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Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) poorly identifies men at high fracture risk. Our aim was to assess prediction of fractures in men by bone microarchitectural measures. At baseline, 825 men aged 60-87 had the assessment of bone microarchitecture at distal radius and distal tibia by high resolution peripheral QCT (HR-pQCT, XtremeCT-I SCANCO). Bone strength was estimated by micro-finite element analysis. During the prospective 8-year follow-up, 105 men sustained fractures (59 vertebral fractures in 49 men, 70...
Bone fractures are the most common traumatic injuries in humans. The repair of bone fractures is a regenerative process that recapitulates many of the biological events of embryonic skeletal development. Most of the time it leads to successful healing and the recovery of the damaged bone. Unfortunately, about 5-10% of fractures will lead to delayed healing or non-union, more so in the case of co-morbidities such as diabetes. In this article, we review the different strategies to heal bone defects using synt...
Dear Dr. Civitelli, In discussing such advances, they include spinal morphometry, and specifically refer to and illustrate the Genant semi-quantitative (GSQ) paradigm, although also referring to the algorithm-based qualitative (ABQ) method of vertebral evaluation in the diagnosis of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVF). Although in its day the GSQ method was a credible attempt at structured reporting, recent data suggest that GSQ Grade 1 lesions, the most common, relate less well to bone density and fract...
Although volar locking plates (VLPs) have been exclusively used for unstable distal radius fractures (DRFs), the optimal management of distal ulna fractures (DUFs) remains controversial. Internal fixation using a plate for DUFs might be challenging because of the presence of osteoporotic bone and fragile bone fragments in elderly patients.
People living with HIV (PLWH) commonly have low bone mineral density (BMD) (low bone mass and osteoporosis) and are at high risk for fractures. Fractures and low BMD are significant causes of morbidity and mortality, increasingly relevant as PLWH age. Alcohol use is common among PLWH and known to affect bone health. The association between alcohol use and changes in BMD among PLWH is not well understood.
We read with interest articles on osteoporotic vertebral fractures by Oei and colleagues (1) and in the same issue, comparative analysis of radiology of osteoporotic vertebral fractures in women and men by Lentle and colleagues (2). We also note a commentary that follows these two articles by Pawel Szulc (3). Oei and colleagues point out the different methods for radiological assessment of vertebral fractures, but comment on the lack of the gold standard. This article is protected by copyright. All rights r...
The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent advances in gene therapy as a treatment for bone regeneration. While most fractures heal spontaneously, patients who present with fracture nonunion suffer from prolonged pain, disability, and often require additional operations to regain musculoskeletal function.
We thank Dr Gilchrist and colleagues for their letter entitled "Osteoporotic vertebral fracture prevalence varies widely" describing their use of electronic images and "clinical terminology" software to describe fractures, by extracting those individuals with "clearly identified thoracic and lumbar vertebral fractures". The issue is how is "clearly identified" defined in their system i.e. what criteria were employed when words such as "wedge", "fracture", "open " etc were used. In our study using the CaMos ...
Traumatic and atraumatic fractures are entities with distinct but often overlapping clinical manifestations, imaging findings, and management protocols. This article is a review of terminology, etiology, and key imaging features that affect management of atraumatic fractures including stress fractures, atypical femoral fractures, and pathologic fractures. The terminology of atraumatic fractures is reviewed, with an emphasis on the distinctions and similarities of stress, atypical, and pathologic fractures. ...
Sustentaculum tali fractures are rare foot fractures accounting for 1% of all calcaneal fractures, which accounts for about 1-2% of all bone fractures. Since the importance of sustentaculum tali in maintaining the medial foot arch, its fractures should be dealt with anatomical fixation to avoid post-traumatic arthrosis.
Atypical femoral fractures are rare fractures that occur in the subtrochanteric or diaphyseal region of the femur with minimal or no trauma. Though the association of atypical femoral fractures and bisphosphonate (BP) use is a growing concern in the management of osteoporosis, currently there is little knowledge about which patients may be at risk for an atypical femoral fracture. Given that these fractures initiate in the femoral cortex, we aimed to determine whether cortical bone tissue properties (bone m...
Methylphenidate (MP) use is highly prevalent among children and young adults. Previous basic and epidemiological research demonstrated an adverse effect of MP on bone mass. Studies in military recruits have shown that history of MP use before conscription was a risk factor for stress fractures (SF) during the service.
Because several studies have implicated serotonin as a regulator of bone mass, we here explore its potential association on fracture risk and falls, as on bone mineral density (BMD) and muscle strength, in humans. Serum levels of serotonin were analyzed in 950 men (aged 69 to 81 years), participating in the Gothenburg part of the population-based study MrOS Sweden. Men taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) had a mean value of 31.2 μg/L compared with 159.4 μg/L in those not taking SSRI...
Homocysteine (Hcy) high levels are associated with fractures, bone resorption and an early onset of osteoporosis in elderly persons; a relationship between Hcy and bone formation has also been suggested but is still controversial. Frailty, an independent predictor of fractures and decreased bone mineral density is associated with altered bone metabolism in women. However, no previous works have studied the relationship among frailty, Hcy levels and bone turnover.
High error rates in the prediction of fragility fractures by bone mineral density have motivated searches for better clinical indicators of bone strength, and the high incidence of non-hip, non-spine fractures has raised interest in cortical bone. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of Cortical Bone Mechanics Technology™. CBMT is a new non-invasive 3-point bending technique for measuring the mechanical properties of cortical bone in the ulnas of living humans.
We proposed the term "dysmobility syndrome" (DS) to identify individuals with impaired musculoskeletal health, a risk factor for falls and fractures. Whether DS is associated with increased risk of incident fracture is unknown. The "Osteoporotic Fractures in Men" study enrolled 5994 men ages ≥65 years, between March 2000 and April 2002. We used baseline data to determine whether DS increased fracture risk, independent of FRAX. Men met DS criteria at baseline if they had ≥3 of the following: appendicular...
The current diagnosis of osteoporosis is limited to a T-score ≤-2.5. However, asymptomatic vertebral fractures (VF) are known to predict a high risk of subsequent fractures and pharmaceutical intervention is known to reduce future fracture risk in these individuals. In a prospective, population-based cohort of ambulant older women, we sought to evaluate the role of VF detection by screening densitometric lateral spine imaging (LSI) for VF at time of bone density testing to the effect on the magnitude of f...
Idiopathic Juvenile Osteoporosis (IJO) refers to significantly lower than expected bone mass manifesting in childhood with no identifiable aetiology. IJO classically presents in early pubertal period with multiple fractures including metaphyseal and vertebral crush fractures, and low bone-mass.
Some conditions are already known to be associated with increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. Other conditions may also be significant indicators of increased risk. The aim of the study was to identify conditions for inclusion in a fracture prediction model (FREM - Fracture Risk Evaluation Model) for automated case finding of high-risk individuals of hip or major osteoporotic fractures (MOF).
It is not known how physical exercise affects the risk of different types of fractures, especially in highly active individuals. To investigate this association, we studied a cohort of 118,204 men and 71,757 women who from 1991 to 2009 participated in Vasaloppet, a long-distance cross-country skiing race in Sweden, and 505,194 nonparticipants frequency-matched on sex, age, and county of residence from the Swedish population. Participants ranged from recreational exercisers to world-class skiers. Race partic...
Vertebral fractures are associated with persistent pain, disability and mortality. However, around two thirds of women with vertebral fractures are unaware of them. We aimed to analyze which factors could mostly be associated to the presence of vertebral fractures in post-menopausal women, and evaluate the effectiveness of current screening criteria for the detection of vertebral fractures in an outpatient setting.
Gold standard to diagnose osteoporosis is standard dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). CT is a standard diagnostic tool to detect injuries to the pelvic ring. The aim of the study was to collect information on bone density without DXA by determination of Hounsfield units (HU) in CT scans of patients with sacral fractures, to draw conclusions on the prevalence of osteoporosis in patients admitted to the investigating institution.
Open bone fractures are not only difficult to heal but also are at a high risk of infections. Annual cases of fractures which result from osteoporosis amount to approximately 9 million. Endogenously released nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to play a role in osteogenic differentiation in addition to eradicating infection against a wide variety of pathogens. In the current work, antimicrobial NO releasing 3D bone scaffolds were fabricated using S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) as the NO donor. During ...
Dear Prof. Civitelli, We thank Dr Gilchrist and colleagues for their letter entitled "Osteoporotic vertebral fracture prevalence varies widely" in which they outline their experience with clinical health ontology applied on a shared repository of clinical notes, radiological images and reports. The purpose of their effort is to "assess whether patients with fractures are receiving appropriate care" and to "streamline the approach to diagnosing and treating those people with vertebral fractures without the u...
Accelerated bone loss (ABL) shown on routine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) may be accompanied by microarchitectural changes, increased cortical porosity and lower bone strength. To test this hypothesis, we performed a cross-sectional study and used high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) scans (SCANCO, Inc., Switzerland) to measure estimated bone strength and microarchitecture in the distal radius and distal and diaphyseal tibia. We studied 1628 men who attended the Ye...