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PubMed Journals Articles About "When Spines Changed Mammalian Evolution" RSS

07:44 EDT 1st April 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "when spines changed mammalian evolution" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 6,200+

Associated evolution of fruit size, fruit color and spines in Neotropical palms.

Understanding how ecological interactions have shaped the evolutionary dynamics of species traits remains a challenge in evolutionary ecology. Combining trait evolution models and phylogenies, we analyzed the evolution of characters associated with seed dispersal (fruit size and color) and herbivory (spines) in Neotropical palms to infer the role of these opposing animal-plant interactions in driving evolutionary patterns. We found that the evolution of fruit color and fruit size were associated in Neotropi...


All Ears: Genetic Bases of Mammalian Inner Ear Evolution.

Corrigendum to "Contrasting patterns of coding and flanking region evolution in mammalian keratin associated protein-1 genes" Mol. Phylogenet. Evolut. 133 (2019) 352-361.


Circadian clock regulates the shape and content of dendritic spines in mouse barrel cortex.

Circadian rhythmicity affects neuronal activity induced changes in the density of synaptic contacts and dendritic spines, the most common location of synapses, in mouse somatosensory cortex. In the present study we analyzed morphology of single- and double-synapse spines under light/dark (12:12) and constant darkness conditions. Using serial electron micrographs we examined the shape of spines (stubby, thin, mushroom) and their content (smooth endoplasmic reticulum, spine apparatus), because these features ...

The Evolution of Lactation in Mammalian Species.

Lactation is a defining characteristic of all mammals, and, indeed, mammals draw their name from mammae, or mammary glands. The evolution of mammary glands has been the subject of debate since Charles Darwin. The purpose of this brief review is not to examine all past theories of mammary evolution but to consider the evolution of the mammary gland in relation to (1) modern paleobiology, giving special attention to the mammaliaforms which had many mammalian features, including delayed tooth development sugge...

CRMP2 improves memory deficits by enhancing the maturation of neuronal dendritic spines after traumatic brain injury.

Our recent study investigated the role of collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2) on dendritic spine morphology and memory function after traumatic brain injury (TBI). First, we examined the density and morphology of dendritic spines in Thy1-GFP mice on the 1 st day (P1D) and 7th day (P7D) after controlled cortical impact injury (CCI). The dendritic spine density in the hippocampus was decreased on P1D, in which mainly mushroom-type and thin-type spines were lost. The density of dendritic spines was...

Evolution of Marsupial Genomes.

Marsupial genomes, which are packaged into large chromosomes, provide a powerful resource for studying the mechanisms of genome evolution. The extensive and valuable body of work on marsupial cytogenetics, combined more recently with genome sequence data, has enabled prediction of the 2 = 14 karyotype ancestral to all marsupial families. The application of both chromosome biology and genome sequencing, or chromosomics, has been a necessary approach for various aspects of mammalian genome evolution, such as ...

Evolution: The Two Faces of Plant-Eating Dinosaurs.

Plant-eating dinosaurs evolved varied feeding strategies. A new study demonstrates convergent evolution of their skulls and teeth towards two distinct functional optima, one resembling advanced mammalian herbivory and the other echoing herbivory in birds and other reptiles.

Evolution evolving? Reflections on big questions.

John Bonner managed a long and productive career that balanced specialized inquiry into cellular slime molds with general investigations of big questions in evolutionary biology, such as the origins of multicellular development and the evolution of complexity. This commentary engages with his final paper ("The evolution of evolution"), which argues that the evolutionary process has changed through the history of life. In particular, Bonner emphasizes the possibility that natural selection plays different ro...

Neofunctionalization of the UCP1 mediated the non-shivering thermogenesis in the evolution of small-sized placental mammals.

The acquisition of UCP1-mediated non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) was an important event during the evolution of mammals. Here, we assessed the thermogenic neofunctionalization that occurred in the mammalian UCP1, by performing detailed comparative evolutionary genomics analyses (including phylogenetic and selection analyses) of the UCP family members across all major vertebrate classes. Heterogeneously distributed positive selection signatures were found in several UCPs, being preferably located in the mi...

Conservation of eATP perception throughout multicellular animal evolution: Identification and functional characterization of coral and amphioxus P2X7-like receptors and flounder P2X7 receptor.

Perception of extracellular ATP (eATP), a common endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern, is through its receptor P2X7R. If eATP/P2X7R signaling is conserved throughout animal evolution is unknown. Moreover, little information is currently available regarding P2X7R in invertebrates. Here we demonstrated that the coral P2X7-like receptor, AdP2X7RL, the amphioxus P2X7-like receptor, BjP2X7RL and the flounder P2X7 receptor, PoP2X7R, shared common features characteristic of mammalian P2X7R, and their 3D ...

Regulation of hippocampal dendritic spines following sleep deprivation.

Accumulating evidence supports the role of sleep in synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. One line of investigation, the synaptic homeostasis hypothesis, has emphasized the increase in synaptic strength during waking, and compensatory downsizing of (presumably less frequently used) synapses during sleep. Conversely, other studies have reported downsizing and loss of dendritic spines following sleep deprivation. We wanted to determine the effect of sleep deprivation on dendritic spines of hippocampal...

The Landscape of Adaptive Evolution of a Gut Commensal Bacteria in Aging Mice.

Aging is a complex process, with many associated time-dependent phenotypes. The gut microbiota have long been postulated as an important factor in shaping healthy aging [1, 2]. During aging, changes in the microbiota composition occur, with taxa that are rare in adults becoming dominant in the elderly [3, 4]. Increased inflammation associated with aging is also known to modulate and be modulated by the microbiota [5]. Ecological interactions are known to affect the evolution of bacteria both in vitro [6] a...

Learning-based vertebra localization and labeling in 3D CT data of possibly incomplete and pathological spines.

We present a fully automatic system based on learning approaches, which aims to localization and identification (labeling) of vertebrae in 3D computed tomography (CT) scans of possibly incomplete spines in patients with bone metastases and vertebral compressions.

Developmental constraints and resource environment shape early emergence and investment in spines in saplings.

Herbivory by large mammals imposes a critical recruitment bottleneck on plants in many systems. Spines defend plants against large herbivores and how early they emerge in saplings may be one of the strongest predictors of sapling survival in herbivore-rich environments. Yet little effort has been directed at understanding the variability in spine emergence across saplings.

Emerging Frontiers in the Study of Molecular Evolution.

A collection of the editors of Journal of Molecular Evolution have gotten together to pose a set of key challenges and future directions for the field of molecular evolution. Topics include challenges and new directions in prebiotic chemistry and the RNA world, reconstruction of early cellular genomes and proteins, macromolecular and functional evolution, evolutionary cell biology, genome evolution, molecular evolutionary ecology, viral phylodynamics, theoretical population genomics, somatic cell molecular ...

Evolution of epimorphosis in mammals.

Mammalian epimorphic regeneration is rare and digit tip regeneration in mice is the best-studied model for a multi-tissue regenerative event that involves blastema formation. Digit tip regeneration parallels human fingertip regeneration, thus understanding the details of this response can provide insight into developing strategies to expand the potential of human regeneration. Following amputation, the digit stump undergoes a strong histolytic response involving osteoclast-mediated bone degradation that is ...

Evolution of Larval Segment Position across 12 Drosophila Species.

Individual and synergistic effects of male external genital traits in sexual selection.

Male genital traits exhibit extraordinary inter-specific phenotypic variation. This remarkable and general evolutionary trend is widely considered to be the result of sexual selection. However, we still do not have a good understanding of whether or how individual genital traits function in different competitive arenas (episodes of sexual selection), or how different genital traits may interact to influence competitive outcomes. Here, we use an experimental approach based on high-precision laser phenotypic ...

Glucocorticoid and β-adrenergic regulation of hippocampal dendritic spines.

Glucocorticoid hormones are particularly potent in enhancing memory formation. Notably, this occurs in close synergy with arousal, i.e. when norepinephrine levels are enhanced. Here we examined whether glucocorticoid and norepinephrine hormones regulate the number of spines in hippocampal primary neurons. We report that a brief administration of corticosterone or the β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol alone increases spine number. This effect becomes particularly prominent when corticosterone and ...

What Doesn't Kill You Makes You Stronger: Transposons as Dual Players in Chromatin Regulation and Genomic Variation.

Transposable elements (TEs) are sequences currently or historically mobile, and are present across all eukaryotic genomes. A growing interest in understanding the regulation and function of TEs has revealed seemingly dichotomous roles for these elements in evolution, development, and disease. On the one hand, many gene regulatory networks owe their organization to the spread of cis-elements and DNA binding sites through TE mobilization during evolution. On the other hand, the uncontrolled activity of transp...

The chick pallium displays divergent expression patterns of chick orthologues of mammalian neocortical deep layer-specific genes.

The avian pallium is organised into clusters of neurons and does not have layered structures such as those seen in the mammalian neocortex. The evolutionary relationship between sub-regions of avian pallium and layers of mammalian neocortex remains unclear. One hypothesis, based on the similarities in neural connections of the motor output neurons that project to sub-pallial targets, proposed the cell-type homology between brainstem projection neurons in neocortex layers 5 or 6 (L5/6) and those in the avian...

Modern Medical Consequences of the Ancient Evolution of a Long, Flexible Lumbar Spine.

Modern human bipedality is unique and requires lumbar lordosis, whereas chimpanzees, our closest relatives, have short lumbar spines rendering them incapable of lordosis. To facilitate lordosis, humans have longer lumbar spines, greater lumbosacral angle, dorsally wedged lumbar vertebral bodies, and lumbar zygapophyseal joints with both increasingly coronal orientation and further caudal interfacet distances. These features limit modern lower lumbar spine and lumbosacral joint ailments, albeit imperfectly. ...

A double-indole structure fluorescent probe for monitoring sulfur dioxide derivatives with distinct ratiometric fluorescence signals in mammalian cells.

Based on the addition reaction of the sulfur dioxide derivative to the CC double bond, the probe HDI was designed and synthesized. The two-channel fluorescent probe HDI changed from orange to colorless and the fluorescence changed from red to blue when the bisulfite was detected. And the probe responds rapidly to bisulfite within 2 min, with high sensitivity and specificity. In addition, the probe can be used to detect the concentration of bisulfite with a low detection limit (80 nM). Cytological experi...

Microbiome: Evolution in a World of Interaction.

Ecological interactions can generate strong selection. Two new studies reveal that the tempo and patterns of evolutionary change in a mammalian gut commensal can be altered dramatically during interactions with both the host and its microbiome.


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