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PubMed Journals Articles About "Microbial Production Short Medium Chain Esters Enzymes Pathways" RSS

22:59 EDT 22nd July 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Microbial production short medium chain esters Enzymes pathways" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 26,000+

Circumferential Partial-Thickness Burn Caused by Mobile Telephone Charger: A Case Report.

Many children and adolescents have access to portable electronic devices. Although not always the case, these devices are often charged at nighttime, especially while being used in bed. There are increasing media reports of electric current injury from the portable electronic devices' charging cables, particularly with equipment that is available for lower cost from generic manufacturers. A 19-year-old woman presented to the pediatric emergency department after a burn from her generic iPhone charger. She wa...


Nutrient Zinc at the Host-Pathogen Interface.

Zinc is an essential cofactor required for life and, as such, mechanisms exist for its homeostatic maintenance in biological systems. Despite the evolutionary distance between vertebrates and microbial life, there are parallel mechanisms to balance the essentiality of zinc with its inherent toxicity. Vertebrates regulate zinc homeostasis through a complex network of metal transporters and buffering systems that respond to changes in nutritional zinc availability or inflammation. Fine-tuning of this network ...

Inflammasomes and autoimmune and rheumatic diseases: A comprehensive review.

Inflammasomes are a multi-protein platform forming a part of the innate immune system. Inflammasomes are at standby status and can be activated when needed. Inflammasome activation is an important mechanism for the production of active interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, which have important roles to instruct adaptive immunity. Active forms of inflammasomes trigger a series of inflammatory cascades and lead to the differentiation and polarization of naïve T cells and secretion of various cytokines, which can i...


Complications and Costs Are Not Increased After Total Hip Arthroplasty in Patients With a History of Prostate Cancer.

Prostate cancer (PCa) is a largely prevalent disease in the United States. Moreover, it is unclear whether the thromboembolic burden of disease remains present after the cancer has been treated and whether such state impacts the short-term outcomes of orthopedic procedures. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess 90-day postoperative complications and costs after total hip arthroplasty (THA) for osteoarthritis in patients with a history of PCa.

Rabies vaccine and immunoglobulin supply and logistics: Challenges and opportunities for rabies elimination in Kenya.

Prompt provision of post-exposure-prophylaxis (PEP) including vaccines and rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) to persons bitten by suspect rabid dogs is a key strategy to eliminating human deaths from dog-mediated rabies in Kenya by 2030. We assessed the availability, forecasting and supply chain logistics for rabies PEP in Kenya, compared with the system used for vaccines in the expanded program of immunization (routine vaccines). Semi-structured questionnaires capturing data on forecasting, procurement, distribu...

Cholera surveillance and estimation of burden of cholera.

Cholera continues to be poorly controlled in multiple epidemic and endemic areas across the globe, with estimated annual incidence of 1.3-4.0 million cases, resulting in 21,000 to 143,000 deaths worldwide in 2015. The usual approach for patient diagnosis and cholera surveillance is clinical examination of cases of acute watery diarrhea (AWD), confirmed by positive culture or polymerase chain reaction tests. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are used in regions with limited laboratory capacities but have been ...

TREX1 variants in Sjogren's syndrome related lymphomagenesis.

Genetic variants of the three-prime repair exonuclease 1 (TREX1) -an exonuclease involved in DNA repair and degradation- have been previously found to increase susceptibility to Aicardi Goutieres syndrome, familial chilblain lupus and systemic lupus erythematosus. We aimed to explore whether TREX1 common variants could influence the risk of primary Sjogren's syndrome (SS) and SS-related lymphoma. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TREX1 gene (rs11797, rs3135941 and rs3135945) were evaluated...

Heme biosynthesis and the porphyrias.

Porphyrias, is a general term for a group of metabolic diseases that are genetic in nature. In each specific porphyria the activity of specific enzymes in the heme biosynthetic pathway is defective and leads to accumulation of pathway intermediates. Phenotypically, each disease leads to either neurologic and/or photocutaneous symptoms based on the metabolic intermediate that accumulates. In each porphyria the distinct patterns of these substances in plasma, erythrocytes, urine and feces are the basis for di...

Mosquito Host-Seeking Regulation: Targets for Behavioral Control.

Female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes require protein from blood to develop eggs. They have evolved a strong innate drive to find and bite humans and engorge on their blood. Decades of research have revealed that attraction to hosts is suppressed for days after blood-feeding. During this time, females coordinate complex physiological changes, allowing them to utilize blood protein to develop eggs: clearing excess fluid, digesting protein, and egg maturation. How do mechanosensation, nutrient consumption, and repr...

Improvement of the activity of l-asparaginase I improvement of the catalytic activity of l-asparaginase I from Bacillus megaterium H-1 by in vitro directed evolution.

Directed evolution methodologies have been used as promising strategies for improving the catalytic properties of many existing enzymes. In the presented work, this approach was applied to improve the enzyme activity of l-asparaginase I obtained from Bacillus megaterium H-1. After two rounds of error-prone polymerase chain reaction (epPCR) and two generations of sequential DNA shuffling, all of 5 different mutants showed a significant increase in the enzyme activity of l-asparaginase I, ranging from 6.27 to...

CRISPR Craze to Transform Cardiac Biology.

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) has revolutionized many research areas and has rapidly become the gold standard in genome editing by outrivaling all other available tools. Its unprecedented versatility creates the opportunity to modify any aspect of gene regulation. Even though the cardiac field is starting to appreciate the potential of CRISPR, many applications to study cardiac biology and disease so far have remained untouched. In particular, CRISPR-based strategies tha...

Two ways of escaping from oxidative RNA damage: Selective degradation and cell death.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced during normal cellular metabolism, and various oxidized compounds are formed by the ROS attack. Among oxidized bases, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) is most abundant and seems important with respect to the maintenance and transfer of genetic information. The accumulation of 8-oxoG in messenger RNA may cause errors during codon-anticodon pairing in the translation process, which may result in the synthesis of abnormal proteins. Organisms that use oxygen as the so...

Morin induces endothelium-dependent relaxation by activating TRPV4 channels in rat mesenteric arteries.

Morin, a natural flavonol, has been reported to have beneficial pharmacological effects. Although its vascular protective effects have been studied, little is known about its effects on the mesenteric artery and the underlying mechanisms. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 (TRPV4) channels are one of the most important Ca-permeable cation channels in vascular endothelial cells and play an important role in regulating rat mesenteric vascular tone. In the present study, the myogenic effects of mori...

Long-Term Safety and Efficacy of Gene-Pulmonary Macrophage Transplantation Therapy of PAP in Csf2ra Mice.

Hereditary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a genetic lung disease characterized by surfactant accumulation and respiratory failure arising from disruption of GM-CSF signaling. While mutations in either CSF2RA or CSF2RB (encoding GM-CSF receptor α or β chains, respectively) can cause PAP, α chain mutations are responsible in most patients. Pulmonary macrophage transplantation (PMT) is a promising new cell therapy in development; however, no studies have evaluated this approach for hereditary PAP (...

Multidimensional selection by temporal attention and feature-based attention: Evidence from event-related potentials.

Numerous studies have shown that temporal attention plays an important role in selective attention. The present study used the event-related potential (ERP) to investigate how temporal attention modulates effects of feature-based attention in visual selection when both dimensions are task-relevant. We combined a modified temporal cueing paradigm with a feature-based attention task. In each trial, either a valid or an invalid temporal cue announced a short or long foreperiod (FP). After each FP, a visual sti...

Hyperoside protects rat ovarian granulosa cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced injury by sonic hedgehog signaling pathway.

Sustained exogenous stimuli induce oxidative stress in granulosa cells and cause cell apoptosis, thereby resulting in follicular atresia. Hyperoside is a natural flavonoid that possesses anti-oxidant activity. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of hyperoside on hydrogen peroxide (HO)-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in granulosa cells. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay. The malondialdehyde (MDA) level and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), ...

Insights into the mechanisms and dynamics of energy transfer in plant light-harvesting complexes from two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy.

During the past two decades, two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) and related techniques have emerged as a potent experimental toolset to study the ultrafast elementary steps of photosynthesis. Apart from the highly engaging albeit controversial analysis of the role of quantum coherences in the photosynthetic processes, 2DES has been applied to resolve the dynamics and pathways of energy and electron transport in various light-harvesting antenna systems and reaction centres, providing unsurpassed ...

Long non-coding RNA TUG1 alleviates LPS-induced injury of PC-12 cells by down-regulating microRNA-127.

The limited therapeutic strategies and the unsatisfied prognosis for spinal cord injury (SCI) make the identification of innovative therapeutic targets for SCI become very urgent. Herein, we explored the role of long non-cording RNA taurine up-regulated gene 1 (lncRNA TUG1) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated PC-12 cells and studied the downstream effector and signaling cascades. We found that LPS-induced decrease of cell viability, increase of apoptosis and release of IL-6 and TNF-α were mitigated by TUG1...

Multiple viral proteins and immune response pathways act to generate robust long-term immunity in Sudan virus survivors.

Profiles of immunity developed in filovirus patients and survivors have begun to shed light on antigen-specific cellular immune responses that had been previously under-studied. However, our knowledge of the breadth and length of those responses and the viral targets which mediate long-term memory immunity still lags significantly behind.

Effects of glepaglutide, a novel long-acting glucagon-like peptide-2 analogue, on markers of liver status in patients with short bowel syndrome: findings from a randomised phase 2 trial.

With the introduction of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) in the treatment of short bowel syndrome (SBS), there is emerging evidence that GLP-2 may play a role in the restoration of the disturbed homeostatic feedback in the gut-liver axis and may ameliorate SBS-associated liver damage. We have previously presented that daily subcutaneous injections with 1 and 10 mg of glepaglutide improved intestinal function in patients with SBS. As exploratory endpoints, we here assessed the effect of glepaglutide on liv...

Impact of kestose supplementation on the healthy adult microbiota in in vitro fecal batch cultures.

Prebiotics are widely used to shape a balanced microbiota in humans and animals. 1-Kestose (kestose) is one of the major components in commercialized short-chain fructooligosaccharide and is a promising prebiotic for infants. We herein studied the impact of kestose on the healthy adult microbiota in an in vitro fecal batch culture model. Stool samples obtained from seven healthy adults were diluted, inoculated into broth supplemented with or without 0.5% (w/v) kestose (kestose group and control group, respe...

The investigation of media components for optimal metabolite production of Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542.

This study aimed to assess the effect of nitrogen, salt and pre-culture conditions on the production of lovastatin in A. terreus ATCC 20542.

Effect of the melatonin nuclear receptor RORα on monochromatic light-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation in chicken thymus.

Present study clarified role of melatonin nuclear receptor RORα in monochromatic light-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation in chicks. Green light elevated plasma melatonin level and organ index, T-lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 production in thymus, but decreased RORα, p-P65 and p-IκB expressions relative to red light. By contrast, pinealectomy decreased the melatonin content and reversed the stimulatory effect of green light, and resulted in that these thymus parameters were not significantly differen...

Toxicogenomic analyses of the effects of BDE-47/209, TBBPA/S and TCBPA on early neural development with a human embryonic stem cell in vitro differentiation system.

Flame retardants are detected in the environment worldwide, and thus pose great risks to human health. The potential effects of these chemicals on the development of the central nervous system, have recently raised public concern. In this study, to explore the toxicity of these chemicals during the early developmental stages of the human central nervous system, we induced human embryonic stem cells to differentiate into neural ectoderm in the presence of five halogenated flame retardants, BDE-47, BDE-209, T...

B/O plasmid R16 from 1956 carries an In1-like class 1 integron embedded in a complex region containing parts of the Acinetobacter baumannii AbaR resistance island.

The IncB/O multiresistance plasmid R16, recovered in 1956 and used in experimental studies of B/O plasmid features, was sequenced. The resistance genes are all within a class 1 integron closely related to In1 containing the cassette array oxa2-aadA1-oxa2-orfD and sul1 in the 3'-conserved segment (3'-CS), with Tn10, containing tetA(B), inserted just inside the 3'-CS. The integron is part of a 25,144 bp region inserted in the plasmid backbone, bounded on only one side by a truncated Tn6018 and flanked by a ...


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