PubMed Journals Articles About "Scientists Develop Laboratory Model Study Tickborne Flaviviruses" RSS

12:53 EDT 24th June 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "scientists develop laboratory model study tickborne flaviviruses" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 75,000+

Organoids as a Model to Study Infectious Disease.

The advent of the gastric organoid culture system has provided a new model to emulate native epithelial tissue in vitro. Gastric organoids grow from isolated epithelial stem cells and develop into three dimensional structures that can be used to study host physiology. Here we describe current laboratory protocols for growing gastric organoids and the microinjection of pathogens such as Helicobacter pylori into the lumen of gastric organoids in order to study the cellular response following infection.

Laboratory Model of a Collapsible Tube to Develop Bleeding Control Interventions.

To develop knowledge of mechanical control of bleeding in first aid, a laboratory model was set up to simulate flow through a blood vessel. A collapsible tube was used to mimic an artery in two experiments to determine (1) the extent of volumetric flow reduction caused by increases in the degree of compression of the vessel and (2) the extent of flow reduction caused by increases in the length of compression.

Immediate assessment of performance of medical laboratory scientists following a 10-day malaria microscopy training programme in Nigeria.

Rapid and precise diagnosis of malaria is an essential element in effective case management and control of malaria. Malaria microscopy is used as the gold standard for malaria diagnosis, however results remain poor as positivity rate in Nigeria is consistently over 90%. The United States President's Malaria Initiative (PMI) through the Malaria Action Program for States (MAPS) supported selected states in Nigeria to build capacity for malaria microscopy. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of in-servic...

Surveillance for and Discovery of Borrelia Species in US Patients Suspected of Tickborne Illness.

Tick-transmitted Borrelia species fall into two heterogeneous bacterial complexes comprised of multiple species, the relapsing fever (RF) group and the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group, which are the causative agents of Lyme borreliosis (LB), the most common tickborne disease in the northern hemisphere. Geographic expansion of human LB in the United States and discovery of emerging Borrelia pathogens underscores the importance of surveillance for disease causing Borrelia.

Body Fluid Processing Workspace Quality Improvement Initiative in a High-Volume Reference Laboratory.

In a clinical laboratory, the design of the workspace directs the workflow and significantly affects the productivity of clinical laboratory scientists (CLS). With the chronic shortage of CLS, a well-designed workspace is essential to take full advantage of available staff, especially in high-volume laboratories.

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Flaviviruses.

Flaviviruses, such as dengue, Japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, West Nile, yellow fever, and Zika viruses, are critically important human pathogens that sicken a staggeringly high number of humans every year. Most of these pathogens are transmitted by mosquitos, and not surprisingly, as the earth warms and human populations grow and move, their geographic reach is increasing. Flaviviruses are simple RNA-protein machines that carry out protein synthesis, genome replication, and virion packaging...

Detection of Arbovirus Transmission via Sugar Feeding in a Laboratory Setting.

Most species of mosquitoes consume sugar to survive and during sugar feeding can expectorate virus. Scientists have used this behavior to develop novel methods of mosquito control and arbovirus surveillance. In this study, we use sugar feeding and corresponding viral expectoration to develop an affordable method of monitoring individual mosquitoes for longitudinal data collection. Female Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae) that consumed an infectious bloodmeal of West Nile virus were placed into ...

Making Waves: New Developments in Toxicology with the Zebrafish.

The laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio) is now an accepted model in toxicologic research. The zebrafish model fills a niche between in vitro models and mammalian biomedical models. The developmental characteristics of the small fish are strategically being used by scientists to study topics ranging from high-throughput toxicity screens to toxicity in multi- and transgenerational studies. High-throughput technology has increased the utility of zebrafish embryonic toxicity assays in screening of chemicals and ...

Innovative and new approaches to laboratory diagnosis of Zika and dengue: a meeting report.

Epidemics of dengue, Zika, and other arboviral diseases are increasing in frequency and severity. Current efforts to rapidly identify and manage these epidemics are limited by the short diagnostic window in acute infection, the extensive serologic cross-reactivity among flaviviruses, and the lack of point-of-care diagnostics to detect these viral species in primary care settings. The Partnership for Dengue Control organized a workshop to review the current landscape of Flavivirus diagnostics, identified cur...

Erythrosin B is a potent and broad-spectrum orthosteric inhibitor of the flavivirus NS2B-NS3 protease.

Many flaviviruses, such as Zika virus (ZIKV), Dengue virus (DENV1-4) and yellow fever virus (YFV), are significant human pathogens. Infection with ZIKV, an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus, is associated with increased risk of microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome and other complications in adults. Currently, specific therapy does not exist for any flavivirus infections. In this study, we found that erythrosin B, an FDA-approved food additive, is a potent inhibitor for flaviviruses, includ...

Multivariate Model for the Prediction of Severity of Acute Pancreatitis in Children.

This study aimed to develop a severity prediction system for pediatric patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) based on clinical and laboratory parameters recorded at disease onset. A retrospective cohort study including 130 patients with AP, aged 0 to 18 years, was conducted. Correlations between severe AP (SAP) and clinical and laboratory data were established. Parameters with a significant statistical correlation (P ≤ 0.05) were incorporated in logistic regression models, and receiver operating chara...

Ilheus and Saint Louis encephalitis viruses elicit cross-protection against a lethal Rocio virus challenge in mice.

Rocio virus (ROCV) was the causative agent of an unprecedented outbreak of encephalitis during the 1970s in the Vale do Ribeira, Sao Paulo State, in the Southeast region of Brazil. Surprisingly, no further cases of ROCV infection were identified after this outbreak; however, serological surveys have suggested the circulation of ROCV among humans and animals in different regions of Brazil. Cross-protective immunity among flaviviruses is well documented; consequently, immunity induced by infections with other...

Factors Influencing Laboratory Information System Effectiveness Through Strategic Planning in Shiraz Teaching Hospitals.

This study aimed to develop and test a research model that examined 7effective factors on the effectiveness of laboratory information system (LIS) through strategic planning. This research was carried out on total laboratory staff, information technology staff, and laboratory managers in Shiraz (a city in the south of Iran) teaching hospitals by structural equation modeling approach in 2015. The results revealed that there was no significant positive relationship between decisions based on cost-benefit anal...

Narrative and "anti-narrative" in science: How scientists tell stories, and don't.

Narratives are common to all branches of science, not only to the humanities. Scientists tell stories about how the things we study work, develop, and evolve, and about how we come to be interested in them. Here I add a third domain (Secularity) to Gould's two "non-overlapping magisteria" of Science and Religion, and I review previous work on the parallels in elements between story-telling in literature and science. The stories of each domain have different criteria for judging them valid or useful. In scie...

Systematic comparison of routine laboratory measurements with in-hospital mortality: ICU-Labome, a large cohort study of critically ill patients.

In intensive care unit (ICU) patients, many laboratory measurements can be deranged when compared with the standard reference interval (RI). The assumption that larger derangements are associated with worse outcome may not always be correct. The ICU-Labome study systematically evaluated the univariate association of routine laboratory measurements with outcome.

Development of an in vivo infection model to study Mouse papillomavirus-1 (MmuPV1).

Preclinical model systems to study multiple features of the papillomavirus life cycle are extremely valuable tools to aid our understanding of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) biology, disease progression and treatments. Mouse papillomavirus (MmuPV1) is the first ever rodent papillomavirus that can infect the laboratory strain of mice and was discovered recently in 2011. This model is an attractive model to study papillomavirus pathogenesis due to the ubiquitous availability of lab mice and the fact that this mou...

Ex vivo culture of human atherosclerotic plaques: A model to study immune cells in atherogenesis.

The mechanisms that drive atherosclerotic plaque progression and destabilization in humans remain largely unknown. Laboratory models are needed to study these mechanisms under controlled conditions. The aim of this study was to establish a new ex vivo model of human atherosclerotic plaques that preserves the main cell types in plaques and the extracellular components in the context of native cytoarchitecture.

The use of the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane as experimental model to study virus growth and to test the clonal selection hypothesis. The contribution of Sir Mac Farlane Burnet.

Sir Mac Farlane Burnet was the most honored of all Australian scientists. In 1960, Burnet shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine with Peter Medawar of Britain for the discovery of acquired immunological tolerance, He developed techniques for growing influenza viruses in the chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. This became standard laboratory practice. He continued to work with chick embryos long after the use of cell cultures had become general. His virology research resulted in significant discoverie...

Young scientists and Clinical Biochemists need to develop superior negotiating skills.

Beyond the Brown Bag: Designing Effective Professional Development for Informal Educators.

Most researchers are keenly interested in disseminating their work beyond traditional publication routes. With an eye to increasing broader impacts, scientists can benefit from partnerships with informal educators who interact daily with the public and see their role as translating science to increase the public's intellectual and emotional connections with the natural world. Typically, researchers give a one-time lunch hour talk, generally a modified version of a presentation aimed at scientific peers. Tal...

Interdisciplinary STEM education reform: Dishing out art in a microbiology laboratory.

In the modern educational framework, life science and visual art are usually presented as mutually exclusive subjects. Despite this perceived disciplinary contrast, visual art has the ability to engage and provoke students in ways that can have important downstream effects on scientific discovery, especially when applied in a practical setting such as a laboratory course. This review broadly examines the benefit of interdisciplinary fusions of science and art as well as recent ways in which art strategies h...

Gender Comparison of Medical Student Microsurgical Skills in a Laboratory Model.

 Perceived gender-related differences in surgical skills could limit opportunities available for any aspiring surgeon. There should be more available literature and logical analysis of these observations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the microsurgical skills of male and female medical students using a standard scale in the laboratory.

Estimating summary statistics for electronic health record laboratory data for use in high-throughput phenotyping algorithms.

We study the question of how to represent or summarize raw laboratory data taken from an electronic health record (EHR) using parametric model selection to reduce or cope with biases induced through clinical care. It has been previously demonstrated that the health care process [1,2], as defined by measurement context[2,3] and measurement patterns [4,5], can influence how EHR data are distributed statistically [6,7]. We construct an algorithm, PopKLD, which is based on information criterion model selection ...

Development of a statistical model for cervical cancer cell death with irreversible electroporation in vitro.

The aim of this study was to develop a statistical model for cell death by irreversible electroporation (IRE) and to show that the statistic model is more accurate than the electric field threshold model in the literature using cervical cancer cells in vitro.

Lethal murine infection model for human respiratory disease-associated Pteropine orthoreovirus.

Pteropine orthoreovirus (PRV) is an emerging bat-borne human pathogen causing severe respiratory illness. To date, however, the evaluation of PRV virulence has largely depended on the limited numbers of clinical cases owing to the lack of animal models. To develop an in vivo model of PRV infection, an inbred C3H mouse strain was infected intranasally with pathogenic PRV strain Miyazaki-Bali/2007. C3H mice suffered severe lung infection with significant body weight reduction and died within 7 days after intr...

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