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PubMed Journals Articles About "Arms Race Between Bacteria Their Phage Foes" RSS

23:56 EST 16th February 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "arms race between bacteria their phage foes" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 4,400+

Therapeutic applications of lytic phages in human medicine.

The emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria constitute a critical issue for modern medicine. Patients with antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections consume more healthcare resources and have worse clinical outcomes than patients with antibiotic-sensitive bacterial infections. Phages are natural predators of bacteria and may therefore be a source of useful antibacterial drugs. Phage therapy possess availability for oral administration, penetration through the bacteria cell wall, and eradicatio...


Trans-kingdom RNA interactions drive the evolutionary arms race between hosts and pathogens.

Trans-kingdom RNA plays a key role in host-parasite interactions. Hosts export specific endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs) into pathogens to target pathogen virulence genes and inhibit their invasion. In addition, trans-kingdom sRNAs produced by parasites may function as RNA effectors to suppress host immunity. Here, we summarize recent, important findings regarding trans-kingdom RNA and focus on the roles of trans-kingdom RNA in driving an evolutionary arms race between host and pathogen. We suggest that trans-...

A climate intelligence arms race in financial markets.


Complete genome sequence of the novel phage vB_BthS-HD29phi infecting Bacillus thuringiensis.

The phage vB_BthS-HD29phi infecting Bacillus thuringiensis strain HD29 was isolated and purified. The morphology of the phage showed that it belongs to the family Siphoviridae. The phage genome was 32,181 bp in length, comprised linear double-stranded DNA with an average G + C content of 34.9%, and exhibited low similarity to known phage genomes. Genomic and phylogenetic analysis revealed that vB_BthS-HD29phi is a novel phage. In total, 50 putative ORFs were predicted in the phage genome, and only 18 O...

Analysis of genetic recombination and the pan-genome of a highly recombinogenic bacteriophage species.

Bacteriophages are the most prevalent biological entities impacting on the ecosystem and are characterized by their extensive diversity. However, there are two aspects of phages that have remained largely unexplored: genetic flux by recombination between phage populations and characterization of specific phages in terms of the pan-genome. Here, we examined the recombination and pan-genome in Helicobacter pylori prophages at both the genome and gene level. In the genome-level analysis, we applied, for the fi...

A Wolf in Sheep's Clothing: Chromosomal Pathogenicity Islands Co-opt Phage Capsids to Facilitate Horizontal Spread.

Fillol-Salom et al. describe a mechanism by which an Escherichia coli pathogenicity island is preferentially packaged into a phage particle, thus promoting the spread of pathogenic traits among Gram-negative bacteria while protecting them from lytic infection.

Plants make galls to accommodate foreigners: some are friends, most are foes.

At the colonization site of a foreign entity, plant cells alter their trajectory of growth and development. The resulting structure - a plant gall - accommodates various needs of the foreigner, which are phylogenetically diverse: viruses, bacteria, protozoa, oomycetes, true fungi, parasitic plants, and many types of animals, including rotifers, nematodes, insects, and mites. The plant species that make galls also are diverse. We assume gall production costs the plant. All is well if the foreigner provides a...

Resistance mechanisms adopted by a Salmonella Typhimurium mutant against bacteriophage.

Bacteriophages have key roles in regulating bacterial populations in most habitats. A Salmonella Typhimurium mutant (N18) with impaired sensitivity to phage fmb-p1 was obtained and examined, the adsorption efficiency of fmb-p1 to N18 was reduced to 6%, compared to more than 97% for wild type S. Typhimurium CMCC50115. Reduced adsorption was accompanied by a reduction of 90% in the LPS content compared to wild type. Electron microscopy showed phage scattered around N18 with minimal engagement, while the phage...

The Diversification of Cell Death and Immunity: Memento Mori.

Why do cells have so many ways to die? Why does "cellular suicide" exist at all? In the war against pathogens and rogue cells, organisms developed cellular suicide as a last resort. Fighting an evolutionary arms race, cell death pathways have adapted and multiplied to cover the complexity of the foes the immune system faces. In this review, we discuss the different types of cell death, the underlying signaling events, and their unequal ability to trigger an immune response. We also comment on how to use our...

Inhibitory effect of a combination with novel jumbo bacteriophages ΦMV-1 and ΦMV-4 on Morganella morganii subsp. morganii growth and histamine accumulation.

Histamine (scombroid) poisoning is a foodborne illness caused by ingestion of histamine-contaminated seafood; therefore, inhibition of the growth of histamine-producing bacteria is key for it prevention. Infection of pathogenic bacteria by bacteriophages (phages) is being developed to prevent multiple foodborne illnesses. Here, we describe the inhibitory effect of a phage mixture on growth and histamine accumulation of Morganella morganii subsp. morganii, the primary causative agent of histamine poisoning i...

Phage resistance evolution in vitro is not reflective of in vivo outcome in a plant-bacteria-phage system.

The evolution of resistance to parasites is fundamentally important to disease ecology, yet we remain unable to predict when and how resistance will evolve. This is largely due to the context-dependent nature of host-parasite interactions, as the benefit of resistance will depend on the abiotic and biotic environment. Through experimental evolution of the plant pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae and two lytic bacteriophages across two different environments (high-nutrient media and the tomato leaf ap...

Bio-hybrid gold nanoparticles as SERS probe for rapid bacteria cell identification.

This study reports the utilization of engineered molecular networks between bacteriophage (or phage) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) prepared ablating a high purity gold target in water by nanosecond laser source. Gold colloids are assembled with P9b phage clone, displaying the specific peptide (QRKLAAKLT), able to bind P. aeruginosa. The single components and assembled systems were characterized by spectroscopic and electronic techniques, such as the conventional optical absorption and micro-Raman spectrosc...

Phage-Guided Targeting, Discriminated Imaging and Synergistic Killing of Bacteria by AIE Bioconjugates.

New agents with particular specificity toward targeted bacteria and super efficacy in antibacterial activity, are urgently needed in facing the crisis of worldwide antibiotic resistance. Herein, a novel strategy by equipping bacteriophage (PAP) with photodynamic inactivation (PDI)-active AIEgens (luminogens with aggregation-induced emission property) was presented to generate a type of AIE-PAP bioconjugates with superior capability for both targeted imaging and synergistic killing of certain species of bact...

Cas13 Helps Bacteria Play Dead when the Enemy Strikes.

How RNA-targeting CRISPR-Cas13 functions as a phage defense system has been mysterious. Recently in Nature, Meeske et al. (2019) demonstrate that Cas13 provides potent immunity to dsDNA phages without cutting their genome. By sensing phage transcripts and destroying RNA nonspecifically to arrest the cell into dormancy, Cas13 provides herd immunity.

Cyclic GMP-AMP signalling protects bacteria against viral infection.

The cGAS-STING pathway is a central component of the cell-autonomous innate immune system in animals. The cGAS protein (cyclic GMP-AMP synthase) is a sensor of cytosolic viral DNA and, upon DNA sensing, produces a cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) signalling molecule that binds the STING protein and activates the immune response. cGAMP production has also been detected in bacteria, and in Vibrio cholerae has been shown to activate a phospholipase that degrades the inner bacterial membrane; however, its biological role...

Learning from Antibodies: Phage Host-Range Engineering.

In a recent Cell paper, Yehl et al., 2019 find that bacteriophage T3 binds its host via four distal loops on the tail fiber. Randomization of these regions yield bacteriophage libraries capable of infecting resistant bacteria and preventing further resistance. These strategies may generate phage capable of infecting new hosts.

Viral Satellites Exploit Phage Proteins to Escape Degradation of the Bacterial Host Chromosome.

Phage defense systems are often found on mobile genetic elements (MGEs), where they constitutively defend against invaders or are induced to respond to new assaults. Phage satellites, one type of MGE, are induced during phage infection to promote their own transmission, reducing phage production and protecting their hosts in the process. One such satellite in Vibrio cholerae, phage-inducible chromosomal island-like element (PLE), sabotages the lytic phage ICP1, which triggers PLE excision from the bacterial...

How pirate phage interferes with helper phage: Comparison of the two distinct strategies.

Pirate phages use the structural proteins encoded by unrelated helper phages to propagate. The best-studied example is the pirate P4 and helper P2 of coliphages, and it has been known that the Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPIs) that can encode virulence factors act as pirate phages, too. When alone in the host, the pirate phages act as a prophage, but when the helper phage gene is also in the same host cell, the pirate phage has ability to exploit the helper phages structural proteins to pr...

Sex pilus specific bacteriophage to drive bacterial population towards antibiotic sensitivity.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is now a major global problem largely resulting from the overuse of antibiotics in humans and livestock. In some AMR bacteria, resistance is encoded by conjugative plasmids expressing sex-pili that can readily spread resistance through bacterial populations. The aim of this study was to use sex pilus-specific (SPS) phage to reduce the carriage of AMR plasmids. Here, we demonstrate that SPS phage can kill AMR Escherichia coli and select for AMR plasmid loss in vitro. For the fi...

Approaches to optimize therapeutic bacteriophage and bacteriophage-derived products to combat bacterial infections.

The emerging occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens leads to a recollection of bacteriophage as antimicrobial therapeutics. This article presents a short overview of the clinical phage application including their use in military medicine and discusses the genotypic and phenotypic properties of a potential "ideal" therapeutic phage. We describe current efforts to engineer phage for their improved usability in pathogen treatment. In addition, phage can be applied for pathogen detection, select...

MYCELIAL EFFECTS ON PHAGE RETENTION DURING TRANSPORT IN A MICROFLUIDIC PLATFORM.

Phages (i.e. viruses that infect bacteria) have been considered as good tracers for the hydrological transport of colloids and (pathogenic) viruses. Little, however, is known about interactions of phages with (fungal) mycelia as the prevalent soil microbial biomass. Forming extensive and dense networks, mycelia provide significant surfaces for phage-hyphal interactions. Here, we for the first time quantified the mycelial retention of phages in a microfluidic platform that allowed for defined fluid exchange ...

Symbiotic bacteria of plant-associated fungi: friends or foes?

Many bacteria form symbiotic associations with plant-associated fungi. The effects of these symbionts on host fitness usually depend on symbiont or host genotypes and environmental conditions. However, bacterial endosymbionts, that is those living within fungal cells, may positively regulate host performance as their survival is often heavily dependent on host fitness. Contrary to this, bacteria that establish ectosymbiotic associations with fungi, that is those located on the hyphal surface or in close vic...

Efficacy of a phage cocktail in controlling phage resistance development in multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

The control and treatment of multidrug resistant pathogens infections has become a grand challenge for clinicians worldwide. Virulent phage has long been considered as an effective bactericidal agent, which may be a potentially alternative to antibiotics. However, the rapid development of phage resistance seriously hinders the wide and continuous application of virulent phages. In this study, Acinetobacter baumannii phage vB_AbaS_D0 was isolated, characterized and used to control the phage resistance develo...

The synergy of chemical immobilization and electrical orientation of T4 bacteriophage on a micro electrochemical sensor for low-level viable bacteria detection via Differential Pulse Voltammetry.

In this work, a wild-type T4 bacteriophage based micro electrochemical sensor (T4B-MES) was developed for specific and sensitive detection of viable pathogenic bacteria. Recently, bacteriophage has been widely applied as recognition elements for bacteria detection due to its low cost, high stability and specificity. Firstly, a systematic study was proposed in this paper to investigate the synergy of externally applied electric field and chemical functionalization on phage immobilization, involving several k...

Engineering Phage Host-Range and Suppressing Bacterial Resistance through Phage Tail Fiber Mutagenesis.

The rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant infections is prompting increased interest in phage-based antimicrobials. However, acquisition of resistance by bacteria is a major issue in the successful development of phage therapies. Through natural evolution and structural modeling, we identified host-range-determining regions (HRDRs) in the T3 phage tail fiber protein and developed a high-throughput strategy to genetically engineer these regions through site-directed mutagenesis. Inspired by antibody specif...


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