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Showing "cigarettes just your lungs smoke study funds Zealand" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 60,000+

The relationship between cigarettes and electronic cigarettes: Evidence from household panel data.

We use the Nielsen Consumer Panel to investigate the impact of tobacco control policies on purchases of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), cigarettes, and smoking cessation products. We measure product quantity, product type, nicotine content, and liquid volume of e-cigarettes, and product quantity and nicotine content of cigarettes. Higher cigarette excise taxes decrease both cigarette and e-cigarette purchases, suggesting that cigarettes and e-cigarettes are complements, and higher cigarette excise tax...

E-cigarettes in airports and on flights: Europe and the US.

While progress has been made to create smoke-free airports, sales of e-cigarettes at airports and airplanes and the presence of advertisements might detract from these smoke-free policies. The objective of this study is to describe the presence of policies, advertising, sales and use of e-cigarettes in airports and on flights in Europe and the US.

Adolescent dual-product users: Acquisition and situational use of cigarettes and cigars.

Little is known about how adolescents who smoke both cigarettes and cigar products obtain and use these products. This study sought to explore cigarette and cigar acquisition and situational use among high school smokers.

Investigation and comparison of the transfer of TSNA from tobacco to cigarette mainstream smoke and to the aerosol of a heated tobacco product, THS2.2.

Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) levels in tobacco cut filler and cigarette smoke were measured in more than 1000 commercially available cigarettes sampled between 2008 and 2014. Relative contributions to their transfer from tobacco to the mainstream smoke in terms of direct transfer by distillation, pyrorelease, and pyrosynthesis were evaluated on the basis of the comparison with the transfer of nicotine from tobacco to smoke. N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) was transferred essentially by distillation, whi...

Harm perceptions of electronic cigarettes and nicotine: A nationally representative cross-sectional survey of young people in Great Britain.

E-cigarettes often contain nicotine without the most harmful constituents of tobacco smoke.

Differences in nicotine dependence, smoke exposure and consumer characteristics between smokers of machine-injected roll-your-own cigarettes and factory-made cigarettes.

Consumption of machine-injected roll-your-own (RYO) filtered cigarettes made from pipe tobacco increased almost 7-fold from 2008 to 2011 in the United States.

Exposure to Cadmium and Lead in Cigarette Smokers Who Switched to Electronic Cigarettes.

E-cigarettes (ECs) seem to be a less harmful alternative for conventional cigarettes. This study aimed to assess whether the generated aerosols from ECs contain lower amount of Cd and Pb than cigarette smoke and to detect any changes in exposure to cadmium and lead among cigarette smokers who switched completely or partially to EC.

Effect of Immediate vs Gradual Reduction in Nicotine Content of Cigarettes on Biomarkers of Smoke Exposure: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

The optimal temporal approach for reducing nicotine to minimally or nonaddictive levels in all cigarettes sold in the United States has not been determined.

"Electronic Cigarettes" are not Cigarettes, and why that Matters.

With research about electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) rapidly increasing, this commentary addresses the conceptualization of e-cigarettes as similar to traditional cigarettes. The more we attempt to understand and measure e-cigarettes as equivalent to cigarettes, the more likely research may err in conclusions about these unique devices. Our commentary notes how using unique conceptualizations and measures for e-cigarettes will help accelerate new research.

E-cigarettes: voltage- and concentration-dependent loss in human lung adenocarcinoma viability.

E-cigarettes are used by millions of people despite the fact that the harmful effect of aerosol emitted from these products to the human organism is still not clear. In this paper, toxicity of vapor generated using different solutions and battery output voltage on A549 cells viability is presented. The obtained EC values for commercially available propylene glycol/glycerol solution 1:1 e-liquids based on 3.2 V (0.127%), 4.0 V (0.112%) and 4.8 V (0.038%) were about 1.5-4.5 times higher than in tobacco smo...

Differential expression of HSPs and activation of MAPKs in A549 alveolar epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke extract.

What is the central question of this study? Cigarette smoking is associated with increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in lungs. Our aim was to examine the effect of cigarette smoke on cell death, oxidative damage, expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in A549 alveolar epithelial cells. What is the main finding and its importance? Cigarette smoke induces cytotoxicity and oxidative damage to A549 cells, increases expression of different HSPs a...

Smoking-related weight and appetite concerns and use of electronic cigarettes among daily cigarette smokers.

Weight control is a common motive for cigarette smoking.  Some individuals also report using electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) for weight control.  This study tested the hypothesis that the tendency to use combustible cigarettes for weight/appetite control would be associated with higher odds of current e-cigarette use among adult daily combustible cigarette smokers. Participants (n = 577; M = 44.42; 52.7% female) were recruited to participate in an online survey. Smoking for weight/appetite control ...

Genotoxic Impact of Long-term Cigarette and Waterpipe Smoking on DNA Damage and Oxidative Stress in Healthy Subjects.

Although a plethora of studies have examined tobacco smoke-cancer disease association, the involvement of cellular genetic toxicity remains unclear. Therefore, the present study provides molecular evidence for a pathway involved in the DNA damage induced by long-term cigarette and Waterpipe smoke in human subjects. The study population consisted of 45 subjects who were divided into three groups; healthy non-smokers group, cigarette-smokers group, and Waterpipe-smokers group. A questionnaire and consent form...

Effects of tobacco smoke and electronic cigarette vapor exposure on the oral and gut microbiota in humans: a pilot study.

The use of electronic cigarettes (ECs) has increased drastically over the past five years, primarily as an alternative to smoking tobacco cigarettes. However, the adverse effects of acute and long-term use of ECs on the microbiota have not been explored. In this pilot study, we sought to determine if ECs or tobacco smoking alter the oral and gut microbiota in comparison to non-smoking controls.

Characterisation of the Spatial and Temporal Dispersion Differences between Exhaled e-cigarette mist and Cigarette Smoke.

There are fundamental differences between e-cigarettes and conventional cigarette product categories with regards to potential environmental exposures, notably that e-cigarettes do not contain tobacco or generate side-stream emissions. Here we assess the spatial and temporal patterns of exhaled e-cigarette aerosol at a bystander's position, and compare it with conventional cigarette smoke emissions.

Cardioprotective effects of physical exercise on redox biology in mice exposed to hand-rolled cornhusk cigarette smoke.

The present study sought to evaluate the effects of physical training on histological parameters and oxidative stress in the myocardium of mice chronically exposed to hand-rolled cornhusk cigarette (HRCC) smoke. Male Swiss mice (60 days old, 30-35 g) were either exposed to ambient air or passively exposed to the smoke of 12 cigarettes daily over 3 sessions (4 cigarettes per session) for 60 consecutive days with or without physical training for 8 weeks. Forty-eight hours after the last training session, th...

Estimation of compliance with exclusive smoking of very low nicotine content cigarettes using plasma cotinine.

Regulations requiring a reduction of the nicotine content in cigarettes to minimally addictive levels could significantly reduce the public health impact of cigarette smoking. Clinical trials evaluating this strategy are ongoing and methods have been developed to use nicotine biomarkers to estimate compliance with use of very low nicotine content cigarettes (VLNCs). To date, these methods have not considered the potential contribution of nicotine absorption from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) among resea...

Long-term exposure to neighborhood smoke from household heating and risk of respiratory and dermatological prescription medications - Growing Up in New Zealand child cohort study.

Knowledge and Awareness of Added Sugar in Cigarettes.

Sugars naturally occur in tobacco leaf but are also commonly added to cigarettes by tobacco companies. Added sugar increases levels of toxic chemicals in cigarette smoke. Little is known about smokers' knowledge of added sugar in cigarettes and awareness of its effects.

Constituents of "teabacco": A forensic analysis of cigarettes made from diverted nicotine replacement therapy lozenges in smoke-free prisons.

Following the implementation of prison smoke-free policies, there have been reports of prisoners creating substitute cigarettes made from nicotine replacement therapy patches or lozenges infused with tea leaves ("teabacco"). No studies have analyzed the chemical constituents of teabacco made from nicotine lozenges, so as to document any potential related health hazards. Teabacco samples were made by a participant who reported creating teabacco while incarcerated in a smoke-free prison in Queensland, Austral...

Alcohol consumption in New Zealand women before and during pregnancy: findings from the Growing Up in New Zealand study.

To examine alcohol consumption before and during pregnancy in the mothers of a contemporary sample of New Zealand children.

A fMRI study on the impact of advertising for flavored e-cigarettes on susceptible young adults.

E-cigarettes are sold in flavors such as "skittles," "strawberrylicious," and "juicy fruit," and no restrictions are in place on marketing e-cigarettes to youth. Sweets/fruits depicted in e-cigarette advertisements may increase their appeal to youth and interfere with health warnings. This study tested a brain biomarker of product preference for sweet/fruit versus tobacco flavor e-cigarettes, and whether advertising for flavors interfered with warning labels.

Advantages and disadvantages of channeling Gavi's health system strengthening funds through health partners, a case study.

Following a period of interruption of Gavi's funds for health system strengthening (HSS) in Cameroon and Chad, the two countries reprogramed their HSS grants. To implement the reprogrammed HSS, Chad committed to better management of the funds. Cameroon chose to channel the HSS funds through one of the health partners. This process is new to Gavi's HSS grants, and little is known about its effectiveness or characteristics. We investigated the advantages and disadvantages of this process to inform the global ...

Probabilistic Discrete Event Systems Modeling of Nonlinear Transitions between Electronic and Combustible Cigarette Smoking with the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey Data.

A growing number of young people smoke electronic (e-) cigarettes, presenting an emerging challenge to tobacco control. Analyses are needed to better understand the dynamics of mutual transitions between e-cigarette and conventional combustible (c-) cigarette smoking to advance evidence-based tobacco control. In this study we modeled the nonlinear dynamics of c- and e-cigarette smoking behavior transitions using the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) data. A model with five Markov-Chain transition st...

Distinctive features of polycythaemia vera in New Zealand Polynesians.

The aim of this study was to examine a potential ethnic disparity in the phenotype of polycythaemia vera (PV) between New Zealand European and Polynesian patients.

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