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19:10 EDT 20th June 2018 | BioPortfolio

Antiretrovirals PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Antiretrovirals articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "antiretrovirals" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 41

Pharmacology of Antiretrovirals in the Female Genital Track for HIV Prevention.

Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a powerful tool that, as part of a comprehensive prevention package, has potential to significantly impact the HIV epidemic. PrEP effectiveness is believed to be dependent on the exposure and efficacy of antiretrovirals at the site of HIV transmission. Clinical trial results as well as modeling and simulation indicate the threshold of adherence required for PrEP efficacy of emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate may differ between sites of HIV transmission with less fo...


Tenofovir and tenofovir-diphosphate concentrations during pregnancy among HIV-uninfected women using oral pre-exposure prophylaxis.

Pregnancy is a time of increased HIV acquisition risk and pregnancy reduces concentrations of antiretrovirals used for treatment. We assessed whether pregnancy lowers concentrations of tenofovir (TFV) and tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) among HIV-uninfected women using oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).

Non-Natural Linker Configuration in 2,6-Dipeptidyl-Anthraquinones Enhances the Inhibition of TAR RNA Binding/Annealing Activities by HIV-1 NC and Tat Proteins.

The HIV-1 nucleocapsid (NC) protein represents an excellent molecular target for the development of antiretrovirals by virtue of its well-characterized chaperone activities, which play pivotal roles in essential steps of the viral life cycle. Our ongoing search for candidates able to impair NC binding/annealing activities led to the identification of peptidyl-anthraquinones as a promising class of nucleic acid ligands. Seeking to elucidate the inhibition determinants and increase the potency of this class o...


Efficacy of Vaginally Administered Gel Containing Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Against Repeated Rectal SHIV Exposures in Macaques.

Vaginal microbicides containing antiretrovirals (ARV) have shown to prevent vaginally acquired HIV but these products may not protect women who engage in anal sex. Intravaginal dosing with ARVs have shown to result in drug exposures in rectal tissues, thus raising the possibility of dual compartment protection. To test this concept, we investigated whether intravaginal dosing with emtricitabine (FTC)-tenofovir (TFV) gel, which fully protected macaques against repeated vaginal exposures to simian human immun...

Nanotechnological foundations of a «new» Nephrology.

After contextualising the generic frameworks of nanotechnology and nanomedicine, the 2disciplines are discussed in the field of Nephrology. The potential downside to nanonephrology is the renal clearance of nanoparticles, the use of which is ever-increasing both for nanomedicinal purposes and in nanofoods. The positive impact of nanotechnology in Nephrology is centred on the development of renal nanodiagnostics for basic renal function studies, the early diagnosis of acute kidney injury, reliable and simple...

Pharmacogenetic associations with cytochrome P450 in antiretroviral therapy: what does the future hold?

Several antiretroviral drugs used to treat infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are substrates of enzymes belonging to the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily, which are polymorphically expressed. It may therefore be useful to take into account the genetic variation in these enzymes to predict the likelihood of anti-HIV treatment success, toxicity and the potential for drug-drug interactions. Areas covered: In this manuscript, the authors discuss the current state of knowledge regarding pharm...

Hollow mesoporous structured molecularly imprinted polymer as adsorbent in pipette-tip solid-phase extraction for the determination of antiretrovirals from plasma of HIV-infected patients.

In this work a hollow mesoporous structured molecularly imprinted polymer was synthetized and used as adsorbent in pipette-tip solid-phase extraction for the determination of lamivudine (3TC), zidovudine (AZT) and efavirenz (EFZ) from plasma of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All parameters that influence the recovery of the pipette tip based on hollow mesoporous molecularly imprinted polymer solid-phase extraction (PT-HM-MIP-SPE) method...

Occurrence, fate and removal of pharmaceuticals, personal care products and pesticides in wastewater stabilization ponds and receiving rivers in the Nzoia Basin, Kenya.

Although there is increased global environmental concern about emerging organic micropollutants (EOMPs) such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs) and polar pesticides, limited information is available on their occurrence in Africa. This study presents unique data on concentrations and loads of 31 PPCPs and 10 pesticides in four wastewater stabilization ponds (WSPs) and receiving rivers (flowing through urban centres) in Kenya. The WSPs indicate a high potential to remove pharmaceutically activ...

The transition to dolutegravir and other new antiretrovirals in low- and middle-income countries - what are the issues?

: There are currently approximately 16 million people taking NNRTI-based first-line treatment in low- and middle-income countries. Most of these patients are using the combination of tenofovir (TDF), lamivudine (3TC) and efavirenz (EFV). The integrase inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) has shown an improved safety profile compared to EFV in randomised studies. DTG also has a high barrier to development of drug resistance. New co-formulated tablets with TDF/3TC/DTG are being introduced into LMICs, for a median pri...

HIV aspartyl protease inhibitors modify the percentage of activated leukocytes, as well as serum levels of IL-17A and NO during experimental leishmaniasis.

HIV aspartyl protease inhibitors are able to modulate multiple defense mechanisms. However, their influence on the immune response against Leishmania has rarely been investigated. The aim of our study was to investigate whether in vivo treatment with HIV aspartyl protease inhibitors is able to modulate the immune response during Leishmania infection. Using Leishmania (L.) amazonensis-infected mice, we analyzed the disease evolution and parasite load, immunophenotypic profiles of splenic T and B lymphocytes,...

pH-Responsive delivery of Griffithsin from electrospun fibers.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) affects over 36 million people globally. Current prevention strategies utilize antiretrovirals that have demonstrated protection, but result in antiviral resistance, adverse toxicity, and require frequent administration. A novel biologic, griffithsin (GRFT), has demonstrated outstanding safety and efficacy against laboratory and primary HIV isolates and against intravaginal murine herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) challenge, making it a promising microbicide candidate. Howe...

Virgin coconut oil extract mitigates testicular-induced toxicity of alcohol use in antiretroviral therapy.

The consumption of alcohol by people living with HIV/AIDS is associated with a graver prognosis. Long-term use of antiretrovirals may have certain health challenges that may be aggravated by concomitant alcohol use. This study investigated virgin coconut oil (VCO) as an adjuvant to the deleterious effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and alcohol on the cyto-architecture and functioning of the testis. Forty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 165~176 g, were divided into eight groups...

Genetic analysis of the mutations in HIV-1 infected population in Ecuador.

Background The international recommendations of antiretroviral treatment include resistance tests to guide the treatment regimen in each patient, which is not available on a regular basis in Ecuador. Aim To describe mutations that confer resistance to antiretrovirals in a population of Ecuadorian patients. Methods Plasma samples from 101 HIV-1 patients with failure to antiretroviral therapy, divided into 15 children and 86 adults, were studied with the GS Junior (Roche) and the sequences were analyzed with ...

Pharmacokinetics of Tenofovir Alafenamide When Co-administered With Other HIV Antiretrovirals.

Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), a prodrug of the nucleotide analogue tenofovir (TFV), is an antiretroviral (ARV) agent approved either as a complete regimen (elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine (F)/tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), rilpivirine/F/TAF, bictegravir/F/TAF), or for use with other ARVs (F/TAF), for treatment of HIV. TAF is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) transporters. Disposition of TAF may be altered by co-medications that can inhibit or induce P-gp or ...

Cryptococcal meningitis in AIDS.

Cryptococcal meningitis remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality amongst patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The prevalence in the developed world has decreased as HIV is being diagnosed earlier, but is still significant, and the prevalence in resource-limited settings is exceedingly high. The presenting symptoms usually include a headache, fever, and, less often, cranial nerve abnormalities. Space-occupying lesions do occur, but are rare. Once diagnosed, patients should b...

In utero exposure to antiretrovirals and neurodevelopment among HIV-exposed uninfected children in Botswana.

Conflicting data exist regarding the impact of in utero exposure to maternal combination antiretrovirals. We compared neurodevelopmental outcomes between HIV-exposed/uninfected (HEU) children exposed in utero to 3-drug combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) versus zidovudine (ZDV) monotherapy.

Nonantiretroviral polypharmacy and adverse health outcomes among HIV-infected and uninfected individuals.

HIV-positive individuals (HIV+) on antiretrovirals commonly take enough other medications to cross a threshold for polypharmacy but little is known about associated outcomes. We asked whether non-antiretroviral polypharmacy is associated with hospitalization and mortality and whether associations differ by HIV status.

Congenital CMV and HIV Perinatal Transmission.

Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection (cCMV) is an important cause of hearing loss and cognitive impairment. Prior studies suggest that HIV-exposed children are at higher risk of acquiring cCMV. We assessed the presence, magnitude, and risk factors associated with cCMV among infants born to HIV-infected women, who were not receiving antiretrovirals during pregnancy.

Rilpivirine Plasma and Cervico-Vaginal Concentrations in Women During Pregnancy and Postpartum.

Concentrations of antiretrovirals (ARVs) in the genital tract play a key role in pre-exposure prophylaxis. This study aims to describe rilpivirine (Edurant) concentrations in the genital tract in pregnant and postpartum women.

Cumulative Antiretroviral Exposure Measured in Hair Is Not Associated With Measures of HIV Persistence or Inflammation Among Individuals on Suppressive ART.

Data on the relationship of antiretroviral exposure to measures of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persistence are limited. To address this gap, multiple viral, immunologic, and pharmacologic measures were analyzed from individuals with sustained virologic suppression on therapy (median 7 years) in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5321 cohort. Among 110 participants on tenofovir-(TFV)-disoproxil-fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC)-containing regimens, we found no significant correlation between hair concen...

Could antiretrovirals be treating EBV in MS? A case report.

We present the case of an HIV-negative patient clinically diagnosed with relapsing-remitting MS who achieved significant disease improvement on Combivir (zidovudine/lamivudine). Within months of treatment, the patient reported complete resolution of previously unremitting fatigue and paresthesiae, with simultaneous improvements in lesion burden detected by MRI. All improvements have been sustained for more than three years. This response may be related to the action of zidovudine as a known inhibitor of EBV...

Nephrotoxicity of antiretrovirals other than tenofovir.

The remarkable improvement of the outcome of HIV infection came with the price of substantial toxicity of some antiretrovirals. The first molecules used to treat HIV included an important nephrotoxicity. Zalcitabine, stavudine and didanosine can induce severe lactic acidosis. Lactate production is enhanced and the renal capacity to regulate pH is overwhelmed. However, this side effect is not due to a direct dysfunction of the kidneys. Zalcitabine was withdrawn from the market because of this risk. Indinavir...

Inhibition of NF-κB-dependent HIV-1 replication by the marine natural product bengamide A.

HIV-1 inhibitors that act by mechanisms distinct from existing antiretrovirals can provide novel insights into viral replication and potentially inform development of new therapeutics. Using a multi-cycle HIV-1 replication assay, we screened 252 pure compounds derived from marine invertebrates and microorganisms and identified 6 (actinomycin Z, bastadin 6, bengamide A, haliclonacyclamine A + B, keramamine C, neopetrosiamide B) that inhibited HIV-1 with 50% effective concentrations (ECs) of 3.8 μM or le...

Management of Antiretrovirals in Critically Ill Patients: Great Progress But Potential Pitfalls.

STABILITY INDICATIVE HPLC DETERMINATION OF RELATED SUBSTANCES AND IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIAL DEGRADANTS USING LC-MS IN TRIPLE COMBINATION ANTIRETROVIRAL TABLETS.

A rapid stability indicating liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of related substances of antiretrovirals in combined oral dosage formulation. Separation was achieved using a Waters, Xterra RP-18 column (250 x 4.6 mm) with a mobile phase containing a gradient mixture of sodium acetate trihydrate solution and acetonitrile with a flow rate of 1 mL/min, detec- tion at 254 nm. A simple preparative and LC-MS method were applied for the isolation and identifi...


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