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HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) frequently co-occur. We conducted HIV diagnostic testing in an assessment of the etiologies of major STI syndromes in Zimbabwe.
To i) describe the demographic and assault characteristics of males alleging recent sexual assault, ii) determine the severity and frequency of general body injury and the frequency of anal and genital injury, iii) identify vulnerability factors and assault characteristics associated with injury.
Survivors of sexual assault are vulnerable to long-term negative psychological and physical health outcomes, but few studies have investigated changes in cognition, emotional processing and brain function in the early stages after sexual assault. We used a multimodal approach to identify the cognitive and emotional correlates associated with sexual assault in women.
The 90-90-90 targets set by the United Nations aspire to 73% of people living with HIV (PLHIV) being virally suppressed by 2020. Using the HIV Synthesis Model, we aim to mimic the epidemic in Zimbabwe and make projections to assess whether Zimbabwe is on track to meet the 90-90-90 targets and assess whether recently proposed UNAIDS HIV transition metrics are likely to be met.
College-bound young people experience sexual assault, both before and after they enter college. This study examines historical risk factors (experiences and exposures that occurred prior to college) for penetrative sexual assault (PSA) victimization since entering college.
Despite many efforts put by the Government to ensure that women give birth in health facilities under trained personnel supervision; statistics suggest that ward 2 in Mberengwa District in Zimbabwe has the highest home births. This study sought to assess factors that are associated with home births in ward 2 of Mberengwa District in Zimbabwe.
Sexual assault (SA) is common, and recent sexual assault is associated with suicidal ideation and prescription opioid (PO) use. PO use is also associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation. The current study examined suicidal ideation among adults seeking medical and psychological follow-up care after a SA medical forensic examination based on PO use and prior SA.
Previous research has indicated that the sexual orientation of a sexual assault victim influences perceptions of blame. Although researchers have studied perceptions of blame toward straight and lesbian sexual assault victims, none have yet assessed perceptions of blame toward bisexual victims. The purpose of the current study is to examine perceptions of blame toward a female sexual assault victim and to determine whether the victim's sexual orientation impacts the level of attributed blame. Despite no pre...
Zimbabwe adopted voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) as a priority HIV prevention strategy in 2007 and began implementation in 2009. We evaluated the costs and impact of this VMMC program to date and in future.
The rising incidence of colorectal cancer in sub-Saharan Africa may be partly caused by changing dietary patterns. We sought to establish the association between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer in Zimbabwe.
To report an interesting case of bilateral conjunctival granulomas in a young lady with hypereosiniophilic syndrome.
To describe the pre-diagnosis and pre-treatment loss to follow-up (LTFU) in the TB care cascade in Guruve (2015-16), a rural district in Zimbabwe.
To evaluate the association between HIV infection and puerperal sepsis among women in Zimbabwe.
Close medical follow-up after pediatric acute sexual assault is recommended and may mitigate adverse consequences and decrease long-term comorbidities. The objectives are to (1) examine adherence to a comprehensive outpatient medical follow-up protocol after evaluation in the emergency department in a pediatric population and (2) identify characteristics associated with patient adherence to inform the utilization of a medical follow-up protocol after pediatric acute sexual assault.
Intensified TB case finding is recommended for all HIV-infected persons regularly attending HIV care and treatment clinics. The authors aimed to determine how well this system worked among HIV-infected patients diagnosed with presumptive TB in 14 health facilities of Harare province, Zimbabwe, between January and December 2016.
The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the efficacy of a training in improving competence to address sexual assault among Emergency Department (ED) staff, as well as to compare in-person and online training modalities.
Forensic medical examiners are frequently asked to examine persons who claim to have been assaulted. If the suspect is unknown and there has been contact between his or her skin and the alleged victim, there is an expectation that DNA can be collected from the victim's skin. In this way, the retrieved suspect DNA from the skin of the victim can be used to support the proposition that places the suspect at the scene. This study investigated the transfer and persistence of offender DNA on a victim following a...
Community health worker (CHW)-delivered support visits to children living with HIV and their caregivers significantly reduced odds of virological failure among the children in the ZENITH trial conducted in Zimbabwe. We conducted a process evaluation to assess fidelity, acceptability, and feasibility of this intervention to identify lessons that could inform replication and scale-up of this approach.
Analyze the prevalence of intrafamilial and extrafamilial sexual assault in adolescents of Peru and its association with alcohol consumption.
To combat the influx of sexual assault kits (SAKs) that need to be tested, an exploration of data from Ohio's SAK Testing Initiative was carried out to identify variables that impact whether a SAK contains a probative DNA profile that is eligible for the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database. A validation study was completed to confirm the existence of variable relationships from the initial examination of data; new and modified statistical models were introduced to improve the predictive accuracy to d...
A simple cost-effective strategy to pre-screen for targeted HIV testing can have substantial benefit in high burden and resource limited settings. A 4-item (previous hospitalisation, orphanhood, poor health status, and recurring skin problems) screening tool to identify adolescents living with HIV has previously shown high sensitivity in healthcare facility settings. We validated this screening tool in a community setting, in Harare, Zimbabwe in a community-based HIV prevalence survey.
Homebased index case HIV testing (HHTC) has shown higher uptake and good yield than traditional HIV testing methods. World Health Organization has called for increased operational research to evaluate HIV care processes particularly linkage to care. In this paper, we present project results of the time taken to link newly identified PLHIV to care after HHTC in the Manicaland and Midlands provinces of Zimbabwe.
The medical assessment of sexual assault (SA) is challenging because SA patients are often hesitant to disclose their medical needs, which puts them at further physical and psychological risk, and because of provider unease in conducting SA examinations. This challenge is compounded by a lack of provider training.
Quantifying the effects of climate change on the entomological and epidemiological components of vector-borne diseases is an essential part of climate change research, but evidence for such effects remains scant, and predictions rely largely on extrapolation of statistical correlations. We aimed to develop a mechanistic model to test whether recent increases in temperature in the Mana Pools National Park of the Zambezi Valley of Zimbabwe could account for the simultaneous decline of tsetse flies, the vector...