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Peripheral Nervous System PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Peripheral Nervous System articles that have been published worldwide.
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The vertebrate nervous system is divided into two functional halves; the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which consists of nerves and ganglia. Incoming peripheral stimuli transmitted from the periphery to the CNS and subsequent motor responses created because of this information, require efficient communication between the two halves that make up this organ system. Neurons and glial cells of each half of the nervous system, whi...
Our goal is to examine the processes-both central and peripheral-that underlie the development of peripherally-induced neuropathic pain (pNP) and to highlight recent evidence for mechanisms contributing to its maintenance. While many pNP conditions are initiated by damage to the peripheral nervous system (PNS), their persistence appears to rely on maladaptive processes within the central nervous system (CNS). The potential existence of an autonomous pain-generating mechanism in the CNS creates significant i...
Peripheral neuropathies refer to a group of disorders in which there is damage to the nerves of the peripheral nervous system. Electrophysiological studies are the main stay for the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathies. However, direct visualization of the nerves is possible with exact localization of site of pathology with high resolution ultrasonogram and 3 Tesla MRI scanner, and newer MR sequences.
Neurologists often encounter patients with acute and chronic liver disease and must be aware of how these diseases can affect the nervous system. This is particularly true when evaluating patients with alterations in cognition and level of consciousness. Wilson disease, while uncommon, is a treatable condition with many neurologic and psychiatric symptoms. Neurologic disorders associated with liver disease may affect not only the brain, but also the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system. This article re...
Many types of human tissue-such as the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system, and muscles, including the heart muscle-are fibrous in nature. Isotropic human models that assume homogeneous volumes for every individual tissue do not properly take this into account.
Childhood obesity may lead to neuronal impairment in both the peripheral and the central nervous system. This study aimed to investigate the impact of obesity and insulin resistance (IR) on the central nervous system and neurocognitive functions in children.
Neurologic dysfunction is prevalent in patients with acute and chronic renal disease and may affect the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, or both. Neurologic manifestations may result directly from the uremic state or as a consequence of renal replacement therapy. Early recognition of neurologic dysfunction may provide opportunities for intervention and reduced morbidity.
This article provides a conceptual framework for the evaluation of patients with suspected polyneuropathy to enhance the clinician's ability to localize and confirm peripheral nervous system pathology and, when possible, identify an etiologic diagnosis through use of rational clinical and judicious testing strategies.
The nervous system-in particular, the brain and its cognitive abilities-is among humans' most distinctive and impressive attributes. How the nervous system has changed in the human lineage and how it differs from that of closely related primates is not well understood. Here, we consider recent comparative analyses of extant species that are uncovering new evidence for evolutionary changes in the size and the number of neurons in the human nervous system, as well as the cellular and molecular reorganization ...
Demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS) leads to severe neurological deficits that can be partially reversed by spontaneous remyelination. Because the CNS is isolated from the peripheral milieu by the blood-brain barrier, remyelination is thought to be controlled by the CNS microenvironment. However, in this work we found that factors derived from peripheral tissue leak into the CNS after injury and promote remyelination in a murine model of toxin-induced demyelination. Mechanistically, leakage of...
The human nervous system consists of seemingly symmetric left and right halves. However, closer observation of the brain reveals anatomical and functional lateralization. Defects in brain asymmetry correlate with several neurological disorders, yet our understanding of the mechanisms used to establish lateralization in the human central nervous system is extremely limited. Here, we review left-right asymmetries within the nervous system of humans and several model organisms, including rodents, zebrafish, ch...
This article provides a review of the clinical phenotypes and evaluation of peripheral nerve hyperexcitability syndromes. These rare diagnoses include cramp-fasciculation syndrome, Isaacs syndrome, and Morvan syndrome. Recent investigations have led to an understanding of the autoimmune underpinnings of these conditions and their specific associated antibodies. As the presentation of peripheral nerve hyperexcitability syndromes includes muscle stiffness, twitches, and spasms, which are also shared with cert...
This article reviews the rapidly evolving spectrum of autoimmune neurologic disorders with a focus on those that involve the central nervous system, providing an understanding of how to approach the diagnostic workup of patients presenting with central nervous system symptoms or signs that could be immune mediated, either paraneoplastic or idiopathic, to guide therapeutic decision making.
Nervous system organization differs greatly in larvae and adults of many species, but has nevertheless been traditionally used for phylogenetic studies. In phoronids, the organization of the larval nervous system depends on the type of development. With the goal of understanding the ground plan of the nervous system in phoronid larvae, the development and organization of the larval nervous system were studied in a viviparous phoronid species. The ground plan of the phoronid larval nervous system includes an...
Elevated heart rate (HR) has been demonstrated in response to acute hypoxia exposure, which is reportedly due to sympathetic nervous system activation (SNS) and concurrent withdrawal of parasympathetic nervous system activity (PSNS). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
The enteric nervous system, often referred to as the second brain, is the largest assembly of neurons and glia outside the central nervous system. The enteric nervous system resides within the wall of the digestive tract and regulates local gut reflexes involved in gastrointestinal motility, blood flow and fluid transport; all these functions can be accomplished in the absence of the extrinsic innervation from the central nervous system. It is neurons and their circuitry within the enteric nervous system th...
This article provides core information on the clinical neurophysiology techniques available for the investigation of disorders of the peripheral nervous system.
Saltatory conduction is the process by which action potentials are rapidly and efficiently propagated along myelinated axons. In the peripheral nervous system, saltatory conduction is made possible by a series of morphologically and molecularly distinct subdomains in both axons and their associated myelinating Schwann cells. This review briefly summarizes current knowledge on the molecular structure and physiology of the node of Ranvier and adjacent regions of the axoglial unit in peripheral nerve.
The immune system is now considered a major factor in Alzheimer Disease (AD). This review seeks to demonstrate how various aspects of the immune system, both in the brain and peripherally, interact to contribute to AD. We highlight classical nervous system immune components, such as complement and microglia, as well as novel aspects of the peripheral immune system that can influence disease, such as monocytes and lymphocytes. By detailing the roles of various immune cells in AD, we summarize an emerging per...
The endocannabinoid system is a regulatory pathway consisting of two main types of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) and their endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids. The CB1 receptor is highly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems (PNS) in mammalians and is involved in neuromodulatory functions. Since endocannabinoids were shown to be elevated in cerebrospinal fluid of epileptic dogs, knowledge about the species specific CB receptor expression in the nervous system is required. Theref...
Mature neurons in the adult peripheral nervous system can effectively switch from a dormant state with little axonal growth to robust axon regeneration upon injury. The mechanisms by which injury unlocks mature neurons' intrinsic axonal growth competence are not well understood. Here, we show that peripheral sciatic nerve lesion in adult mice leads to elevated levels of Tet3 and 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Functionally, Tet3 is required for robust axon regeneration of DRG...
The enteric nervous system (ENS) and the central nervous system (CNS) of mammals both contain integrative neural circuitry and similarities between them have led to the ENS being described as the brain in the gut.
Human neurodegenerative diseases increase progressively with age and present a high social and economic burden. Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are both growth factors exerting trophic effects on neuronal regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). GH and IGF-1 stimulate protein synthesis in neurons, glia, oligodendrocytes, and Schwann cells, and favor neuronal survival, inhibiting apoptosis. This study aims to evaluate the effect of GH ...
Heart rate variability (HRV) has been a relevant tool in the assessment of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). How autonomic control normally develops in newborns and how it is affected by gestational age (GA) is not fully understood. We aimed to review the current evidence on HRV in preterm (PT) and term neonates (TN) and investigate the relation between GA and the maturation of ANS.