Molecules in the Flowers of Tea (Camellia sinensis) Plants: Evidence for a Second Resource.

Tea () is an important crop, and its leaves are used to make the most widely consumed beverage, aside from water. People have been using leaves from tea plants to make teas for a long time. However, less attention has been paid to the flowers of tea plants, which is a waste of an abundant resource. In the past 15 years, researchers have attempted to discover, identify, and evaluate functional molecules from tea flowers, and have made insightful and useful discoveries. Here, we summarize the recent investiga...

Evolution: Vertebrate Limb Control over 420 Million Years.

The neural circuits that control elasmobranch fins and the mammalian limbs have been found to exhibit striking similarities at the molecular, cellular and behavioral levels. The implication is that the neural substrate underlying limb control had already evolved 420 million years ago.


Metabolomic Profiling of the White, Violet, and Red Flowers ofMaxim.

Maxim. is a garden plant that is also used for natural medicines as a consequence of the biological activities of its diverse metabolites. We accordingly profiled two anthocyanins and 40 primary and secondary metabolites in the three different colored flowers. The major anthocyanins found in the flowers were cyanidins. The red flowers exhibited the highest accumulation of anthocyanins (1.02 ± 0.02 mg/g dry weight). Principal component analysis was applied to the GC‒TOFMS data. The levels of key tri...

A record of deep-ocean dissolved O2 from the oxidation state of iron in submarine basalts.

The oxygenation of the deep ocean in the geological past has been associated with a rise in the partial pressure of atmospheric molecular oxygen (O2) to near-present levels and the emergence of modern marine biogeochemical cycles. It has also been linked to the origination and diversification of early animals. It is generally thought that the deep ocean was largely anoxic from about 2,500 to 800 million years ago, with estimates of the occurrence of deep-ocean oxygenation and the linked increase in the part...

Jasmonate signaling makes flowers attractive to pollinators and repellant to florivores in nature.

Flowers are required for the Darwinian fitness of flowering plants, but flowers' advertisements for pollination services can attract florivores. Previous glasshouse work with Nicotiana attenuata revealed the role of jasmonate (JA) signaling in flower development, advertisement and defense. However, whether JA signaling mediates flowers' filtering of floral visitors in nature remained unknown. This field study revealed that silencing JA signaling resulted in flowers that produce less nectar and benzyl aceton...

Study of the biochemical formation pathway of aroma compound 1-phenylethanol in tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) flowers and other plants.

After tea leaves, tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers are becoming a second tea plant resource because they contain not only functional metabolites similar to those found in tea leaves, but also predominant amounts of functional metabolites that only occur in tea leaves in small amounts. 1-Phenylethanol (1PE) is a predominant aroma compound found in tea flowers. A 1PE synthase in tea flowers was isolated, functionally characterized, and shown to have the highest catalytic efficiency for the conversion of acetop...

Fossil flowers from the early Palaeocene of Patagonia, Argentina, with affinity to Schizomerieae (Cunoniaceae).

Early Palaeocene (Danian) plant fossils from Patagonia provide information on the recovery from the end-Cretaceous extinction and Cenozoic floristic change in South America. Actinomorphic flowers with eight to ten perianth parts are described and evaluated in a phylogenetic framework. The goal of this study is to determine the identity of these fossil flowers and to discuss their evolutionary, palaeoecological and biogeographical significance.

Early members of 'living fossil' lineage imply later origin of modern ray-finned fishes.

Modern ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) comprise half of extant vertebrate species and are widely thought to have originated before or near the end of the Middle Devonian epoch (around 385 million years ago). Polypterids (bichirs and ropefish) represent the earliest-diverging lineage of living actinopterygians, with almost all Palaeozoic taxa interpreted as more closely related to other extant actinopterygians than to polypterids. By contrast, the earliest material assigned to the polypterid lineage is ...

The Impact of Individual-Level Social Capital in Non-Medical use of Pain Medications Among Individuals 50 Years or Older from Diverse Racial/Ethnic Backgrounds.

In 2014, there were 21.5 million Americans (12 years old or older) that had a substance abuse disorder and almost 2 million of them had a substance use disorder involving prescription pain relievers (SAMHSA, 2014). The misuse of non-medical pain medication (NMPM) is a significant public health problem. This study examines the impact of individual-level social capital in non-medical use of pain medications (NMPM) among individuals 50 years or older.

Effects of small-scale clustering of flowers on pollinator foraging behaviour and flower visitation rate.

Plants often grow in clusters of various sizes and have a variable number of flowers per inflorescence. This small-scale spatial clustering affects insect foraging strategies and plant reproductive success. In our study, we aimed to determine how visitation rate and foraging behaviour of pollinators depend on the number of flowers per plant and on the size of clusters of multiple plants using Dracocephalum moldavica (Lamiaceae) as a target species. We measured flower visitation rate by observations of insec...

Chemical constituents from the flowers of Satsuma mandarin and their free radical scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities.

Flowers of Citrus plants are used as mild sedatives and for the treatment of insomnia in traditional medicines. In Japan, tea made from the flowers of Satsuma mandarin is consumed as healthy drink. Hesperidin (1), hesperetin (2), rutin (3), quercetin (4), nicotiflorin (5), eriocitrin (6), narirutin (7), phenylethyl glucoside (8) and unshuoside A (9) were isolated from the MeOH extract of fresh flowers. Structure elucidation of these compounds was performed on the basis of NMR spectroscopic data. Among them,...

Adult psychosocial outcomes of men and women who were looked-after or adopted as children: prospective observational study.

To investigate whether men and women who were looked-after (in public care) or adopted as children are at increased risk of adverse psychological and social outcomes in adulthood.

Rates of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke from various indoor environments among US children and nonsmoker adolescents and adults.

Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2013-2014 were used to compute rates of exposure (ROE) to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) from various indoor environments among US children and nonsmoking adolescents and adults. In a typical week in USA, 473,000 infants (ROE, 11%), 3.36 million children aged 1-5 years (ROE, 16.4%), and 4.59 million children aged 6-11 years (ROE, 18.6%) are exposed to ETS from indoor environments only. ROE among children was found to be highest by inhaling ...

Asthma Mortality Among Persons Aged 15-64 Years, by Industry and Occupation - United States, 1999-2016.

In 2015, an estimated 18.4 million U.S. adults had current asthma, and 3,396 adult asthma deaths were reported (1). An estimated 11%-21% of asthma deaths might be attributable to occupational exposures (2). To describe asthma mortality among persons aged 15-64 years,* CDC analyzed multiple cause-of-death data† for 1999-2016 and industry and occupation information collected from 26 states§ for the years 1999, 2003, 2004, and 2007-2012. Proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs)¶ for asthma among persons aged ...

Long-Term Effectiveness of the Live Zoster Vaccine in Preventing Shingles: A Cohort Study.

A live attenuated zoster vaccine was licensed in the United States in 2006 for prevention of shingles in persons aged 60 years or older; the indication was extended in 2011 to cover those aged 50-59 years. We assessed vaccine effectiveness (VE) against shingles for 8 years after immunization at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. VE was estimated by Cox regression with a calendar timeline that was stratified by birth year. We adjusted for demographics and time-varying covariates, including comorbidities ...

Short-course versus long-course intravenous therapy with the same antibiotic for severe community-acquired pneumonia in children aged two months to 59 months.

Pneumonia is a leading cause of childhood mortality from infectious disease, responsible for an estimated 1.3 million deaths annually in children under five years of age, many of which are in low-income countries. The World Health Organization recommends intravenous antibiotics for five days as first-line treatment for children with severe pneumonia. Although controversy exists regarding the specific clinical features used to diagnose pneumonia, the criteria for diagnosis of severe pneumonia are better defi...

Neuropharmacological and acute toxicological evaluation of ethanolic extract of Allamanda cathartica L. flowers and plumieride.

Psychiatric diseases affect more than 350 million people all over the world, and medicinal plants have been considered the basis for pharmacological research. The study investigates the anticonvulsant and antidepressant-like activities and acute toxicological effects of ethanolic extract of Allamanda cathartica flowers, and plumieride. The extract was analyzed by HPLC and plumieride was isolated. Toxicity studies were carried out on females Wistar rats (2000 mg/kg). Toxicity was evaluated by measuring bioc...

Flavonoids from Trollius europaeus flowers and evaluation of their biological activity.

This article describes the flavonoid composition of the flowers of Trollius europaeus and the method of isolation thereof and provides an attempt at investigating the antioxidant activity of the isolated flavonoids and the antityrosinase activity of the extracts from the investigated material.

Breeding system and bumblebee drone pollination of an explosive pollen-releasing plant, Meliosma tenuis (Sabiaceae).

Explosive pollen release is a mechanism by some angiosperms that serves to attach pollen to a pollinator's body. It is usually adopted by species with zygomorphic tubular flowers and pollinated by birds and bees. The tree genus Meliosma (Sabiaceae, Proteales) has unique disc-like flowers that are externally actinomorphic, but internally zygomorphic, and release pollen explosively. To elucidate the adaptive significance of explosive pollen release, we observed flowering behavior, the breeding system, and pol...

The development of functional mapping by three sex-related loci on the third whorl of different sex types of Carica papaya L.

Carica papaya L. is an important economic crop worldwide and is used as a model plant for sex-determination research. To study the different flower sex types, we screened sex-related genes using alternative splicing sequences (AS-seqs) from a transcriptome database of the three flower sex types, i.e., males, females, and hermaphrodites, established at 28 days before flowering using 15 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) of C. papaya L. After screening, the cDNA regions of the three sex-related loci, inc...

Transoceanic dispersal and plate tectonics shaped global cockroach distributions: evidence from mitochondrial phylogenomics.

Following the acceptance of plate tectonics theory in the latter half of the 20th century, vicariance became the dominant explanation for the distributions of many plant and animal groups. In recent years, however, molecular-clock analyses have challenged a number of well-accepted hypotheses of vicariance. As a widespread group of insects with a fossil record dating back 300 million years, cockroaches provide an ideal model for testing hypotheses of vicariance through plate tectonics vs transoceanic dispers...

Analysis of the spotted gar genome suggests absence of causative link between ancestral genome duplication and transposable element diversification in teleost fish.

Teleost fish have been shown to contain many superfamilies of transposable elements (TEs) that are absent from most tetrapod genomes. Since theories predict an increase in TE activity following polyploidization, such diversity might be linked to the 3R whole-genome duplication that occurred approximately 300 million years ago before the teleost radiation. To test this hypothesis, we have analyzed the genome of the spotted gar Lepisosteus oculatus, which diverged from the teleost lineage before the 3R duplic...

Humans' Relationship to Flowers as an Example of the Multiple Components of Embodied Aesthetics.

This paper phenomenologically and qualitatively explores the relationship between humans and flowers as a relationship that throws light on the synergetic dynamics of embodied aesthetics. Its methods include qualitative description and thematic analyses of preferred flower types, as well as concept maps of the general term 'flower' by 120 students in Israel. The results revealed the interactive perceptual-compositional elements, as well as embodied, relational, and socially embedded elements of the aestheti...

Novel computed tomography-based tools reliably quantify plant reproductive investment.

The flower is a bisexual reproductive unit where both genders compete for resources. Counting pollen and ovules in flowers is essential to understand how much is invested in each gender. Classical methods to count very numerous pollen grains and ovules are inefficient when pollen grains are tightly aggregated, and when fertilization rates of ovules are unknown. In this study we have therefore developed novel counting techniques based on computed tomography. In order to demonstrate the potential of our metho...


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