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PubMed Journals Articles About "Accumulating Useful Genes Helps Older Yeast Fare Better" RSS

06:31 EST 21st January 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "accumulating useful genes helps older yeast fare better" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 12,000+

Mitochondria-encoded Endonucleases Drive Recombination of Protein Coding Genes in Yeast.

Mitochondrial recombination in yeast is well recognized, yet the underlying genetic mechanisms are not well understood. Recent progress has suggested that mobile introns in mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) can facilitate recombination of their corresponding intron-containing genes through a mechanism known as intron homing. As many mitochondrial genes lack introns, there is a critical need to determine the extent of recombination and underlying mechanism of intron-lacking genes. This study leverages yeas...


d-Xylose consumption by non-recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a review.

Xylose is the second most abundant sugar in nature. Its efficient fermentation has been considered as a critical factor for a feasible conversion of renewable biomass resources into biofuels and other chemicals. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is of exceptional industrial importance due to its excellent capability to ferment sugars. However, while S. cerevisiae is able to ferment xylulose, it is considered unable to metabolize xylose, and thus a lot of research has been directed to engineer this yeast wi...

A Transcriptome-based Perspective of Meiosis in Dinoflagellates.

There is increasing interest in the possibility of sexual recombination in dinoflagellates, especially those symbiotic with coral, since recombination may be able to augment genetic diversity and reduce levels of coral bleaching. Several previous studies have addressed this in Symbiodinium by querying sequence databanks with a list of 51 genes termed a meiosis detection toolkit. Here, we have constructed an expanded list of 307 genes involved in meiosis in budding yeast. We find the genes involved in the ma...


The Heat Shock Response in Yeast Maintains Protein Homeostasis by Chaperoning and Replenishing Proteins.

Life is resilient because living systems are able to respond to elevated temperatures with an ancient gene expression program called the heat shock response (HSR). In yeast, the transcription of hundreds of genes is upregulated at stress temperatures. Besides stress protection conferred by chaperones, the function of the majority of the upregulated genes under stress has remained enigmatic. We show that those genes are required to directly counterbalance increased protein turnover at stress temperatures and...

Genes related to education predict frailty among older adults in the United States.

This article expands on research that links education and frailty among older adults by considering the role of genes associated with education.

Identification and functional characterization of squalene epoxidases and oxidosqualene cyclases from Tripterygium wilfordii.

We cloned two squalene epoxidases and five oxidosqualene cyclases, and identified their function using CRISPR/Cas9 tool and yeast heterologous expression. Triterpenes are the main active ingredients of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook.f., a traditional Chinese medicinal plant with many encouraging preclinical applications. However, the biosynthetic pathways of triterpenes in this plant are poorly understood. Here, we report on the isolation and identification of two squalene epoxidases (SQE6 and SQE7) and five o...

Towards a synthetic yeast endosymbiont with a minimal genome.

Based on the endosymbiotic theory, one of the key events that occurred during mitochondrial evolution was an extensive loss of non-essential genes from the protomitochondrial endosymbiont genome and transfer of some of the essential endosymbiont genes to the host nucleus. We have developed an approach to recapitulate various aspects of endosymbiont ge-nome minimization using a synthetic system consist-ing of E. coli endosymbionts within host yeast cells. As a first step, we identified a number of E. coli au...

Quantitative Analysis of Spatial Distributions of All tRNA Genes in Budding Yeast.

In the budding yeast nucleus, transfer RNA (tRNA) genes are considered to localize in the vicinity of the nucleolus; however, the use of Hi-C and fluorescent repressor-operator system techniques has clearly indicated that the tRNA genes are distributed not only around the nucleolus but also at other nuclear locations. However, there are some discrepancies between Hi-C data analysis and the results indicated from fluorescence microscopy data. To fill these gaps, we systematically clarified the spatial arrang...

Rad52 Restrains Resection at DNA Double-Strand Break Ends in Yeast.

Rad52 is a key factor for homologous recombination (HR) in yeast. Rad52 helps assemble Rad51-ssDNA nucleoprotein filaments that catalyze DNA strand exchange, and it mediates single-strand DNA annealing. We find that Rad52 has an even earlier function in HR in restricting DNA double-stranded break ends resection that generates 3' single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) tails. In fission yeast, Exo1 is the primary resection nuclease, with the helicase Rqh1 playing a minor role. We demonstrate that the choice of two exten...

Chromatin remodeling complexes are involvesd in the regulation of ethanol production during static fermentation in budding yeast.

The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae remains a central position among biofuel-producing organisms. However, the gene expression regulatory networks behind the ethanol fermentation is still not fully understood. Using a static fermentation model, we have examined the ethanol yields on biomass of deletion mutants for all yeast nonessential genes encoding transcription factors and their related proteins in the yeast genome. A total of 20 (about 10%) transcription factors are identified to be regulators o...

Diversity, Virulence Factors, and Antifungal Susceptibility Patterns of Pathogenic and Opportunistic Yeast Species in Rock Pigeon () Fecal Droppings in Western Saudi Arabia.

Bird fecal matter is considered a potential source of pathogenic microbes such as yeast species that contaminate the environment. Therefore, it needs to be scrutinized to assess potential environmental health risks. The aim of this study was to investigate the diversity of the yeasts in pigeon fecal droppings, their antifungal susceptibility patterns, and virulence factors. We used culturing techniques to detect the yeasts in pigeon fecal droppings. The isolates were then characterized based on colony morph...

Identification and characterization of two high-affinity glucose transporters from the spoilage yeast Brettanomyces bruxellensis.

The yeast Brettanomyces bruxellensis (syn. Dekkera bruxellensis) is an emerging and undesirable contaminant in industrial low-sugar ethanol fermentations that employ the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. High-affinity glucose import in B. bruxellensis has been proposed to be the mechanism by which this yeast can outcompete S. cerevisiae. The present study describes the characterization of two B. bruxellensis genes (BHT1 and BHT3) believed to encode putative high-affinity glucose transporters. In vitro-generat...

Microbiome dynamics and phaC synthase genes selected in a pilot plant producing polyhydroxyalkanoate from the organic fraction of urban waste.

This study analyses the bacterial population dynamics of a mixed microbial community (MMC) selected in a pilot plant producing polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) from the fermentation of the organic fraction of urban waste (OFMSW) and sewage sludge (SS). 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing revealed the occurrence of a variety of PHA accumulating bacteria that ensured a stable PHA production in an open system operating with real substrates and without temperature control. The Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) changes ...

Ambient pH regulates secretion of lipases in .

is a lipophilic cutaneous commensal yeast and associated with various skin disorders. The yeast also causes bloodstream infection via intravascular catheters and can be detected even in human gut microbiota. Ambient pH is one of the major factors that affect the physiology and metabolism of several pathogenic microorganisms. Although dynamic changes of pH environment in different parts of the body is a great challenge for to confront, the role that ambient pH plays in is largely unknown. In this study, we...

Sulfate assimilation regulates hydrogen sulfide production independent of lifespan and reactive oxygen species under methionine restriction condition in yeast.

Endogenously produced hydrogen sulfide was proposed to be an underlying mechanism of lifespan extension via methionine restriction. However, hydrogen sulfide regulation and its beneficial effects via methionine restriction remain elusive. Here, we identified the genes required to increase hydrogen sulfide production under methionine restriction condition using genome-wide high-throughput screening in yeast strains with single-gene deletions. Sulfate assimilation-related genes, such as , , , and , were found...

DNA binding preferences of S. cerevisiae RNA polymerase I Core Factor reveal a preference for the GC-minor groove and a conserved binding mechanism.

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Core Factor (CF) is a key evolutionarily conserved transcription initiation factor that helps recruit RNA polymerase I (Pol I) to the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) promoter. Upregulated Pol I transcription has been linked to many cancers, and targeting Pol I is an attractive and emerging anti-cancer strategy. Using yeast as a model system, we characterized how CF binds to the Pol I promoter by electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). Synthetic DNA competitors along with anti-tumor d...

Teaching Technology to Older Adults: Modalities Used by Student Mentors and Reasons for Continued Program Participation.

The current study examined teaching modalities used by college students participating in an intergenerational, service-learning program that helps older adults learn technology and described reasons for older adults' continued participation in this program. Qualitative data analysis was completed using student-maintained observation logs from approximately 200 older participants. Several different teaching modalities used by student mentors were identified, including observing and listening, writing down in...

Carbon monoxide released by CORM-A1 prevents yeast cell death via autophagy stimulation.

Autophagy is an autodigestive process, promoting cytoprotection by the elimination of dysfunctional organelles, misfolded proteins and toxic aggregates. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous gasotransmitter that under low concentrations prevents cell death and inflammation. For the first time, the role of autophagy in CO-mediated cytoprotection against oxidative stress was evaluated in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Boron based carbon monoxide releasing molecule, CORM-A1, was used to deliver ...

Stress tolerance phenotype of industrial yeast: industrial cases, cellular changes, and improvement strategies.

Yeast is widely used in the baking, biocontrol, brewing, and bio manufacturing industries. In the baking industry alone, around two million tons of yeast are consumed worldwide every year. While yeast brings delicious and healthy lives to humans, we find that stress resistance of yeast is essential for the development of bioindustry. Whether during baking, biocontrol, brewing, bio manufacturing, or in other industries, yeast faces a variety of environmental stresses that have a great impact on its activity,...

Investing in Happiness: The Gerontological Perspective.

Optimising happiness is a desirable societal aim in itself, but there are four more specific reasons why research on happiness is an important emerging theme in gerontology. First, happiness is not merely the mirror of depression, anxiety or distress, but has distinct relationships with a range of outcomes, so benefits from study in itself. Second, happiness appears to be a protective factor for morbidity and mortality; although studies are complex and take a long time to complete, there is accumulating evi...

Squalene lipotoxicity in a lipid droplet-less yeast mutant is linked to plasma membrane dysfunction.

Squalene is a naturally occurring triterpene with wide industrial applications. Due to limited natural resources, production of this valuable lipid in yeast is of high commercial relevance. Accumulation of squalene in yeast can be induced by specific cultivation conditions or genetic modifications. Accumulated squalene is typically stored in lipid droplets (LD), however, it is located in cellular membranes in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant unable to form LD. We induced squalene accumulation in this LD-le...

Oral administration of whole dihomo-γ-linolenic acid-producing yeast suppresses allergic contact dermatitis in mice.

Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA, C20: 3n-6) is known to have an anti-inflammatory activity, but its range of effects was not well studied because of its limited natural sources. We addressed these issues by constructing an yeast strain having a complete metabolic pathway for DGLA synthesis by introducing two desaturase and one elongase genes to convert endogenous oleic acid to DGLA. Taking advantage of well-known safety of , we previously investigated the efficacy of heat-killed whole DGLA-producing yeast c...

Editorial: yeast ecology and interaction.

Human artificial chromosome (HAC) for measuring chromosome instability (CIN) and identification of genes required for proper chromosome transmission.

Chromosomal instability (CIN) is one of the characteristics of cancer inherent for tumor initiation and progression, which is defined as a persistent, high rate of gain/loss of whole chromosomes. In the vast majority of human tumors the molecular basis of CIN remains unknown. The development of a conceptually simple colony color sectoring assay that measures yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) loss provided a powerful genetic tool to assess the rate of chromosome mis-segregation and also identified 937 yeast ...

Fare Thee Well and Let the Good Times Roll.


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