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PubMed Journals Articles About "Ocular Dominance Plasticity Binocular Combination Task Finds Cumulative" RSS

08:07 EDT 20th July 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Ocular dominance plasticity binocular combination task finds cumulative" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 6,200+

The energetic brain - A review from students to students.

The past 20 years have resulted in unprecedented progress in understanding brain energy metabolism and its role in health and disease. In this review, which was initiated at the 14th International Society for Neurochemistry Advanced School, we address the basic concepts of brain energy metabolism and approach the question of why the brain has high energy expenditure. Our review illustrates that the vertebrate brain has a high need for energy because of the high number of neurons and the need to maintain a d...


How the State Shaped the Nonprofit Sector: Public Funding in British Columbia.

This article examines how the state has used its spending power to shape the nonprofit sector in British Columbia since the 1960s. The province's thriving nonprofit sector and its polarized political culture provide an ideal case study for exploring the relationship between the state and nongovernmental organizations. The following study documents changes in state policy, the trajectory of funding, funding patterns, and organizations that have received state funding. Although public funding for nonprofits i...

Ethnic Disparities in Childhood Prevalence of Maltreatment: Evidence From a New Zealand Birth Cohort.

To document ethnic disparities in childhood abuse and neglect among New Zealand children. We followed the 1998 New Zealand birth cohort of 56 904 children through 2016. We determined the cumulative childhood prevalence of reports to child protective services (CPS), substantiated maltreatment (by subtype), and out-of-home placements, from birth to age 18 years, by ethnic group. We also developed estimates stratified by maternal age and community deprivation levels. We identified substantial ethnic differ...


Characterization of performance fatigability during a self-paced exercise.

Pacing during a high-intensity cycling time trial (TT) appears to prevent premature task failure, but the performance fatigability during a self-paced exercise is currently unknown. Therefore, the current study characterized the time-course of performance fatigability during a 4-km TT. Eleven male cyclists performed three separated TTs in a crossover counterbalanced design. The TTs lasted until the end of the fast-start (FS, 600 ± 205 m), even-pace (EP, 3600 ± 190 m) and end-spurt (ES, 4000 m) phases. Per...

Evidence that Tenecteplase Is Noninferior to Alteplase for Acute Ischemic Stroke.

Background and Purpose- TNK (tenecteplase), a newer fibrinolytic agent, has practical delivery advantages over ALT (alteplase) that would make it a useful agent if noninferior in acute ischemic stroke treatment outcome. Accordingly, the most recent US American Heart Association/American Stroke Association acute ischemic stroke guideline recognized TNK as an alternative to ALT, but only based on informal consideration, rather than formal meta-analysis, of completed randomized control trials. Methods- Systema...

Inheritance of Neural Substrates for Motivation and Pleasure.

Despite advances in the understanding of the reward system and the role of dopamine in recent decades, the heritability of the underlying neural mechanisms is not known. In the present study, we examined the hemodynamic activation of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a key hub of the reward system, in 86 healthy monozygotic twins and 88 healthy dizygotic twins during a monetary-incentive-delay task. The participants also completed self-report measures of pleasure. Using voxelwise heritability mapping, we found ...

Space of Disse: a stem cell niche in the liver.

Recent evidence indicate that the plasticity of preexisting hepatocytes and bile duct cells is responsible for the appearance of intermediate progenitor cells capable to restore liver mass after injury without the need of a stem cell compartment. However, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) exist in all organs and are associated with blood vessels which represent their perivascular stem cell niche. MSC are multipotent and can differentiate into several cell types and are known to support regenerative processes by ...

Efficacy and Safety of Low-dose Codeine Containing Combination Analgesics for Pain: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

To investigate the efficacy and safety of combination analgesic products containing low-dose codeine (up to 30▒mg per dose) for pain.

Assessment of Usability and Task Load Demand Using a Robot-Assisted Transfer Device Compared With a Hoyer Advance for Dependent Wheelchair Transfers.

Manual lifting can be burdensome for people who care for power wheelchair users. Although technologies used for dependent transfers are helpful, they have shortcomings of their own. This study compares the usability and task load demand of a novel robot-assisted transfer device to a clinical standard when performing dependent transfers.

Hemorrhoid Banding: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

Hemorrhoid banding is an established treatment for symptomatic internal hemorrhoids with proven efficacy, low cost, and limited discomfort. Although the costs and quality of life following individual banding treatments have been investigated, little is known about cumulative cost and quality of life from sequential banding therapy or how these cumulative costs compare to surgical therapy.

HOMOZYGOSITY FOR A NOVEL DOUBLE MUTANT ALLELE (G1961E/L857P) UNDERLIES CHILDHOOD-ONSET ABCA4-RELATED RETINOPATHY IN THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES.

Stargardt disease (On-Line Mendelian Inheritance In Man 242000, STGD1) is the most common inherited macular dystrophy. STGD1 is typically a young-adult-onset disease that is recurrently associated with the ABCA4 mutant allele G1961E in homozygosity or compound heterozygosity. The genetics of ABCA4-related retinopathy in the Arabian Gulf region have not been well-studied. This report reviews the experience of the Ocular Genetics Service at Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi with clinically diagnosed ABCA4-related re...

Moving beyond the surface: Comparative head and neck myology of threadsnakes (Epictinae, Leptotyphlopidae, Serpentes), with comments on the 'scolecophidian' muscular system.

Studies on the cephalic myology of snakes provide a series of relevant data on their biology and systematics. Despite the great amount of descriptive studies currently available for the group, much of the knowledge remains obscure for most scolecophidian taxa. This study aimed to describe in detail the cephalic (head and neck) myology of members of the tribe Epictinae, Leptotyphlopidae. We provide the first report of the presence of extrinsic ocular muscles, and a double Musculus pterygoideus acessorius in ...

Evaluation of simulation models to mimic the distortions introduced into squiggles by nanopore sequencers and segmentation algorithms.

Nucleotides ratcheted through the biomolecular pores of nanopore sequencers generate raw picoamperage currents, which are segmented into step-current level signals representing the nucleotide sequence. These 'squiggles' are a noisy, distorted representation of the underlying true stepped current levels due to experimental and algorithmic factors. We were interested in developing a simulation model to support a white-box approach to identify common distortions, rather than relying on commonly used black box ...

How well do software assistants for minimally invasive partial nephrectomy meet surgeon information needs? A cognitive task analysis and literature review study.

Intraoperative software assistance is gaining increasing importance in laparoscopic and robot-assisted surgery. Within the user-centred development process of such systems, the first question to be asked is: What information does the surgeon need and when does he or she need it? In this article, we present an approach to investigate these surgeon information needs for minimally invasive partial nephrectomy and compare these needs to the relevant surgical computer assistance literature.

Long survival of patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Results of real life study of 344 patients.

The treatment landscape in metastatic renal cell carcinoma has changed fundamentally over the last decade by the development of anti-angiogenic agents, mTOR inhibitors, and immunotherapy. Outside of the context of a clinical trial the treatments are used sequentially. We describe results under real life conditions of a sequential treatment strategy, before the era of immunotherapy. All patients were treated according to their prognostic score (either MSKCC or IMDC) for advanced renal cell carcinoma. A treat...

Traces of Learning in Thalamocortical Circuits.

A recent study (Audette et al., 2019) demonstrates that thalamic input from the posterior medial (POm) nucleus to somatosensory cortex plays an unexpected role in plasticity resulting from associative sensory learning. POm-mediated plasticity may be critical for coordinating learning-related sensorimotor circuitry.

The importance of long non-coding RNAs in neuropsychiatric disorders.

In the last decade, transcriptome analyses have discovered thousands of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) which are assumed as a fundamental part of the gene regulatory networks in the cell. Intriguingly, lncRNAs are abundantly enriched in the brain, displaying elaborate spatiotemporal expression profiles and modulation. They diversely participate in the delicate regulation of the central nervous system (CNS) development including self-renewal maintenance, cell fate decision, synapse plasticity, synaptogenesis...

Is (poly-) substance use associated with impaired inhibitory control? A mega-analysis controlling for confounders.

Many studies have reported that heavy substance use is associated with impaired response inhibition. Studies typically focused on associations with a single substance, while polysubstance use is common. Further, most studies compared heavy users with light/non-users, though substance use occurs along a continuum. The current mega-analysis accounted for these issues by aggregating individual data from 43 studies (3610 adult participants) that used the Go/No-Go (GNG) or Stop-signal task (SST) to assess inhibi...

Adolescent Intermittent Ethanol Impairs Behavioral Flexibility in a Rat Foraging Task in Adulthood.

Alcohol exposure is linked to behavioral flexibility deficits in humans, but it is unclear when the critical exposure occurred or if alcohol exposure alone is sufficient to produce behavior deficits. Increasing evidence shows that binge levels of alcohol during adolescence are particularly harmful to the brain, producing physiological and behavioral effects that can persist into adulthood. The present study determined whether adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) in rats impaired action selection in a discr...

Physiologically based ocular pharmacokinetic modeling using computational methods.

Here, we apply physiologically based models to simulate ocular drug administration. A non-anatomical model is used that applies a simple theorem for calculating ocular bioavailability from a topical dose. A computational fluid dynamic model is also described that incorporates ocular physiology in anatomical models for rabbit, monkey and man. This second method applies material properties and boundary conditions for various tissues enabling simulation of fluid flows, pressures, temperatures, convection, and ...

White matter information flow mapping from diffusion MRI and EEG.

The human brain can be described as a network of specialized and spatially distributed regions. The activity of individual regions can be estimated using electroencephalography and the structure of the network can be measured using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. However, the communication between the different cortical regions occurring through the white matter, coined information flow, cannot be observed by either modalities independently. Here, we present a new method to infer information flow in t...

Effects of steam explosion on lignocellulosic degradation of, and methane production from, corn stover by a co-cultured anaerobic fungus and methanogen.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of steam explosion on lignocellulose digestibility of, and methane production from corn stover by a co-culture of anaerobic fungus and methanogen. The cumulative methane production at 72 h of incubation from the steam-exploded corn stover was 32.2 ± 1.74 mL, which not significantly different (P > 0.05) from that of the untreated corn stover (37.1 ± 1.09 mL). However, steam explosion decreased the hemicellulose contents of corn stover b...

Optimistic metacognitive judgments predict poor performance in relatively complex visual tasks.

In some cases, people overestimate how much they can see. This can produce a metacognitive blind spot that may lead participants to devote fewer cognitive resources than a visual task demands. However, little research has tested whether individuals who are particularly optimistic about their visual capabilities are susceptible to poor visual performance. We tested whether optimistic metacognitive judgments would predict poor performance in a visual task, especially when it placed a large attentional load on...

Capped cadmium sulfide quantum dots with a new ionic liquid as a fluorescent probe for sensitive detection of florfenicol in meat samples.

The new ionic liquid capped CdS quantum dots (IL-CdS QDs) as a fluorescent probe was successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method in a one step process and used for the facile and sensitive determination of florfenicol (FLF) in aqueous media. The new ionic liquid 3-(2-[(5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)thio]ethyl)-1-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium chloride (IL) was synthesized by introducing 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol as a ligand onto the alkyl chain of the 1-chloroethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ILs. ...

Effect of hydraulic retention time on pollutants removal from real ship sewage treatment via a pilot-scale air-lift multilevel circulation membrane bioreactor.

Developing a real ship sewage treatment system that not only satisfies the requirement of small space onboard but also meets the latest emission standards of International Maritime Organization (IMO) is still a challenging task for ship industry. To overcome these problems, in this study, a novel pilot-scale air-lift multilevel circulation membrane bioreactor (AMCMBR) was used to explore the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen (TN) while treat...


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