PubMed Journals Articles About "Peripheral Nervous System" RSS

13:18 EST 23rd January 2019 | BioPortfolio

Peripheral Nervous System PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Peripheral Nervous System articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "peripheral nervous system" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 18,000+

Flaccid paralysis in neuromyelitis optica: An atypical presentation with possible involvement of the peripheral nervous system.

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) typically lead to spastic paraparesis and spare the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

Emerging role of MicroRNAs in peripheral nerve system.

Peripheral nerve injury is one of the most common clinical diseases. Although the regeneration of the peripheral nerve is better than that of the nerves of the central nervous system, because of its growth rate restrictions after damage. Hence, the outcome of repair after injury is not favorable. Small RNA, a type of non-coding RNA, has recently been gaining attention in neural injury. It is widely distributed in the nervous system in vivo and a significant change in the expression of small RNAs has been ob...

Intrathecal Delivery of Viral Vectors for Gene Therapy.

Gene delivery to the peripheral nervous system for therapeutic applications remains technically challenging but could eventually have a significant impact on the development of innovative treatments not only for inherited but also for acquired peripheral neuropathies. Here we describe the method for lumbar intrathecal injection of viral vectors in experimental mice. This gene delivery route provides widespread and stable over time Schwann cell-targeted or ubiquitous gene expression in the peripheral nervous...

Neuronal Development and Onset of Electrical Activity in the Human Enteric Nervous System.

The enteric nervous system (ENS) is the largest branch of the peripheral nervous system, comprising complex networks of neurons and glia, which are present throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Although development of a fully functional ENS is required for GI motility, little is known about the ontogeny of ENS function in humans. We studied the development of neuronal subtypes and the emergence of evoked electrical activity within the developing human ENS.

Novel insights into the glia limitans of the olfactory nervous system.

Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are often described as being present in both the peripheral and the central nervous systems (PNS and CNS). Further, the olfactory nervous system glia limitans (the glial layer defining the PNS-CNS border) is considered unique as it consists of intermingling OECs and astrocytes. In contrast, the glia limitans of the rest of the nervous system consists solely of astrocytes which create a distinct barrier to Schwann cells (peripheral glia). The ability of OECs to interact wit...

Autoimmune Neurologic Diseases in Children.

Autoimmune diseases of the nervous system in children are composed of a heterogeneous group of rare disorders that can affect the central or peripheral nervous system at any level. Presentations may occur in children of any age and are typically acute or subacute in onset. Consideration of an autoimmune process as the etiology of neurologic diseases in children is important, as it may lead to early initiation of immunotherapy and an improvement in long-term neurologic outcomes. The developing nervous and im...

Glia-neuron energy metabolism in health and diseases: New insights into the role of nervous system metabolic transporters.

The brain is, by weight, only 2% the volume of the body and yet it consumes about 20% of the total glucose, suggesting that the energy requirements of the brain are high and that glucose is the primary energy source for the nervous system. Due to this dependence on glucose, brain physiology critically depends on the tight regulation of glucose transport and its metabolism. Glucose transporters ensure efficient glucose uptake by neural cells and contribute to the physiology and pathology of the nervous syste...

Unilateral Phrenic Nerve Palsy in Infants with Congenital Zika Syndrome.

Since the first identification of neonatal microcephaly cases associated with congenital Zika virus infection in Brazil in 2015, a distinctive constellation of clinical features of congenital Zika syndrome has been described. Fetal brain disruption sequence is hypothesized to underlie the devastating effects of the virus on the central nervous system. However, little is known about the effects of congenital Zika virus infection on the peripheral nervous system. We describe a series of 4 cases of right unila...

FGF binding proteins (FGFBPs): Modulators of FGF signaling in the developing, adult, and stressed nervous system.

Members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family are involved in a variety of cellular processes. In the nervous system, they affect the differentiation and migration of neurons, the formation and maturation of synapses, and the repair of neuronal circuits following insults. Because of the varied yet critical functions of FGF ligands, their availability and activity must be tightly regulated for the nervous system, as well as other tissues, to properly develop and function in adulthood. In this regard, ...

Peripheral nerve abnormality in HIV leprosy patients.

The geographical overlap of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and leprosy infection has become increasingly frequent and worrying, bringing many clinical issues. Peripheral neuropathy is very frequent in leprosy because of the predilection of its etiologic agent by Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system, and it also affects individuals with HIV as one of the most common neurological manifestations.

Cell-Type Identification in the Autonomic Nervous System.

The autonomic nervous system controls various internal organs and executes crucial functions through sophisticated neural connectivity and circuits. Its dysfunction causes an imbalance of homeostasis and numerous human disorders. In the past decades, great efforts have been made to study the structure and functions of this system, but so far, our understanding of the classification of autonomic neuronal subpopulations remains limited and a precise map of their connectivity has not been achieved. One of the ...

Acute abdominal pain caused by neuroborreliosis.

Lyme disease is a multisystem disease which can present itself in several ways. When the nervous system is involved, it is called Lyme neuroborreliosis. Both central and peripheral nervous systems can be affected.

The role of nervous system in adaptive response of bone to mechanical loading.

Bone tissue is remodeled through the catabolic function of the osteoclasts and the anabolic function of the osteoblasts. The process of bone homeostasis and metabolism has been identified to be co-ordinated with several local and systemic factors, of which mechanical stimulation acts as an important regulator. Very recent studies have shown a mutual effect between bone and other organs, which means bone influences the activity of other organs and is also influenced by other organs and systems of the body, e...

Localised non-viral delivery of nucleic acids for nerve regeneration in injured nervous systems.

Axons damaged by traumatic injuries are often unable to spontaneously regenerate in the adult central nervous system (CNS). Although the peripheral nervous system (PNS) has some regenerative capacity, its ability to regrow remains limited across large lesion gaps due to scar tissue formation. Nucleic acid therapy holds the potential of improving regeneration by enhancing the intrinsic growth ability of neurons and overcoming the inhibitory environment that prevents neurite outgrowth. Nucleic acids modulate ...

Olfactory Ensheathing Cells: A Trojan Horse for Glioma Gene Therapy.

The olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) migrate from the peripheral nervous system to the central nervous system (CNS), a critical process for the development of the olfactory system and axonal extension after injury in neural regeneration. Because of their ability to migrate to the injury site and anti-inflammatory properties, OECs were tested against different neurological pathologies, but were never studied in the context of cancer. Here, we evaluated OEC tropism to gliomas and their potential as a "Troja...

Peripheral Neuropathy Research Registry: A Prospective Cohort.

The Peripheral Neuropathy Research Registry (PNRR) is a prospective cohort of peripheral neuropathy (PN) patients focused on idiopathic axonal peripheral neuropathy. Patients with diabetic, HIV- and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathies are enrolled as comparison groups. The PNRR is a multi-center collaboration initiated and funded by the Foundation for Peripheral Neuropathy (FPN) with the objective to recruit a well characterized cohort of patients with different phenotypes and symptoms in each diag...

Do spatiotemporal parameters and gait variability differ across the lifespan of healthy adults? A systematic review.

Aging is often associated with changes in the musculoskeletal system, peripheral and central nervous system. These age-related changes often result in mobility problems influencing gait performance. Compensatory strategies are used as a way to adapt to these physiological changes.

Electrophysiological responses of the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter neurons towards peripheral bladder stimulation.

Many of the currently available therapies for urinary incontinence target the peripheral autonomic system, despite many etiologies residing in the central nervous system. Following previous experiments that determined the ventrolateral column of the periaqueductal gray matter (vlPAG), to be the main afferent station of bladder sensory signals, we aimed for electrophysiological characterization of vlPAG neurons using single unit recording.

Clinical and genetic diversities of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease with MFN2 mutations in a large case study.

An overview of energy and metabolic regulation.

The physiology and behaviors related to energy balance are monitored by the nervous and humoral systems. Because of the difficulty in treating diabetes and obesity, elucidating the energy balance mechanism and identifying critical targets for treatment are important research goals. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to describe energy regulation by the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral humoral pathway. Homeostasis and rewarding are the basis of CNS regulation. Anorexigenic or orexigenic eff...

Differential impact of pure glyphosate and glyphosate-based herbicide in a model of peripheral nervous system myelination.

Jules Joseph Dejerine: an outstanding neurologist and Charcot's enemy.

Jules Joseph Dejerine (1849-1917) became renowned for his many contributions to neurology, including his anatomical and anatomo-functional studies, particularly those in the field of language and the peripheral nervous system. A disciple of Vulpian and a rival of Charcot, Dejerine progressed rapidly in the academic world, reaching the peak of his career in 1911, when he was appointed to the chair of Nervous System Diseases at the Salpêtrière Hospital after defeating Pierre Marie (1853-1940), one of the mo...

Design and fabrication of conductive nanofibrous scaffolds for neural tissue engineering: Process modeling via response surface methodology.

Peripheral nervous system in contrary to central one has the potential for regeneration, but its regrowth requires proper environmental conditions and supporting growth factors. The aim of this study is to design and fabricate a conductive polyaniline/graphene nanoparticles incorporated gelatin nanofibrous scaffolds suitable for peripheral nervous system regeneration. The scaffolds were fabricated with electrospinning and the fabrication process was designed with Design-Expert software via response surface ...

Axon Regeneration in the Central Nervous System: Facing the Challenges from the Inside.

After an injury in the adult mammalian CNS (central nervous system), lesioned axons fail to regenerate. This failure to regenerate contrasts with axons' remarkable potential to grow during embryonic development and after an injury in the PNS (peripheral nervous system). Several intracellular mechanisms-including cytoskeletal dynamics, axonal transport and trafficking, signaling and transcription of regenerative programs, and epigenetic modifications-control axon regeneration. In this review, we describe how...

Epigenetic regulation of myelination in health and disease.

Myelin is lipid-rich structure that is necessary to avoid leakage of electric signals and to ensure saltatory impulse conduction along axons. Oligodendrocytes in central nervous system (CNS) and Schwann cells in peripheral nervous system (PNS) are responsible for myelin formation. Axonal demyelination after injury or diseases greatly impairs normal nervous system function. Therefore, understanding how the myelination process is programmed, coordinated, and maintained is crucial for developing therapeutic st...

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