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Showing "sues Gilead alleging patent infringement Truvada Descovy PrEP" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 325

Demographic, Behavioral, and Geographic Differences Between Men, Transmen, and Transwomen Currently on PrEP, Former PrEP Users, and Those Having Never Used PrEP.

Many recent studies have compared men currently taking pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to men not taking PrEP. However, less is known about demographic, behavioral, and geographic characteristics of men formerly, but not currently, taking PrEP. Using a 2017-2018 U.S. national, internet-based sample (n = 10,504) of men, transmen, and transwomen who have sex with men, we compared three groups based on their PrEP experiences. Results highlight individual-level financial and geo-contextual barriers to PrEP ...

Low PrEP Awareness and Use Among People Who Inject Drugs, San Francisco, 2018.

We examined PrEP awareness and use among people who inject drugs (PWID) in San Francisco in 2018. Of 397 respondents not known to be HIV positive, 56.7% had heard of PrEP, 38.9% knew that PrEP can prevent HIV transmission from sharing injection equipment, 13.6% had discussed PrEP with a health care provider, and 3.0% had used PrEP in the last 12 months. All seven male PWID who had used PrEP were also men who had sex with men. There is urgent need to improve messaging on PrEP's effectiveness for PWID and to...

Implementation Strategies to Increase PrEP Uptake in the South.

Seven years after TDF/FTC was approved for pre-exposure prophylaxis to reduce risks of HIV infection, there have been large increases in the number of persons using PrEP in the USA. However, recent data on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use at the state level indicate that people living in the Southern United States are underserved by PrEP relative to their epidemic need. We sought to review possible reasons for inequitable uptake of PrEP in the South and identify implementation approaches to increase PrEP...

Acceptability and feasibility of a pharmacist-led HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) program in the Midwestern United States.

HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) substantially reduces the risk of HIV acquisition, yet significant barriers exist to its prescription and use. Incorporating pharmacists in the PrEP care process may help increase access to PrEP services.

Risk Behavior Not Associated with Self-Perception of PrEP Candidacy: Implications for Designing PrEP Services.

In a study of sexually-active HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in China, we compared behavioral indication for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) based on risk criteria to self-perception of PrEP candidacy (SPC) and explored factors associated with SPC. Of 708 MSM surveyed, 323 (45.6%) were behaviorally-indicated for PrEP, among whom 42.1% self-perceived as appropriate PrEP candidates. In a multivariable model we found no association between sexual behavior nor HIV risk perception and SPC but found...

PrEP Discontinuation and Prevention-Effective Adherence: Experiences of PrEP Users in Ugandan HIV Serodiscordant Couples.

Optimal adherence to oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention involves aligning consistent PrEP use with periods of risk to achieve prevention-effective adherence. Prevention-effective adherence is predicated on individuals discontinuing PrEP during periods without expected risk. For stable, serodiscordant couples, antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence by the HIV-positive partner markedly decreases HIV transmission risk, potentially obviating the need for continued PrEP use; yet little is kn...

Links Between Sexual Orientation and Disclosure Among Black MSM: Sexual Orientation and Disclosure Matter for PrEP Awareness.

The HIV epidemic in the United States has disproportionately burdened Black men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly in the South. While pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has high demonstrated efficacy, uptake is low among Black MSM. We utilized a sample of 345 HIV-negative or unknown HIV status Black MSM from Atlanta, Georgia. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models examined the effects of sexual orientation and disclosure on PrEP awareness and use. Despite the majority of the sample repo...

Medical Providers and Harm Reduction Views on Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention Among People Who Inject Drugs.

Despite high pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) acceptability among people who inject drugs (PWID) and PrEP providers, PrEP uptake is low and little is known about how to promote PrEP among PWID. This qualitative study with providers in North Carolina explored views on PrEP delivery approaches for PWID. Interviewers conducted semistructured interviews with 10 PrEP providers and 10 harm reduction (HR) providers. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed. Many participants expressed acceptability for providing Pr...

Knowledge About Oral PrEP Among Transgender Women in New York City.

This paper grows our understanding about PrEP knowledge in transgender women (TW) to improve PrEP-focused education/outreach. Research took place in New York City. We conducted four focus groups in English or Spanish (N = 18). Discussions focused on participants' perceptions and knowledge of oral PrEP. Most participants knew that PrEP is efficacious and requires consistent use. However, some participants were skeptical of medications; others acknowledged that false assumptions about PrEP exist among TW....

Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Knowledge and Use Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in a Small Metropolitan Region of the Southeastern United States.

Men who have sex with men (MSM) in the southeastern United States continue to be at high risk for HIV. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) provides effective prevention, but PrEP awareness varies across communities. We assessed sexual risk, HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing history, health care experiences associated with PrEP awareness, provider discussions, and PrEP use in a sample of 164 MSM in the Central Savannah River Area of the South. Results revealed that 80.5% of participants were aware...

Perceived barriers to pre-exposure prophylaxis use among HIV-negative men who have sex with men in Tijuana, Mexico: A latent class analysis.

Given the slow uptake of PrEP among cisgender men who have sex with men (MSM) in high-income countries, efforts to roll-out PrEP in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) should address barriers to PrEP use to facilitate its more rapid uptake. To inform PrEP programs in LMIC, we examined patterns of perceived barriers to PrEP use among HIV-negative MSM in Tijuana, Mexico.

PrEP 1.0 and Beyond: Optimizing a Biobehavioral Intervention.

Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate coformulated with emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) was shown to be effective in preventing HIV acquisition when used for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), but questions have arisen regarding optimal PrEP implementation strategies.

"We know this will be hard at the beginning, but better in the long term": understanding PrEP uptake in the general population in Eswatini.

Information regarding HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for the general population is largely lacking, because the majority of PrEP demonstration projects have focused on key populations. This qualitative study examines barriers and facilitators to PrEP uptake and adherence among the general population in Eswatini, where PrEP is offered through public-sector primary-care clinics. We analysed 106 semi-structured in-depth interviews with healthcare workers ( = 26), stakeholders ( = 30), and clients ...

Missed opportunities for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis during a rapid scale-up program at Sydney Sexual Health Centre.

We aimed to estimate HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) uptake and missed opportunities for PrEP through a retrospective review of medical records of clients at high risk of HIV attending the Sydney Sexual Health Centre. Most clients (69%) were taking PrEP, and 7% of those eligible for PrEP were classified as a missed opportunity for PrEP. Although missed opportunities were uncommon, PrEP discussions should be a standard component of care for all clients at risk of HIV acquisition.

Update on HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis: Effectiveness, Drug Resistance, and Risk Compensation.

In 2019, the US government launched an initiative to decrease new HIV infections by 90% over the next decade. Studies have demonstrated the efficacy of HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for high-risk populations, and the United States Preventative Services Task Force has issued a grade A recommendation for PrEP, indicating substantial net benefit. However, questions have been raised about the effectiveness of PrEP in clinical settings and whether PrEP use might promote antiretroviral drug resistance and in...

Evaluating the impact of policies recommending PrEP to subpopulations of men and transgender women who have sex with men based on demographic and behavioral risk factors.

Developing guidelines to inform the use of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention in resource-limited settings must necessarily be informed by considering the resources and infrastructure needed for PrEP delivery. We describe an approach that identifies subpopulations of cisgender men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) to prioritize for the rollout of PrEP in resource-limited settings.

Modeling the joint effects of adolescent and adult PrEP for sexual minority males in the United States.

Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective and safe intervention approved for use to prevent HIV transmission. PrEP scale-up strategies and clinical practice are currently being informed by modeling studies, which have estimated the impact of PrEP in adult and adolescent MSM populations separately. This partitioning may miss important effects or yield biased estimates by excluding dependencies between populations.

"The Drug Will Help Protect My Tomorrow": Perceptions of Integrating PrEP into HIV Prevention Behaviors Among Female Sex Workers in Lilongwe, Malawi.

Female sex workers (FSW) are disproportionately at risk for HIV. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention method, yet approaches for incorporating PrEP within prevention strategies used by FSW are lacking. Semistructured focus group discussions were conducted with 44 HIV-negative FSW in Lilongwe, Malawi to explore perceptions of PrEP: acceptability, integration within HIV prevention behaviors, and barriers to use. Acceptability of PrEP was high. Motivation to use PrEP was rooted in lov...

Patent pledges, open IP, or patent pools? Developing taxonomies in the thicket of terminologies.

Recently, a range of organisations, including car and consumer electronics manufacturers, have applied so-called patent pledges. A patent pledge is a publicly announced intervention by patent-owning entities ('pledgers') to out-license active patents to the restricted or unrestricted public free from or bound to certain conditions for a reasonable or no monetary compensation. Despite growing research to better understand this phenomenon, the underlying terminology remains contradictory. We apply an inductiv...

Increasing Access to Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Among Transgender Women and Transfeminine Nonbinary Individuals.

In the United States, transgender women and transfeminine nonbinary individuals (TGWNBI) are a highly vulnerable and marginalized population at high risk for HIV. Despite disproportionate rates of HIV, a striking lack of research exists on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use among TGWNBI. We conducted 30 semi-structured interviews with TGWNBI both on PrEP and those not on PrEP. Questions explored PrEP access, initiation, and factors to increase broad interest and participation in PrEP. Qualitative data were...

Factors Associated with PrEP Support and Disclosure Among YMSM and Transgender Individuals Assigned Male at Birth in Chicago.

Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is one of the best biomedical HIV prevention tools available. However, uptake, particularly in communities of men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender individuals assigned male at birth (AMAB), remains low. Further, the role of an individual's social support structure on PrEP uptake and adherence remains largely understudied. Understanding MSM and AMAB transgender individuals' perceptions of PrEP use as well as support and patterns of disclosure of (or intent to disclo...

Brief Report: Routine Use of Oral PrEP in a Phase 2 Rectal Microbicide Study of Tenofovir Reduced-Glycerin 1% Gel (MTN-017).

As daily oral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) becomes standard for HIV prevention, routine use of PrEP is likely to increase within clinical trials of novel preventive agents. We describe the prevalence and characteristics of participants reporting nonstudy oral PrEP use within Microbicide Trials Network-017 (MTN-017), a phase 2 trial of a rectal microbicide.

Associations Between Relationship Power and Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Use Among Men Who Have Sex With Men.

Few studies have attempted to understand relationship-level factors impacting PrEP utilization among men who have sex with men (MSM). This study examined associations between relationship power and PrEP use among 826 MSM participating in a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey. The results of our analysis indicate that decision-making dominance was positively associated with PrEP use among MSM, but the association between relationship control/overall relationship power and PrEP use was inconclusive. Furthe...

PrEP-RN: Clinical Considerations and Protocols for Nurse-Led PrEP.

No Evidence of Sexual Risk Compensation Following PrEP Initiation Among Heterosexual HIV Serodiscordant Couples in Kenya and Uganda.

Recent studies among men who have sex with men suggest that sexual behaviors associated with risk of sexually transmitted infections increase following initiation of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention. We used longitudinal data from HIV-uninfected participants (n = 1013) enrolled in an open-label study of PrEP delivered to Ugandan and Kenyan heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples to understand the association between PrEP initiation and HIV risk-related sexual behaviors among these coup...

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