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PubMed Journals Articles About "Antiretrovirals" RSS

15:19 EST 20th November 2018 | BioPortfolio

Antiretrovirals PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Antiretrovirals articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "antiretrovirals" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 29

Aspects related to the use of antiretrovirals in high complexity patients in the state of Rio de Janeiro.

Treatment of AIDS involves the use of the cocktail of drugs that make up the antiretroviral therapy. Its logistic control is monitored by a computerized national system of dispensation, the Logistic Control System of Medication (SICLOM). This study aimed to investigate, by means of SICLOM data, the use of antiretroviral therapy in patients treated at two University Hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro. A cross-sectional study was conducted with sociodemographic and dispensation data collected from SICLO...


A three-in-one, long-acting, nanosuspension reformulation of off-patent antiretrovirals for low-income and middle-income countries.

Predicted antiviral activity of tenofovir versus abacavir in combination with a cytosine analogue and the integrase inhibitor dolutegravir in HIV-1-infected South African patients initiating or failing first-line ART.

The WHO recently recommended the use of a new first-line ART containing dolutegravir. We investigated the efficacy of NRTI backbones (tenofovir or abacavir with a cytosine analogue) in low- and middle-income countries where there is significant prior exposure to antiretrovirals and drug resistance to NRTIs.


Differential extracellular, but similar intracellular, disposition of two tenofovir formulations in the male genital tract.

The male genital tract (MGT) is a viral sanctuary and likely HIV reservoir; understanding MGT pharmacokinetics (PK) of antiretrovirals (ARVs) used for curative strategies is critical to eradication and cure. Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is a tenofovir (TFV) formulation designed to maximize efficacy/minimize toxicity with unknown MGT PK.

Antiretroviral Concentrations and Surrogate Measures of Efficacy in the Brain Tissue and CSF of Preclinical Species.

1. Antiretroviral concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are used as surrogate for brain tissue, although sparse data support this. We quantified antiretrovirals in brain tissue across preclinical models, compared them to CSF, and calculated 90% inhibitory quotients (IQ) for nonhuman primate (NHP) brain tissue. Spatial distribution of efavirenz was performed by mass-spectrometry imaging (MSI). 2. HIV or RT-SHIV-infected and uninfected animals from two humanized mouse models (hemopoietic-stem cell/RAG2-...

Achieving Sustainable Development Goals for HIV/AIDS in the Republic of Congo - Progress, Obstacles and Challenges in HIV/AIDS Health Services.

The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic continues to be a major global public health issue. Since 2012, there has been a paucity of information from the RoC on HIV incidence and prevalence rates, national HIV program effectiveness, HAART rollout, patient adherence to treatment, operational and basic science research studies on HIV/AIDS, and donor funding and its impact from the RoC. We conducted a review of the existing literature on HIV in the RoC focused our review on prevalence trends, effectiven...

Chemical profiling of the street cocktail drug 'nyaope' in South Africa using GC-MS I: Stability studies of components of 'nyaope' in organic solvents.

Nyaope, a street drug commonly found in South Africa, is a mixture of low grade heroin, cannabis products, antiretroviral drugs and other materials added as cutting agents. It is a highly physiologically addictive substance which is smoked by users. Little work has been published on the chemical analysis and profiling of nyaope. Sample preparation prior to chromatographic or spectrometric analysis normally involves dissolution of the sample in an organic solvent. This study determined the most suitable orga...

Pharmacokinetic testing of a first generation cabotegravir prodrug in rhesus macaques.

Long-acting antiretrovirals can improve therapy and prevention for HIV-1 infection. Current long-acting cabotegravir (CAB LAP) can be administered every other month. Previously, we demonstrated that a myristoylated CAB prodrug encased in poloxamer 407 provided extended plasma drug concentrations. We now demonstrate that this first-generation nanoformulated prodrug can sustain plasma CAB concentrations above the PA-IC90 for four months in rhesus macaques. A 2.5-fold extension in CAB half-life and a 1.6-fold ...

Congenital Cytomegalovirus and HIV Perinatal Transmission.

Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection (cCMV) is an important cause of hearing loss and cognitive impairment. Prior studies suggest that HIV-exposed children are at higher risk of acquiring cCMV. We assessed the presence, magnitude and risk factors associated with cCMV among infants born to HIV-infected women, who were not receiving antiretrovirals during pregnancy.

Antiretroviral concentrations in hair strongly predict virologic response in a large HIV treatment-naive clinical trial.

Hair concentrations of antiretrovirals are associated with virologic outcomes in cohorts of HIV-positive individuals but have never before been examined in a clinical trial. We show for the first time the predictive utility of hair antiretroviral concentrations in a large HIV treatment-naïve trial, AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) protocol A5257.

Intimate partner violence and prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV: Evidence from Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a risk factor for non-adherence to HIV treatment for women, however the evidence on the impact of IPV on uptake of the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) cascade is inconclusive. We examined data from 433 HIV positive pregnant women in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, enrolled between April 2013 and August 2014 and followed-up through 6 weeks postpartum. Participants were asked about their IPV experiences in a face-to-face interview at enrollm...

Environmental fate and ecotoxicological effects of antiretrovirals: A current global status and future perspectives.

The therapeutic efficacy of antiretroviral drugs as well as challenges and side effects against the human immunodeficiency virus is well documented and reviewed. Evidence is available in literature indication that antiretrovirals are only partially transformed and become completely excreted from the human body in their original form and/or as metabolites in urine and feces. The possibility of massive release of antiretrovirals through human excreta that enters surface water through surface runoff and wastew...

Intravaginal rings for continuous low-dose administration of cervical ripening agents.

Intravaginal rings (VRs) have been widely reported for administration of pharmaceutical drugs - most notably estrogens, progestogens and antiretrovirals - to the vagina for clinical benefit. Here, for the first time, we describe the design, manufacture and preclinical testing of VRs for sustained/controlled release of the cervical ripening agents isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN) and misoprostol (MP), either singly or in combination. Matrix-type silicone elastomer VRs containing ISMN showed declining daily rele...

Teleconsultation for the Pharmaceutical Care of HIV Outpatients in Receipt of Home Antiretrovirals Delivery: Clinical, Economic, and Patient-Perceived Quality Analysis.

Background/Introduction: Pharmacist teleconsultations, combined with home drug delivery or mail-order pharmacy (MOP), can help hospital outpatients with difficulties accessing treatment. The objectives of this study are to describe a teleconsultation protocol and to evaluate clinical, economic, and patient-perceived quality results.

Dopamine and its receptors play a role in the modulation of CCR5 expression in innate immune cells following exposure to Methamphetamine: Implications to HIV infection.

The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infects cells in the Central Nervous System (CNS), where the access of antiretrovirals and antibodies that can kill the virus may be challenging. As a result of the early HIV entry in the brain, infected individuals develop inflammation and neurological deficits at various levels, which are aggravated by drugs of abuse. In the non-human primate model of HIV, we have previously shown that drugs of abuse such as Methamphetamine (Meth) increase brain viral load in correla...

Pharmacology of Antiretrovirals in the Female Genital Track for HIV Prevention.

Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a powerful tool that, as part of a comprehensive prevention package, has potential to significantly impact the HIV epidemic. PrEP effectiveness is believed to be dependent on the exposure and efficacy of antiretrovirals at the site of HIV transmission. Clinical trial results as well as modeling and simulation indicate the threshold of adherence required for PrEP efficacy of emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate may differ between sites of HIV transmission with less fo...

Tenofovir and tenofovir-diphosphate concentrations during pregnancy among HIV-uninfected women using oral pre-exposure prophylaxis.

Pregnancy is a time of increased HIV acquisition risk and pregnancy reduces concentrations of antiretrovirals used for treatment. We assessed whether pregnancy lowers concentrations of tenofovir (TFV) and tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) among HIV-uninfected women using oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).

Non-Natural Linker Configuration in 2,6-Dipeptidyl-Anthraquinones Enhances the Inhibition of TAR RNA Binding/Annealing Activities by HIV-1 NC and Tat Proteins.

The HIV-1 nucleocapsid (NC) protein represents an excellent molecular target for the development of antiretrovirals by virtue of its well-characterized chaperone activities, which play pivotal roles in essential steps of the viral life cycle. Our ongoing search for candidates able to impair NC binding/annealing activities led to the identification of peptidyl-anthraquinones as a promising class of nucleic acid ligands. Seeking to elucidate the inhibition determinants and increase the potency of this class o...

Efficacy of Vaginally Administered Gel Containing Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Against Repeated Rectal SHIV Exposures in Macaques.

Vaginal microbicides containing antiretrovirals (ARV) have shown to prevent vaginally acquired HIV but these products may not protect women who engage in anal sex. Intravaginal dosing with ARVs have shown to result in drug exposures in rectal tissues, thus raising the possibility of dual compartment protection. To test this concept, we investigated whether intravaginal dosing with emtricitabine (FTC)-tenofovir (TFV) gel, which fully protected macaques against repeated vaginal exposures to simian human immun...

Nanotechnological foundations of a «new» Nephrology.

After contextualising the generic frameworks of nanotechnology and nanomedicine, the 2disciplines are discussed in the field of Nephrology. The potential downside to nanonephrology is the renal clearance of nanoparticles, the use of which is ever-increasing both for nanomedicinal purposes and in nanofoods. The positive impact of nanotechnology in Nephrology is centred on the development of renal nanodiagnostics for basic renal function studies, the early diagnosis of acute kidney injury, reliable and simple...

Pharmacogenetic associations with cytochrome P450 in antiretroviral therapy: what does the future hold?

Several antiretroviral drugs used to treat infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are substrates of enzymes belonging to the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily, which are polymorphically expressed. It may therefore be useful to take into account the genetic variation in these enzymes to predict the likelihood of anti-HIV treatment success, toxicity and the potential for drug-drug interactions. Areas covered: In this manuscript, the authors discuss the current state of knowledge regarding pharm...

Hollow mesoporous structured molecularly imprinted polymer as adsorbent in pipette-tip solid-phase extraction for the determination of antiretrovirals from plasma of HIV-infected patients.

In this work a hollow mesoporous structured molecularly imprinted polymer was synthetized and used as adsorbent in pipette-tip solid-phase extraction for the determination of lamivudine (3TC), zidovudine (AZT) and efavirenz (EFZ) from plasma of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All parameters that influence the recovery of the pipette tip based on hollow mesoporous molecularly imprinted polymer solid-phase extraction (PT-HM-MIP-SPE) method...

Occurrence, fate and removal of pharmaceuticals, personal care products and pesticides in wastewater stabilization ponds and receiving rivers in the Nzoia Basin, Kenya.

Although there is increased global environmental concern about emerging organic micropollutants (EOMPs) such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs) and polar pesticides, limited information is available on their occurrence in Africa. This study presents unique data on concentrations and loads of 31 PPCPs and 10 pesticides in four wastewater stabilization ponds (WSPs) and receiving rivers (flowing through urban centres) in Kenya. The WSPs indicate a high potential to remove pharmaceutically activ...

The transition to dolutegravir and other new antiretrovirals in low- and middle-income countries - what are the issues?

: There are currently approximately 16 million people taking NNRTI-based first-line treatment in low- and middle-income countries. Most of these patients are using the combination of tenofovir (TDF), lamivudine (3TC) and efavirenz (EFV). The integrase inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) has shown an improved safety profile compared to EFV in randomised studies. DTG also has a high barrier to development of drug resistance. New co-formulated tablets with TDF/3TC/DTG are being introduced into LMICs, for a median pri...

HIV aspartyl protease inhibitors modify the percentage of activated leukocytes, as well as serum levels of IL-17A and NO during experimental leishmaniasis.

HIV aspartyl protease inhibitors are able to modulate multiple defense mechanisms. However, their influence on the immune response against Leishmania has rarely been investigated. The aim of our study was to investigate whether in vivo treatment with HIV aspartyl protease inhibitors is able to modulate the immune response during Leishmania infection. Using Leishmania (L.) amazonensis-infected mice, we analyzed the disease evolution and parasite load, immunophenotypic profiles of splenic T and B lymphocytes,...


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