PubMed Journals Articles About "Scientists Develop Laboratory Model Study Tickborne Flaviviruses" RSS

08:08 EDT 24th March 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "scientists develop laboratory model study tickborne flaviviruses" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 75,000+

Organoids as a Model to Study Infectious Disease.

The advent of the gastric organoid culture system has provided a new model to emulate native epithelial tissue in vitro. Gastric organoids grow from isolated epithelial stem cells and develop into three dimensional structures that can be used to study host physiology. Here we describe current laboratory protocols for growing gastric organoids and the microinjection of pathogens such as Helicobacter pylori into the lumen of gastric organoids in order to study the cellular response following infection.

Laboratory Model of a Collapsible Tube to Develop Bleeding Control Interventions.

To develop knowledge of mechanical control of bleeding in first aid, a laboratory model was set up to simulate flow through a blood vessel. A collapsible tube was used to mimic an artery in two experiments to determine (1) the extent of volumetric flow reduction caused by increases in the degree of compression of the vessel and (2) the extent of flow reduction caused by increases in the length of compression.

Machine learning in laboratory medicine: waiting for the flood?

This review focuses on machine learning and on how methods and models combining data analytics and artificial intelligence have been applied to laboratory medicine so far. Although still in its infancy, the potential for applying machine learning to laboratory data for both diagnostic and prognostic purposes deserves more attention by the readership of this journal, as well as by physician-scientists who will want to take advantage of this new computer-based support in pathology and laboratory medicine.

Immediate assessment of performance of medical laboratory scientists following a 10-day malaria microscopy training programme in Nigeria.

Rapid and precise diagnosis of malaria is an essential element in effective case management and control of malaria. Malaria microscopy is used as the gold standard for malaria diagnosis, however results remain poor as positivity rate in Nigeria is consistently over 90%. The United States President's Malaria Initiative (PMI) through the Malaria Action Program for States (MAPS) supported selected states in Nigeria to build capacity for malaria microscopy. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of in-servic...

The Rising Challenge of Training Physician-Scientists: Recommendations From a Canadian National Consensus Conference.

Physician-scientists are individuals who actively participate in patient care, have undergone additional research training, and devote the majority of their time to research. Physician-scientists are traditionally the primary catalysts in bridging the translational gap-that is, the failure to link fundamental new knowledge in the pathobiology of disease with advances in health care and health policy in a timely manner. However, there has been a shift away from training physician-scientists, and financial su...

Surveillance for and Discovery of Borrelia Species in US Patients Suspected of Tickborne Illness.

Tick-transmitted Borrelia species fall into two heterogeneous bacterial complexes comprised of multiple species, the relapsing fever (RF) group and the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group, which are the causative agents of Lyme borreliosis (LB), the most common tickborne disease in the northern hemisphere. Geographic expansion of human LB in the United States and discovery of emerging Borrelia pathogens underscores the importance of surveillance for disease causing Borrelia.

Making Waves: New Developments in Toxicology with the Zebrafish.

The laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio) is now an accepted model in toxicologic research. The zebrafish model fills a niche between in vitro models and mammalian biomedical models. The developmental characteristics of the small fish are strategically being used by scientists to study topics ranging from high-throughput toxicity screens to toxicity in multi- and transgenerational studies. High-throughput technology has increased the utility of zebrafish embryonic toxicity assays in screening of chemicals and ...

Innovative and new approaches to laboratory diagnosis of Zika and dengue: a meeting report.

Epidemics of dengue, Zika, and other arboviral diseases are increasing in frequency and severity. Current efforts to rapidly identify and manage these epidemics are limited by the short diagnostic window in acute infection, the extensive serologic cross-reactivity among flaviviruses, and the lack of point-of-care diagnostics to detect these viral species in primary care settings. The Partnership for Dengue Control organized a workshop to review the current landscape of Flavivirus diagnostics, identified cur...

Erythrosin B is a potent and broad-spectrum orthosteric inhibitor of the flavivirus NS2B-NS3 protease.

Many flaviviruses, such as Zika virus (ZIKV), Dengue virus (DENV1-4) and yellow fever virus (YFV), are significant human pathogens. Infection with ZIKV, an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus, is associated with increased risk of microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome and other complications in adults. Currently, specific therapy does not exist for any flavivirus infections. In this study, we found that erythrosin B, an FDA-approved food additive, is a potent inhibitor for flaviviruses, includ...

Characterization of Three New Insect-Specific Flaviviruses: Their Relationship to the Mosquito-Borne Flavivirus Pathogens.

Three novel insect-specific flaviviruses, isolated from mosquitoes collected in Peru, Malaysia (Sarawak), and the United States, are characterized. The new viruses, designated La Tina, Kampung Karu, and Long Pine Key, respectively, are antigenically and phylogenetically more similar to the mosquito-borne flavivirus pathogens, than to the classical insect-specific viruses like cell fusing agent and Culex flavivirus. The potential implications of this relationship and the possible uses of these and other arbo...

Factors Influencing Laboratory Information System Effectiveness Through Strategic Planning in Shiraz Teaching Hospitals.

This study aimed to develop and test a research model that examined 7effective factors on the effectiveness of laboratory information system (LIS) through strategic planning. This research was carried out on total laboratory staff, information technology staff, and laboratory managers in Shiraz (a city in the south of Iran) teaching hospitals by structural equation modeling approach in 2015. The results revealed that there was no significant positive relationship between decisions based on cost-benefit anal...

Systematic comparison of routine laboratory measurements with in-hospital mortality: ICU-Labome, a large cohort study of critically ill patients.

In intensive care unit (ICU) patients, many laboratory measurements can be deranged when compared with the standard reference interval (RI). The assumption that larger derangements are associated with worse outcome may not always be correct. The ICU-Labome study systematically evaluated the univariate association of routine laboratory measurements with outcome.

Establishment and Characterization of an Acute Model of Ocular Hypertension by Laser-Induced Occlusion of Episcleral Veins.

This study was designed to develop and characterize a laser-induced model of acute intraocular hypertension that permits the study of the anterior segment of the eye.

Development of an in vivo infection model to study Mouse papillomavirus-1 (MmuPV1).

Preclinical model systems to study multiple features of the papillomavirus life cycle are extremely valuable tools to aid our understanding of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) biology, disease progression and treatments. Mouse papillomavirus (MmuPV1) is the first ever rodent papillomavirus that can infect the laboratory strain of mice and was discovered recently in 2011. This model is an attractive model to study papillomavirus pathogenesis due to the ubiquitous availability of lab mice and the fact that this mou...

Ex vivo culture of human atherosclerotic plaques: A model to study immune cells in atherogenesis.

The mechanisms that drive atherosclerotic plaque progression and destabilization in humans remain largely unknown. Laboratory models are needed to study these mechanisms under controlled conditions. The aim of this study was to establish a new ex vivo model of human atherosclerotic plaques that preserves the main cell types in plaques and the extracellular components in the context of native cytoarchitecture.

Population pharmacokinetics of peginterferon α2a in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

There were significant differences in response and pharmacokinetic characteristics to the peginterferon α2a treatment among Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) patients. The aim of this study is to identify factors which could significantly impact the peginterferon α2a pharmacokinetic characteristics in CHB patients. There were 208 blood samples collected from 178 patients who were considered as CHB and had been treated with peginterferon α2a followed by blood concentration measurement and other laboratory tests. ...

Young scientists and Clinical Biochemists need to develop superior negotiating skills.

Gender Comparison of Medical Student Microsurgical Skills in a Laboratory Model.

 Perceived gender-related differences in surgical skills could limit opportunities available for any aspiring surgeon. There should be more available literature and logical analysis of these observations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the microsurgical skills of male and female medical students using a standard scale in the laboratory.

Interdisciplinary STEM education reform: Dishing out art in a microbiology laboratory.

In the modern educational framework, life science and visual art are usually presented as mutually exclusive subjects. Despite this perceived disciplinary contrast, visual art has the ability to engage and provoke students in ways that can have important downstream effects on scientific discovery, especially when applied in a practical setting such as a laboratory course. This review broadly examines the benefit of interdisciplinary fusions of science and art as well as recent ways in which art strategies h...

Estimating summary statistics for electronic health record laboratory data for use in high-throughput phenotyping algorithms.

We study the question of how to represent or summarize raw laboratory data taken from an electronic health record (EHR) using parametric model selection to reduce or cope with biases induced through clinical care. It has been previously demonstrated that the health care process [1,2], as defined by measurement context[2,3] and measurement patterns [4,5], can influence how EHR data are distributed statistically [6,7]. We construct an algorithm, PopKLD, which is based on information criterion model selection ...

Rapid evolution of genes involved in learning and energy metabolism for domestication of the laboratory rat.

The laboratory rat, widely used in biomedical research, is domesticated from wild brown rat. The origin and genetic mechanism underlying domestication of the laboratory rat remain largely elusive. In the present study, large scale genomes supported a single origin for the laboratory rat, possibly from a sister group to wild rats from Europe/Africa/Middle East. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses uncovered many artificially selected genes (e.g. FOXP2, B3GAT1, and CLOCK) involved in the nervous system. These ...

Opioid Use Disorders, Medication-Assisted Treatment, and the Role of the Laboratory.

Urine drug testing is an essential component in the evaluation and management of individuals with opioid use disorders, including those on buprenorphine or methadone maintenance therapies. Notwithstanding its centrality in adherence monitoring, studies have shown that clinicians have important knowledge deficiencies regarding the ordering and interpretation of drug tests. In this review, we discuss the scope and frequency of testing, the advantages and disadvantages of immunoassay- (presumptive) and liquid ...

Lethal murine infection model for human respiratory disease-associated Pteropine orthoreovirus.

Pteropine orthoreovirus (PRV) is an emerging bat-borne human pathogen causing severe respiratory illness. To date, however, the evaluation of PRV virulence has largely depended on the limited numbers of clinical cases owing to the lack of animal models. To develop an in vivo model of PRV infection, an inbred C3H mouse strain was infected intranasally with pathogenic PRV strain Miyazaki-Bali/2007. C3H mice suffered severe lung infection with significant body weight reduction and died within 7 days after intr...

Development of a clinical pharmacy model within an Australian home nursing service using co-creation and participatory action research: the Visiting Pharmacist (ViP) study.

To develop a collaborative, person-centred model of clinical pharmacy support for community nurses and their medication management clients.

Pumpkin as an Alternate Host Plant for Laboratory Colonies of Grape Mealybug.

The grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn; Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the primary vector of Grapevine Leafroll associated Viruses (GLRaVs) in Washington State vineyards. Rearing laboratory colonies of grape mealybug has proven difficult. Several host plants were tested to determine their suitability for use as an alternate host plants for laboratory colonies of grape mealybug. Of the plants tested, colonies of grape mealybug were successful on pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo cv 'Connecticut field') le...

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