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PubMed Journals Articles About "Bile Salts Regulate CYP7A1 Expression Elicit Fibrotic Response" RSS

23:45 EDT 22nd July 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Bile salts regulate CYP7A1 expression elicit fibrotic response" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 29,000+

Inflammation-induced fibrosis in skeletal muscle of female carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Female carriers of DMD gene mutations may be symptomatic and show variable skeletal as well as cardiac muscle symptoms. Skeletal muscle can exhibit morphological alterations. However, inflammatory, degenerative and fibrotic changes as seen in Duchenne boys have not been specifically analysed yet, so we addressed the question whether skeletal muscle of female carriers show such alterations. Thirteen carriers with an age range of 3 to 50 years were studied retrospectively. Five out of 13 women had clinically ...


ZBTB16: A new biomarker for primitive neuroectodermal tumor element / Ewing sarcoma.

Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) traditionally encompasses two different classes of tumors with similar morphology - PNET of the peripheral nervous system (pPNET) and PNET of the central nervous system (cPNET). The latter also includes germ cell tumor-derived PNET (gPNET). There are currently no specific markers for gPNET. This study seeks to investigate the expression of ZBTB16 in PNET and other small round blue cell tumors as well as its potential diagnostic utility. Immunohistochemical expression o...

Nutrient Zinc at the Host-Pathogen Interface.

Zinc is an essential cofactor required for life and, as such, mechanisms exist for its homeostatic maintenance in biological systems. Despite the evolutionary distance between vertebrates and microbial life, there are parallel mechanisms to balance the essentiality of zinc with its inherent toxicity. Vertebrates regulate zinc homeostasis through a complex network of metal transporters and buffering systems that respond to changes in nutritional zinc availability or inflammation. Fine-tuning of this network ...


Bystander activation and autoimmunity.

The interaction over time of genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors (i.e., autoimmune ecology) increases or decreases the liability an individual would have to develop an autoimmune disease (AD) depending on the misbalance between risk and protective effects. Pathogens have been the most common antecedent events studied, but multiple other environmental factors including xenobiotic chemicals, drugs, vaccines, and nutritional factors have been implicated into the development of ADs. Three main mechani...

CRISPR-Cas III-A Csm6 CARF Domain Is a Ring Nuclease Triggering Stepwise cA Cleavage with ApA>p Formation Terminating RNase Activity.

Type III-A CRISPR-Cas surveillance complexes containing multi-subunit Csm effector, guide, and target RNAs exhibit multiple activities, including formation of cyclic-oligoadenylates (cA) from ATP and subsequent cA-mediated cleavage of single-strand RNA (ssRNA) by the trans-acting Csm6 RNase. Our structure-function studies have focused on Thermococcus onnurineus Csm6 to deduce mechanistic insights into how cA binding to the Csm6 CARF domain triggers the RNase activity of the Csm6 HEPN domain and what factor...

TREX1 variants in Sjogren's syndrome related lymphomagenesis.

Genetic variants of the three-prime repair exonuclease 1 (TREX1) -an exonuclease involved in DNA repair and degradation- have been previously found to increase susceptibility to Aicardi Goutieres syndrome, familial chilblain lupus and systemic lupus erythematosus. We aimed to explore whether TREX1 common variants could influence the risk of primary Sjogren's syndrome (SS) and SS-related lymphoma. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TREX1 gene (rs11797, rs3135941 and rs3135945) were evaluated...

Mosquito Host-Seeking Regulation: Targets for Behavioral Control.

Female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes require protein from blood to develop eggs. They have evolved a strong innate drive to find and bite humans and engorge on their blood. Decades of research have revealed that attraction to hosts is suppressed for days after blood-feeding. During this time, females coordinate complex physiological changes, allowing them to utilize blood protein to develop eggs: clearing excess fluid, digesting protein, and egg maturation. How do mechanosensation, nutrient consumption, and repr...

Predictive value of phenotypic signatures of bladder cancer response to cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder confers only a modest survival advantage. Patients with pathologic progression on NAC have poor outcomes related to a delay in definitive surgical management.

Temporal plasticity of insulin and incretin secretion and insulin sensitivity following sleeve gastrectomy contribute to sustained improvements in glucose control.

Bariatric surgery acutely improves glucose control, an effect that is generally sustained for years in most patients. The acute postoperative glycemic reduction is at least partially mediated by enhanced incretin secretion and islet function, and occurs independent of caloric restriction, whereas the sustained improvement in glucose control is associated with increased insulin sensitivity. However, studies in humans with bariatric surgery suggest that these elevations are not static but undergo coordinated ...

Intersections between transcription-coupled repair and alkylation damage reversal.

The response to DNA damage intersects with many other physiological processes in the cell, such as DNA replication, chromatin remodeling, and the cell cycle. Certain damaging lesions, such as UV-induced pyrimidine dimers, also strongly block RNA polymerases, necessitating the coordination of the repair mechanism with remodeling of the elongating transcriptional machinery, in a process called transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER). This pathway is typically not thought to be engaged with s...

Two forms of human DNA polymerase δ: Who does what and why?

DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ) plays a central role in lagging strand DNA synthesis in eukaryotic cells, as well as an important role in DNA repair processes. Human Pol δ4 is a heterotetramer of four subunits, the smallest of which is p12. Pol δ3 is a trimeric form that is generated in vivo by the degradation of the p12 subunit in response to DNA damage, and during entry into S-phase. The biochemical properties of the two forms of Pol δ, as well as the changes in their distribution during the cell cycle, are...

Death Rate of E. coli during Starvation Is Set by Maintenance Cost and Biomass Recycling.

To break down organismal fitness into molecular contributions, costs and benefits of cellular components must be analyzed in all phases of the organism's life cycle. Here, we establish the required quantitative approach for the death phase of the model bacterium Escherichia coli. We show that in carbon starvation, an exponential decay of viability emerges as a collective phenomenon, with viable cells recycling nutrients from cell carcasses to maintain viability. The observed collective death rate is determi...

Morin induces endothelium-dependent relaxation by activating TRPV4 channels in rat mesenteric arteries.

Morin, a natural flavonol, has been reported to have beneficial pharmacological effects. Although its vascular protective effects have been studied, little is known about its effects on the mesenteric artery and the underlying mechanisms. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 (TRPV4) channels are one of the most important Ca-permeable cation channels in vascular endothelial cells and play an important role in regulating rat mesenteric vascular tone. In the present study, the myogenic effects of mori...

Identification of potential biomarkers on microarray data using distributed gene selection approach.

In recent times, several feature selection (FS) methods have introduced to identify the biomarkers from gene expression datasets. It has gained extensive attention to solve cancer classification problem, but they have some limitations. First, the majority of FS approaches increases the computational cost due to the centralized data structure. Second, an irrelevant ranked gene that could perform well regarding classification accuracy with suitable subset of genes will be left out of the selection. To resolve...

The macroscopic appearance of the major duodenal papilla influences bile duct cannulation: a prospective multicenter study by the Scandinavian Association for Digestive Endoscopy study group for ERCP.

Certain appearances of the major duodenal papilla have been claimed to make cannulation more difficult during ERCP. This study uses a validated classification of the endoscopic appearance of the major duodenal papilla to determine if certain types of papilla predisposes to difficult cannulation.

NLRP3 upregulation in A549 cells co-cultured with THP-1 macrophages under hypoxia via deregulated TGF-β signaling.

NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) is one of the key components of the inflammasome. NLRP3 also participates in the regulation of fibrosis independent of the inflammasome. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism of upregulation of NLRP3 expression in A549 cells co-cultured with THP-1 macrophages under hypoxia. Upregulation of NLRP3 was suppressed after treatment with inhibitors of TGF-β receptor or p38, but not with inhibitors of the IL-1 receptor and SMAD3. The analysis of down...

Human mesenchymal stromal cells engineered to express collagen VII can restore anchoring fibrils in recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa skin graft chimeras.

Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is a debilitating genodermatosis caused by loss-of-function mutations in COL7A1 encoding type VII collagen (C7), the main component of anchoring fibrils (AFs) at the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ). With no curative treatments presently available, retrovirally-transduced autologous epidermal grafts and intradermal lentivirally-engineered fibroblast injections are being investigated. Alternative approaches aim to infuse allogeneic mesenchymal stromal cells (M...

The Role of MicroRNA-21 in Venous Neointimal Hyperplasia: Implications for Targeting miR-21 for VNH Treatment.

The molecular mechanism of hemodialysis access arteriovenous fistula (AVF) failure due to venous neointimal hyperplasia (VNH) is not known. The role of microRNA-21 (miR-21) in VNH associated with AVF failure was investigated by performing in vivo and in vitro experiments. In situ hybridization results revealed that miR-21 expression increased and was associated with fibroblasts in failed AVFs from patients. In a murine AVF model, qRT-PCR gene expression results showed a significant increase in miR-21 and ...

Long-Term Safety and Efficacy of Gene-Pulmonary Macrophage Transplantation Therapy of PAP in Csf2ra Mice.

Hereditary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a genetic lung disease characterized by surfactant accumulation and respiratory failure arising from disruption of GM-CSF signaling. While mutations in either CSF2RA or CSF2RB (encoding GM-CSF receptor α or β chains, respectively) can cause PAP, α chain mutations are responsible in most patients. Pulmonary macrophage transplantation (PMT) is a promising new cell therapy in development; however, no studies have evaluated this approach for hereditary PAP (...

Hyperoside protects rat ovarian granulosa cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced injury by sonic hedgehog signaling pathway.

Sustained exogenous stimuli induce oxidative stress in granulosa cells and cause cell apoptosis, thereby resulting in follicular atresia. Hyperoside is a natural flavonoid that possesses anti-oxidant activity. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of hyperoside on hydrogen peroxide (HO)-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in granulosa cells. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay. The malondialdehyde (MDA) level and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), ...

Multiple viral proteins and immune response pathways act to generate robust long-term immunity in Sudan virus survivors.

Profiles of immunity developed in filovirus patients and survivors have begun to shed light on antigen-specific cellular immune responses that had been previously under-studied. However, our knowledge of the breadth and length of those responses and the viral targets which mediate long-term memory immunity still lags significantly behind.

Effect of the melatonin nuclear receptor RORα on monochromatic light-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation in chicken thymus.

Present study clarified role of melatonin nuclear receptor RORα in monochromatic light-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation in chicks. Green light elevated plasma melatonin level and organ index, T-lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 production in thymus, but decreased RORα, p-P65 and p-IκB expressions relative to red light. By contrast, pinealectomy decreased the melatonin content and reversed the stimulatory effect of green light, and resulted in that these thymus parameters were not significantly differen...

Six New Polyhydroxylated Steroids Conjugated with Taurine, Microdiscusols A-F, from the Arctic Starfish Asterias microdiscus.

Six new polyhydroxylated steroids conjugated with taurine, microdiscusols A-F, were isolated from the alcoholic extract of the Arctic starfish Asterias microdiscus. Three of them have been found to have additional sulfate groups in tetracyclic cores. The structures of new compounds were established by 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS techniques. The found steroid taurine conjugates resemble, by their structures, salts of bile acids and alcohols of lower vertebrates.

Recent Methods for Diversification of Bile Acids and Related Steroids towards Supramolecular.

Bile acids (BAs) are a class of steroidal surfactants that have been studied as building blocks for constructing useful chemical frameworks. These starting materials have rigid structures with defined hydrophobic and hydrophilic faces, which promotes self-assembly in well-defined chemical architectures. The BA scaffolds can undergo a variety of transformations to introduce a range functionalities with practical applications. These functionalized derivatives have seen application in pharmacology, supramolecu...

Prefrontal cortex activity triggered by affective faces exposure and its relationship with neuroticism.

The emotional processing of affective faces is an essential element of social relationships. Individual differences in personality traits such as neuroticism can influence how we manage these interactions. The objective of this study was to analyze changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity in response to visual exposure to affective faces, and to ascertain whether changes in PFC activity were related to scores in neuroticism, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem and dependence facets. Fifty-two ...


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