PubMed Journals Articles About "Light Shed Player Brain Development" RSS

12:39 EST 13th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "light shed player brain development" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 30,000+

A primer on investigating the role of the microbiome in brain and cognitive development.

Incorporating information regarding the gut microbiota into psychobiological research promises to shed new light on how individual differences in brain and cognitive development emerge. However, the investigation of the gut-brain axis in development is still in its infancy and poses several challenges, including data analysis. Considering that the gut microbiome is an eco-system containing millions of bacteria, one needs to utilize a breadth of methodologies and data analytic techniques. The present review ...

The Meningeal Lymphatic System: A New Player in Neurophysiology.

The nature of fluid dynamics within the brain parenchyma is a focus of intensive research. Of particular relevance is its participation in diseases associated with protein accumulation and aggregation in the brain, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The meningeal lymphatic vessels have recently been recognized as an important player in the complex circulation and exchange of soluble contents between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the interstitial fluid (ISF). In aging mammals, for example, impaired functi...

Development of brain-wide connectivity architecture in awake rats.

Childhood and adolescence are both critical developmental periods, evidenced by complex neurophysiological changes the brain undergoes and high occurrence rates of neuropsychiatric disorders during these periods. Despite substantial progress in elucidating the developmental trajectories of individual neural circuits, our knowledge of developmental changes of whole-brain connectivity architecture in animals is sparse. To fill this gap, here we longitudinally acquired rsfMRI data in awake rats during five dev...

Traumatic Brain Injury due to Missile Wounds in the North of Palestine: A Single Institution's Experience with 520 Consecutive Civilian Patients.

Literature about traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to missile wounds is rather scanty. Therefore, we availed ourselves the opportunity to shed some light on this dark field.

Music and Brain Development.

When I was young, I remember my parents used to play the Beatles song "Here Comes the Sun" in the morning on the old record player. My mother helped hire the first band director at my middle school, and my father played opera in the car on my way to elementary school. I dabbled with different instruments, and played trumpet (cornet actually), flute, piccolo, oboe, English horn, and Ukulele. I also sang in several choirs and still sing today. What did all this musical influence do to my developing brain? Thi...

Robust research tools shed light on the crucial development issue of alcohol harm and enable effective policy adoption.

Human brain development and its in vitro recapitulation.

Humans have a large and gyrencephalic brain. The higher intellectual ability of humans is dependent on the proper development of the brain. Brain malformation is often associated with cognitive dysfunction. It is thus important to know how our brain grows during development. Several animal species have been used as models to understand the mechanisms of brain development, and have provided us with basic information in this regard. It has been revealed that mammalian brain development basically proceeds thro...

Epigenetic Regulation in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Mechanisms of epigenetic regulation, including DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling, and histone post-translational modifications, are involved in multiple aspects of neuronal function and development. Recent discoveries have shed light on critical functions of chromatin in the aging brain, with an emerging realization that the maintenance of a healthy brain relies heavily on epigenetic mechanisms. Here, we present recent advances, with a focus on histone modifications and the implications for several neur...

Local Auxin Biosynthesis Mediates Plant Growth and Development.

Auxin is one of the most important plant hormones controlling various aspects of plant growth and development. Here, we highlight three recent papers that shed light on how local auxin biosynthesis contributes to plant growth and development in response to endogenous developmental signals and exogenous environmental cues, such as shade and aluminum stress.

Targeting the gut microbiota to influence brain development and function in early life.

In the first 2 - 3 years of life, the gut microbiota of infants quickly becomes diverse and rich. Disruptions in the evolving gut microbiota during this critical developmental period can impact brain development. Communication between the microbiota, gut and brain is driven by hormonal and neural regulation, as well as immune and metabolic pathways, however, our understanding of how the parallel developments that may underlie this communication are limited. In this paper, we review the known associations be...

Optogenetics Identification of a Neuronal Type with a Glass Optrode in Awake Mice.

It is a major concern in neuroscience how different types of neurons work in neural circuits. Recent advances in optogenetics have enabled the identification of the neuronal type in in vivo electrophysiological experiments in broad brain regions. In optogenetics experiments, it is critical to deliver the light to the recording site. However, it is often hard to deliver the stimulation light to the deep brain regions from the brain's surface. Especially, it is difficult for the stimulation light to reach the...

Early human brain development: insights into macroscale connectome wiring.

Early brain development is closely dictated by distinct neurobiological principles. Here, we aimed to map early trajectories of structural brain wiring in the neonatal brain.

Class 4 Semaphorins and Plexin-B receptors regulate GABAergic and glutamatergic synapse development in the mammalian hippocampus.

To understand how proper circuit formation and function is established in the mammalian brain, it is necessary to define the genes and signaling pathways that instruct excitatory and inhibitory synapse development. We previously demonstrated that the ligand-receptor pair, Sema4D and Plexin-B1, regulates inhibitory synapse development on an unprecedentedly fast time-scale while having no effect on excitatory synapse development. Here, we report previously undescribed synaptogenic roles for Sema4A and Plexin-...

Vision: Microcircuits Rage against the Dimming of the Light.

At sundown when light levels fall, rod photoreceptors take the night shift from the daylight-sensitive cones and a specialized mammalian microcircuit 'wires' the rods into the ancestral cone pathway. A recent study combines serial electron microscopy and simultaneous patch clamp recordings to shed light on this microcircuit in unprecedented detail.

Imaging sigma receptors in the brain: New opportunities for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and therapeutic development.

The sigma-1 (σ) receptor is a chaperone protein located on the mitochondria-associated membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum, while the sigma-2 receptor (σ) is an endoplasmic reticulum-resident membrane protein. Recent evidence indicates that both of these receptors figure prominently in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and thus are targets for the development of novel, disease-modifying therapeutic strategies. Radioligand-based molecular imaging technique such as positron emission tomograp...

Blood-brain barrier shuttle peptides enhance AAV transduction in the brain after systemic administration.

The adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector has been used in preclinical and clinical trials of gene therapy for central nervous system (CNS) diseases. One of the biggest challenges of effectively delivering AAV to the brain is to surmount the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Herein, we identified several potential BBB shuttle peptides that significantly enhanced AAV8 transduction in the brain after a systemic administration, the best of which was the THR peptide. The enhancement of AAV8 brain transduction by THR is ...

Frequency-specific age-related decreased brain network diversity in cognitively healthy elderly: A whole-brain data-driven analysis.

Age-related changes in functional brain network have been well documented. However, recent studies have suggested the nonstationary properties of the functional connectivity of the brain, and little is known about the changes of functional connectivity dynamics during aging. In this study, a two-step singular value decomposition was introduced to capture the dynamic patterns of the time-varying functional connectivity in different frequency intervals, and the whole-brain and regional brain diversity were qu...

Twice-daily red and blue light treatment for Candida albicans biofilm matrix development control.

Phototherapy has been proposed as a direct means of affecting local bacterial infections. However, the use of phototherapy to prevent fungal biofilm development has received comparatively less attention. This study aimed to determine the effects of red light treatment and blue light treatment, without a photosensitizer, on the development of Candida albicans biofilm. During the development of 48-h biofilms of C. albicans SN 425 (n = 10), the biofilms were exposed twice-daily to noncoherent blue and red ...

New light shed on thalamocortical excitability in absence epilepsy.

Triple play of DYRK1A kinase in cortical progenitor cells of Trisomy 21.

Down syndrome (DS) also known as Trisomy 21 is a genetic disorder that occurs in ~1 in 800 live births. The disorder is caused by the triplication of all or part of human chromosome 21 and therefore, is thought to arise from the increased dosage of genes found within chromosome 21. The manifestations of the disease include among others physical growth delays and intellectual disability. A prominent anatomical feature of DS is the microcephaly that results from altered brain development. Recent studies using...

Brain Machine Interfaces for Vision Restoration: The Current State of Cortical Visual Prosthetics.

Loss of vision alters the day to day life of blind individuals and may impose a significant burden on their family and the economy. Cortical visual prosthetics have been shown to have the potential of restoring a useful degree of vision via stimulation of primary visual cortex. Due to current advances in electrode design and wireless power and data transmission, development of these prosthetics has gained momentum in the past few years and multiple sites around the world are currently developing and testing...

Hyperemesis Gravidarum-Is It A Cause of Abnormal Fetal Brain Development?

Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is characterized by severe gestational nausea and vomiting, leading to dehydration, electrolyte imbalance and nutritional deficits. HG adversely affects the health and wellbeing of the woman. However, the detrimental impact of HG on fetal brain development has not been addressed. We evaluate herein the emerging evidence suggesting that HG interferes with human brain development, and discuss putative mechanisms. Evidence emerges from prospective developmental studies in offspring ...

The role of decreased cardiolipin and impaired electron transport chain in brain damage due to cardiac arrest.

Ischemic brain damage is the major cause of mortality in cardiac arrest (CA). However, the molecular mechanism responsible for brain damage is not well understood. We previously found that mitochondrial state-3 respiration, which had been decreased following CA, was recovered in the kidney and liver, but not in the brain following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) resuscitation. Examination of mitochondria from these tissues may shed light on why the brain is the most vulnerable. In this study, adult male Spragu...

Nanoscale mechanics of brain abscess: An atomic force microscopy study.

Mechanical stimuli are a fundamental player in the pathophysiology of the brain influencing its physiological development and contributing to the onset and progression of many diseases. In some pathological states, the involvement of mechanical and physical stimuli might be extremely subtle; in others, it is more evident and particularly relevant. Among the latter pathologies, one of the most serious life-threatening condition is the brain abscess (BA), a focal infection localized in the brain parenchyma, w...

Efficacy of Online Multi-Player Versus Single-Player Exergames on Adherence Behaviors Among Children: A Nonrandomized Control Trial.

Exergames have the potential to significantly increase physical activity in children. Studies to date have shown mixed results and often rely on self-reported data. Multi-player gaming may augment participation.

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