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Cholesterol Cardiovascular PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Cholesterol Cardiovascular articles that have been published worldwide.
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Cholesterol is a common nutrient in the human diet and eggs are a major source of dietary cholesterol. Whether dietary cholesterol or egg consumption is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality remains controversial.
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is one major cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review, we discuss current developments in the understanding of LDL-C as lifelong risk factor, treatment targets, and emerging approaches to reduce cardiovascular risk by lowering LDL-C.
Extremely high level high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol had been cautioned as risk factor for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease. However, both the physician and the patient may underestimate the risk due to the emphasis on "good cholesterol", resulting in passive treatment or adoption of a less healthy lifestyle. The aim of this study is to re-evaluate the association with longitudinal data to account for fluctuations in HDL cholesterol and covariates.
Cardiovascular disease, with atherosclerosis as the major underlying factor, remains the leading cause of death worldwide. It is well established that cholesterol ester-enriched foam cells are the hallmark of atherosclerotic plaques. Multiple lines of evidence support that enhancing foam cell cholesterol efflux by HDL (high-density lipoprotein) particles, the first step of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), is a promising antiatherogenic strategy. Yet, excitement towards the therapeutic potential of manip...
High LDL-cholesterol concentrations constitute a risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. By consensus, cholesterol-lowering therapy is initiated with a statin that reduces endogenous cholesterol synthesis, upregulates hepatic LDL receptor activity, increases LDL clearance and lowers LDL-cholesterol concentrations in the bloodstream. The efficacy of statin treatment is dose dependent and achieves a risk reduction of up to 50%. However, a substantial body of evidence suggests that a quarter of statin...
This debate is designed to review the usefulness of the cholesterol mass within high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C) to predict the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). PRO: There is much current confusion regarding the role of high density lipoproteins (HDLs) in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). While it is an established fact that the concentration of HDL cholesterol is a robust, independent, inverse predictor of the risk of having an ASCVD event, recent studies have question...
The conversion of cholesterol to bile acids (BAs) contributes to the elimination of total cholesterol from the body. In addition, manipulating BA homeostasis by modulating cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) may affect the metabolic processing of cholesterol, exerting therapeutic effects on hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular diseases. Multiple mechanisms (such as various nuclear receptors and regulatory factors) are involved in CYP7A1 modulation. Recently, microRNAs, protein degradation pathways, and ...
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Despite the clinical long-term and near-term benefits of lowering cholesterol in, respectively, primary and secondary prevention of ASCVD, cholesterol levels remain under-treated, with many patients not achieving their recommended targets. The present article will review the latest updates on lipid management with emphases on the different classes of cholesterol-lowering agents and their clinical uses.
American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guidelines prioritize primary prevention statin therapy based on 10-year absolute risk (AR10) of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, given the same AR10, patients with higher levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) experience greater absolute risk reduction from statin therapy.
Variability in lipid levels has been associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) variability can be used to predict cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).
The 2018 American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) cholesterol guidelines are a comprehensive update providing recommendations for management of patients with high blood cholesterol based on the best available evidence. This review highlights key topics clinicians need to know for the primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) based on the 2018 ACC/AHA cholesterol guidelines.
Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affects an estimate of 450 million individuals. Hence, there remains an urgent need to explore the use of novel biomarkers with the aim of preventing and managing cardiovascular risk among these individuals. Hallmarks of this condition are lipid and glucose dyshomeostasis which are accompanied by a prothrombotic phenotype; these pose as eminent links between T2DM and cardiovascular disease. Diabetic dyslipidemia affects not only plasma lipid profiles but extends further into...
Elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in early adulthood is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). The strength of the association between LDL-C and ASCVD among older adults, however, is less understood.
Lowering total and, in particular, LDL cholesterol reduces cardiovascular risk and clinical events. Cholesterol-lowering strategies are manifold. Better diets and positive lifestyle changes are the foremost approach; the use of functional foods, of food supplements/nutraceuticals, and pharmacological treatment must be considered in patients with increasing lipid abnormalities and or increasing cardiovascular risk. Here, we briefly review the most frequently occurring cholesterol-lowering substances found in...
Postmenopausal women are at higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) than their younger counterparts. HDL cholesterol is a biomarker for CVD risk, but the function of HDL may be more important than HDL cholesterol in deciphering disease risk. Although diet continues to be a cornerstone of treatment and prevention of CVD, little is known about how diet affects the functionality of HDL.
The PCSK9 inhibitor evolocumab reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and first cardiovascular events in the Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research With PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects With Elevated Risk (FOURIER) trial, but patients remain at high risk of recurrent cardiovascular events.
The new Dutch guideline on cardiovascular risk management has lowered the target value for LDL cholesterol from 2.5 to 1.8 mmol/L. The authors claim transparency, yet there is no hard scientific evidence that supports this new target value. There is only a theoretical model developed by theCholesterol Treatment Trialists' (CTT) Collaboration Group. This group has the raw data of the cholesterol trials and they have signed confidentiality agreements with manufacturers stating that they will not share this da...
Epidemiological data showing that high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is inversely associated with cardiovascular disease have led to the idea that cholesterol contained in this lipoprotein may be protective. Against, recent evidence suggests that the athero-protection from HDLs may result from other functions, unrelated to the carried cholesterol. HDL accessory proteins, such as paraoxonase 1 (PON1), have been suggested to endows HDL with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and to contrib...
Elevated serum lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels are associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages is believed to be an anti-atherogenic process. We recently identified plasminogen as a driver of ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux and showed that its action is inhibited by purified human Lp(a).
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) functionality and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) atherogenic traits can describe the role of both particles on cardiovascular diseases more accurately than HDL- or LDL-cholesterol levels. However, it is unclear how these lipoprotein properties are particularly affected by different cardiovascular risk factors.
Measuring cholesterol efflux involves the tracking of cholesterol movement out of cells. Cholesterol efflux is an essential mechanism to maintain cellular cholesterol homeostasis, and this process is largely regulated via the LXR transcription factors and their regulated genes, the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) cholesterol transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1. Typically, efflux assays are performed utilizing radiolabeled cholesterol tracers to label intracellular cholesterol pools, and these assays may be tailored to ...
Exercise is advocated in the management of type 1 diabetes (T1D), but the effects of different forms of exercise training on cardiovascular risk factors in T1D still remain unclear. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on exercise training for cardiovascular risk factors in T1D. Six electronic databases were systematically searched for randomized or non-randomized controlled studies reporting associations between exercise training and cardiovascular risk factors in T1D....
Hypertriglyceridaemia is a common finding in medical practice. The reduction of triglyceride levels may contribute to reduce the cardiovascular risk (at least in patients with low HDL cholesterol) and to avoid the occurrence of acute pancreatitis (in case of severe hypertriglyceridaemia). The discovery of causes of hypertriglyceridaemia (comorbidities, medications) may lead to specific measures. Otherwise, the focus should be put on dietary advises first (reduced caloric intake to promote weight loss, less ...
In patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), guidelines recommend statins as first-line lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) with addition of nonstatin agents in those with persistently elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.
Cholesterol plays an important role in cancer development. Both clinical and experimental studies have found that hypercholesterolemia and a high-fat high-cholesterol diet can affect cancer development. External cholesterol can directly activate the oncogenic Hedgehog pathway, and internal cholesterol can induce mTORC1 signaling. Cholesterol is a key component of lipid rafts, which are the major platforms for signaling regulation in cancer, and chelating membrane cholesterol is an effective anti-cancer stra...