PubMed Journals Articles About "Peripheral Nervous System" RSS

03:19 EDT 26th August 2019 | BioPortfolio

Peripheral Nervous System PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Peripheral Nervous System articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "peripheral nervous system" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 18,000+

Peripheral nervous system disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Results from an international, inception cohort study.

In a multi-ethnic/racial, prospective SLE inception cohort, to determine the frequency, clinical characteristics, associations and outcomes in different types of peripheral nervous system (PNS) disease.

Acute Manifestations of Neuromuscular Disease.

Neuromuscular emergencies may be defined as disorders or exacerbation of diseases of the peripheral nervous system that are rapidly progressive and potentially life-threatening. Such disorders can affect any level of the peripheral nervous system, from the muscle to the anterior horn cell. While their clinical manifestations may vary, severe morbidity and mortality is most frequently the result of neuromuscular respiratory failure. Some disorders, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, provide the additional thr...

Exploring the Roles of Central and Peripheral Nervous System Function in Gait Stability: Preliminary Insights from Cancer Survivors.

Impairments in central and/or peripheral nervous systems are known to be associated with altered gait; however, the interplay between cognitive function, peripheral sensation, and orbital gait stability remains largely unclear. Elucidating these relationships is expected to provide a clearer understanding of potential fall risk factors across various populations and targets for novel interventions. Many patients diagnosed with cancer are treated with chemotherapy agents known to be neurotoxic to the central...

Novel approaches using mesenchymal stem cells for curing peripheral nerve injuries.

Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a common life-changing disability of peripheral nervous system with significant socioeconomic consequences. Conventional therapeutic approaches for PNI have several drawbacks such as need to autologous nerve scarifying, surplus surgery, and difficult accessibility to donor nerve; therefore, other therapeutic strategies such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) therapy are getting more interesting. MSCs have been proved to be safe and efficient in numerous degenerative diseases o...

Introduction: Thematic Papers Issue on "Advances in our Understanding of the Morphological Response to Injury in the Peripheral Nervous System".

The present thematic issue highlights new developments in peripheral nervous system (PNS) research to advance our understanding of the normal anatomy and morphological response to injury and disease. The articles related to nerve regeneration and repair presented here extend a previous Anatomical Record special issue that originated from the 4th International Symposium on Peripheral Nerve Regeneration (ISPNR 2017) hosted by Xavier Navarro and the European Society for the Study of Peripheral Nerve Repair and...

The Effect of Gamma-Ray-Induced Central Nervous System Injury on Peripheral Immune Response: An and Study.

Radiotherapy to treat brain tumors can potentially harm the central nervous system (CNS). The radiation stimulates a series of immune responses in both the CNS as well as peripheral immune system. To date, studies have mostly focused on the changes occurring in the immune response within the CNS. In this study, we investigated the effect of γ-ray-induced CNS injury on the peripheral immune response using a cell co-culture model and a whole-brain irradiation (WBI) rat model. Nerve cells (SH-SY5Y and U87 MG ...

Burn induced nervous system morbidity among burn and non-burn trauma patients compared with non-injured people.

Burns cause acute damage to the peripheral nervous system with published reports identifying that neurological changes after injury remain for a prolonged period. To shed some light on potential mechanisms, we assessed injury etiology and patterns of nervous system morbidity after injury by comparing long-term hospital admissions data of burns patients and other non-burn trauma patients with uninjured people.

Effects of disease-afflicted and aging neurons on the musculoskeletal system.

The musculoskeletal system includes skeletal muscles, bones and innervating axons from neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system. Together, they form the largest structure in the body. They also initiate and coordinate locomotion, provide structural stability, and contribute to metabolism and homeostasis. Because of these functions, much effort has been devoted to ascertaining the impact of acute and chronic stress, such as disease, injury and aging, on the musculoskeletal system. This review wil...

Unusual relapse of primary central nervous system lymphoma both inside and outside central nervous system in a patient with ventriculoperitoneal shunt: a case report.

Relapse of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) occurs primarily at the initial site, relapse outside central nervous system is very rare.

Brain insulin action in schizophrenia: something borrowed and something new.

Insulin signaling in the central nervous system is at the intersection of brain and body interactions, and represents a fundamental link between metabolic and cognitive disorders. Abnormalities in brain insulin action could underlie the development of comorbid schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes. Among its functions, central nervous system insulin is involved in regulation of striatal dopamine levels, peripheral glucose homeostasis, and feeding regulation. In this review, we discuss the role and importance of...

Occurrence of cerebral small vessel disease at diagnosis of MPO-ANCA-associated vasculitis.

Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) often causes peripheral nervous system impairments. However, little is known about subclinical involvements of the central nervous system in AAV. We investigated the frequency and progression of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) in patients with AAV.

Acute Traumatic Brain Injury Induces CD4+ and CD8+ T Cell Functional Impairment by Upregulating the Expression of PD-1 via the Activated Sympathetic Nervous System.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces immunosuppression in the acute phase, and the activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) might play a role in this process, but the mechanism involved is unknown. Herein, we explored the impact of acute (a)TBI on the peripheral immune system and its correlation with the SNS and the T cell exhaustion marker, PD-1 (programmed cell death-1).

Treatment of Hypothalamic Obesity with Dextroamphetamine: A Case Series.

A limited number of published case reports suggest a positive effect of dextroamphetamine, an adrenergic agonist affecting both the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system, on physical activity and weight in patients with hypothalamic obesity (intractable obesity following CNS insult). Here, we present our clinical experience with dextroamphetamine treatment for hypothalamic obesity.

Neuregulin-1/ErbB Network: An Emerging Modulator of Nervous System Injury and Repair.

Neuregulin-1 (Nrg-1) is a member of the Neuregulin family of growth factors with essential roles in the developing and adult nervous system. Six different types of Nrg-1 (Nrg-1 type I-VI) and over 30 isoforms have been discovered; however, their specific roles are not fully determined. Nrg-1 signals through a complex network of protein-tyrosine kinase receptors, ErbB2, ErbB3, ErbB4 and multiple intracellular pathways. Genetic and pharmacological studies of Nrg-1 and ErbB receptors have identified a critical...

The vermiform appendix in Parkinson's disease: At the crossroad of peripheral immunity, the nervous system and the intestinal microbiome.

Oligodendrocyte Precursors Gain Schwann Cell-Like Phenotype and Remyelinate Axons Upon Engraftment into Peripheral Nerves.

The ability to treat large peripheral nerve injuries may be greatly advanced if an accessible source of human myelinating cells is identified, as it overcomes one of the major limitations of acellular or synthetic nerve guides compared to autografts, the gold standard for large defect repair. Methods to derive oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) from human pluripotent stem cells have advanced to the point where they have been shown capable of myelination and are being evaluated in clinical trials. Here w...

Exploring the Peripheral Initiation of Parkinson's Disease in Animal Models.

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative movement disorder; however, peripheral symptoms can arise decades prior. In this issue of Neuron, Kim et al. (2019) provide evidence that progressive α-synuclein aggregation initiating in the gut could be a pathogenic epicenter anatomically rippling throughout the nervous system.

Retinal supplementation augments optogenetic stimulation efficacy in vivo.

Over the last two decades, optical control of neuronal activity in the central nervous system has seen rapid growth, demonstrating the utility of optogenetics as both an experimental and therapeutic tool. Conversely, applications of optogenetics in the peripheral nervous system have been relatively constrained by the challenges of temporally variable opsin expression, light penetration and immune attack of non-native opsins. Whilst opsin expression can be increased significantly through high concentration v...

Microglia exit the CNS in spinal root avulsion.

Microglia are central nervous system (CNS)-resident cells. Their ability to migrate outside of the CNS, however, is not understood. Using time-lapse imaging in an obstetrical brachial plexus injury (OBPI) model, we show that microglia squeeze through the spinal boundary and emigrate to peripheral spinal roots. Although both macrophages and microglia respond, microglia are the debris-clearing cell. Once outside the CNS, microglia re-enter the spinal cord in an altered state. These peripheral nervous system (...

Monocyte Mobilisation, Microbiota & Mental Illness.

The gastrointestinal microbiome has emerged as a key player in regulating brain and behaviour. This has led to the strategy of targeting the gut microbiota to ameliorate disorders of the central nervous system. Understanding the underlying signalling pathways in which the microbiota impacts these disorders is crucial for the development of future therapeutics for improving CNS functionality. One of the major pathways through which the microbiota influences the brain is the immune system, where there is an i...

Bioengineered In Vitro Enteric Nervous System.

Bidirectional interactions between the human central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract (GI), via the enteric nervous system, are unmapped and central to many human conditions. There is a critical need to develop 3D human in vitro intestinal tissue models to emulate the intricate cell interactions of the human enteric nervous system within the GI tract in order to better understand these complex interactions that cannot be studied utilizing in vivo animal models. In vitro systems, if sufficiently...

Decellularization Techniques and their Applications for the Repair and Regeneration of the Nervous System.

A variety of surgical and non-surgical approaches have been used to address the impacts of nervous system injuries, which can lead to either impairment or a complete loss of function for affected patients. The inherent ability of nervous tissues to repair and/or regenerate is dampened due to irreversible changes that occur within the tissue remodeling microenvironment following injury. Specifically, dysregulation of the extracellular matrix (i.e., scarring) has been suggested as one of the major factors tha...

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulates mammalian axon growth by affecting F-actin length in growth cone.

While axon regeneration is a key determinant of functional recovery of the nervous system after injury, it is often poor in the mature nervous system. Influx of extracellular calcium (Ca ) is one of the first phenomena that occur following axonal injury, and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), a target substrate for calcium ions, regulates the status of cytoskeletal proteins such as F-actin. Herein, we found that peripheral axotomy activates CaMKII in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory ...

MSG-obesity onset is associated with disruption of central control of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system.

The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) exerts important catabolic peripheral effects and influences autonomic nervous system (ANS)-mediated processes. Impaired negative feedback control or reduced HPA axis sensitivity and altered ANS activity seem to be associated with the development and maintenance of obesity. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that the central HPA axis is dysregulated favoring ANS disbalance in monosodium L-glutamate (MSG)-induced rat obesity.

Plasma cell and B cell-targeted treatments for use in advanced multiple sclerosis.

There is increasing evidence that agents that target peripheral B cells and in some instances plasma cells can exhibit marked effects on relapsing multiple sclerosis. In addition, B cells, including plasma cells, within the central nervous system compartment are likely to play an important role in disease progression in both relapsing and progressive MS. However, current B cell-targeting antibodies may not inhibit these, because of poor penetration into the central nervous system and often oligoclonal bands...

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