PubMed Journals Articles About "Edges Toward Agreed Policy Hormone Disrupting Chemicals" RSS

15:46 EST 12th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "edges toward agreed policy hormone disrupting chemicals" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 5,300+

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: Effects on neuroendocrine systems and the neurobiology of social behavior.

A contribution to SBN/ICN special issue. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are pervasive in the environment. They are found in plastics and plasticizers (bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates), in industrial chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and include some pesticides and fungicides such as vinclozolin. These chemicals act on hormone receptors and their downstream signaling pathways, and can interfere with hormone synthesis, metabolism, and actions. Because the developing brain is particul...

Concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals in newborn blood spots and infant outcomes in the upstate KIDS study.

Novel methodologies to quantify infant exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) for population-based studies are needed.

Effects of the Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals, Vinclozolin and Polychlorinated Biphenyls, on Physiological and Sociosexual Phenotypes in F2 Generation Sprague-Dawley Rats.

Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during gestation influences development of the F1 generation offspring and can result in disease and dysfunction in adulthood. Limited evidence suggests consequences on the F2 generation, exposed as germ cells within the F1 fetus. These F2s provide a unique window into the programming effects of EDCs.

Interspecies Variation Between Fish and Human Transthyretins in Their Binding of Thyroid-Disrupting Chemicals.

Thyroid-disrupting chemicals (TDCs) are xenobiotics that can interfere with the endocrine system and cause adverse effects in organisms and their offspring. TDCs affect both the thyroid gland and regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone homeostasis. Transthyretin (TTR) is found in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of vertebrates, where it transports thyroid hormones. Here we explored the interspecies variation in TDC binding to human and fish TTR (exemplified by Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata)). The...

Thyroid hormone-disrupting potentials of major benzophenones in two cell lines (GH3 and FRTL-5) and embryo-larval zebrafish.

Benzophenones (BPs) have been widely used in personal care products (PCPs) such as UV protectants. Sex endocrine-disrupting effects have been documented for some BPs, but, significant knowledge gaps are present for their thyroid-disrupting effects. To investigate the thyroid-disrupting potential of BPs, a rat pituitary (GH3) and thyroid follicle (FRTL-5) cell line were employed on six BPs, i.e., benzophenone (BP), benzophenone-1 (BP-1), benzophenone-2 (BP-2), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), benzophenone-4 (BP-4), an...

Stable and Efficient Policy Evaluation.

Policy evaluation algorithms are essential to reinforcement learning due to their ability to predict the performance of a policy. However, there are two long-standing issues lying in this prediction problem that need to be tackled: off-policy stability and on-policy efficiency. The conventional temporal difference (TD) algorithm is known to perform very well in the on-policy setting, yet is not off-policy stable. On the other hand, the gradient TD and emphatic TD algorithms are off-policy stable, but are no...

Ligninolytic enzymes: Versatile biocatalysts for the elimination of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in wastewater.

Direct municipal wastewater effluent discharge from treatment plants has been identified as the major source of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) in freshwaters. Consequently, efficient elimination of EDC in wastewater is significant to good water quality. However, conventional wastewater treatment approaches have been deficient in the complete removal of these contaminants. Hence, the exploration of new and more efficient methods for elimination of EDC in wastewater is imperative. Enzymatic treatment ap...

The evolution of the field of Health Policy and Systems Research and outstanding challenges.

We provide a historical analysis of the evolution of the field of health policy and systems research (HPSR) since 1996. In the mid-1990s, three main challenges affected HPSR, namely (1) fragmentation and lack of a single agreed definition of the field; (2) ongoing dominance of biomedical and clinical research; and (3) lack of demand for HPSR. Cross-cutting all these challenges was the problem of relatively limited capacity to undertake high quality HPSR. Our discussion analyses how these problems were addre...

Dissecting plant hormone signaling with synthetic molecules: perspective from the chemists.

Synthetic molecules can be powerful tools to overcome the limitations of the biological approaches. Especially redundancy, lethality, and intractability of the target genes, which often hamper the progress of plant science, could be bypassed by elaborately designed small molecules. In this review, we discuss how synthetic chemistry can contribute to increasing our understanding of plant hormone signaling. Specific focus will be on the visualization and hijacking of hormone signaling with novel synthetic che...

Drug policy constellations: A Habermasian approach for understanding English drug policy.

It is increasingly accepted that a view of policy as a rational process of fitting evidence-based means to rationally justified ends is inadequate for understanding the actual processes of drug policy making. We aim to provide a better description and explanation of recent English drug policy decisions.

The evaluation of endocrine disrupting effects of tert-butylphenols towards estrogenic receptor α, androgen receptor and thyroid hormone receptor β and aquatic toxicities towards freshwater organisms.

The phenolic compounds have posed public concern for potential threats to human health and ecosystem. Tert-butylphenols (TBPs), as one group of emerging contaminants, showed potential endocrine disrupting effects and aquatic toxicities. In the present study, we detected concentrations of 2,4-DTBP ranging from

Predictors of urinary phthalate biomarker concentrations in postmenopausal women.

Phthalates are ubiquitous endocrine disrupting chemicals present in a wide variety of consumer products. However, the personal characteristics associated with phthalate exposure are unclear.

Energetics and Electronic Structure of Triangular Hexagonal Boron Nitride Nanoflakes.

We studied the energetics and electronic structures of hexagonal boron nitrogen (h-BN) nanoflakes with hydrogenated edges and triangular shapes with respect to the edge atom species. Our calculations clarified that the hydrogenated h-BN nanoflakes with a triangular shape prefer the N edges rather than B edges irrespective of the flake size. The electronic structure of hydrogenated h-BN nanoflakes depends on the edge atom species and their flake size. The energy gap between the lowest unoccupied (LU) and the...

Effects of pyrethroid insecticides on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis: A reproductive health perspective.

Pyrethroids, a class of ubiquitous insecticides, have been recognized as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). A lot of studies have implied the endocrine-disrupting effects of pyrethroids on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. However, there are few review articles regarding the effects of pyrethroids on the HPG axis of mammal and human, especially new research progress made in this area. The present review sums up the effects of pyrethroids on the HPG axis-related reproductive outcomes, includ...

Transcriptomics investigation of thyroid hormone disruption in the olfactory system of the Rana Lithobates catesbeiana tadpole.

Thyroid hormones (THs) regulate vertebrate growth, development, and metabolism. Despite their importance, there is a need for effective detection of TH-disruption by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The frog olfactory system substantially remodels during TH-dependent metamorphosis and the objective of the present study is to examine olfactory system gene expression for TH biomarkers that can evaluate the biological effects of complex mixtures such as municipal wastewater. We first examine classic TH-r...

Assessing Impacts of Precocious Steroid Exposure on Thyroid Physiology and Gene Expression Patterns in the American Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

The thyroid gland is sensitive to steroid hormone signaling, and many thyroid disrupting contaminants also disrupt steroid hormone homeostasis, presenting the possibility that thyroid disruption may occur through altered steroid hormone signaling. To examine this possibility, we studied short-term and persistent impacts of embryonic sex steroid exposure on American alligator thyroid physiology. Alligators from a lake contaminated with endocrine disrupting contaminants (Lake Apopka, FL, USA) have been shown ...

Direct observation of atomic step edges on the rutile TiO(110)-(1 × 1) surface using atomic force microscopy.

Clarifying the atomic configuration of step edges on a rutile TiO2 surface is crucial for understanding its fundamental reactivity, and the direct observation of atomic step edges is still a challenge. AFM is a powerful tool for investigating surface structures with true atomic resolution, and it provides the opportunity to resolve the real structure of step edges with improved techniques. In this work, we successfully imaged the atomic configuration of 001 and 1-11 step edges on the surface of rutile TiO2(...

Endocrine disruptors and neonatal anthropometry, NICHD Fetal Growth Studies - Singletons.

Intrauterine exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been equivocally associated with birth weight, length and head circumference with limited attention to anthropometric endpoints such as umbilical circumference and limb lengths.

Exposure to environment chemicals and its possible role in endocrine disruption of children from a rural area.

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including pesticides and metals, are present in rural areas, endangering the health of exposed populations. This work aimed to investigate the possible association between the exposure to these xenobiotics and thyroid dysfunction in children living in a rural community of Southern Brazil. Fifty-four children aged 5-16 years participated in this study. Peripheral biomarker evaluations were performed in periods of low and high exposure to pesticides. Thyroid ultrasonogra...

Environmental Obesogens: Mechanisms and Controversies.

Obesity is a worldwide pandemic in adults as well as children and adds greatly to health care costs through its association with type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and cancers. The prevailing medical view of obesity is that it results from a simple imbalance between caloric intake and energy expenditure. However, numerous other factors are important in the etiology of obesity. The obesogen hypothesis proposes that environmental chemicals termed obesogens promote obesity by acting t...

Temporal evaluation of estrogenic endocrine disruption markers in smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) reveals seasonal variability in intersex.

A reconnaissance project completed in 2009 identified intersex and elevated plasma vitellogenin in male smallmouth bass inhabiting the Missisquoi River, VT. In an attempt to identify the presence and seasonality of putative endocrine disrupting chemicals or other factors associated with these observations, a comprehensive reevaluation was conducted between September 2012 and June 2014. Here, we collected smallmouth bass from three physically partitioned reaches along the river to measure biomarkers of estro...

Zürich Statement on Future Actions on Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs).

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are man-made chemicals that contain at least one perfluoroalkyl moiety, [Formula: see text]. To date, over 4,000 unique PFASs have been used in technical applications and consumer products, and some of them have been detected globally in human and wildlife biomonitoring studies. Because of their extraordinary persistence, human and environmental exposure to PFASs will be a long-term source of concern. Some PFASs such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluoroo...

Impact of Toxicant Exposures on Ovarian Gap Junctions.

Ovarian gap junctions function to provide intercellular communication between ovarian cell types and are critical for proper ovarian function. Connexons are communication channels that are comprised of connexin (CX) proteins. Connexins can be regulated through endocrine signals, thus have dynamic expression throughout the estrous cycle. Not surprisingly, ovarian function is negatively affected in mouse models deficient in Cx genes; loss of Gja4 impairs folliculogenesis while ovaries devoid of Gja1 have redu...

A combination of ternary classification models and reporter gene assays for the comprehensive thyroid hormone disruption profiles of 209 polychlorinated biphenyls.

Computational toxicology is widely applied to screen tens and thousands of potential environmental endocrine disruptors (EDCs) for its great efficiency and rapid evaluation in recent years. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with 209 congeners have not been comprehensively tested for their ability to interact with the thyroid receptor (TR), which is one of the most extensively studied targets related to the effects of EDCs. In this study, we aimed to determine the thyroid-disrupting mechanisms of 209 PCBs thr...

Prenatal exposure to phthalates and phenols and infant endocrine-sensitive outcomes: The MIREC study.

Anogenital distance (AGD) and the second to fourth finger (2D:4D) digit ratio may be early markers of in utero androgen exposure for the infant. Phthalates and phenols have been identified as endocrine disrupting chemicals.

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