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PubMed Journals Articles About "Precision Engineers Bacteriophages Modulate Microbiome Metabolome" RSS

13:14 EDT 18th July 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Precision Engineers Bacteriophages Modulate Microbiome Metabolome" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 3,900+

Sequential Detection of Lipids, Metabolites and Proteins in One Tissue for Improved Cancer Differentiation Accuracy.

Traditionally, molecular information on metabolites, lipids and proteins is collected from separate individual tissue samples using different analytical approaches. Herein a novel strategy to minimize the potential material losses and the mismatch between metabolomics, lipidomics and proteomics data has been demonstrated based on internal extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (iEESI-MS). Sequential detection of lipids, metabolites, and proteins from the same tissue sample was achieved without...


Analysis of genetic recombination and the pan-genome of a highly recombinogenic bacteriophage species.

Bacteriophages are the most prevalent biological entities impacting on the ecosystem and are characterized by their extensive diversity. However, there are two aspects of phages that have remained largely unexplored: genetic flux by recombination between phage populations and characterization of specific phages in terms of the pan-genome. Here, we examined the recombination and pan-genome in Helicobacter pylori prophages at both the genome and gene level. In the genome-level analysis, we applied, for the fi...

The prevalence of tattooing and motivations in five major countries over the World.

Tattoos are common in Western countries [1, 2]. There is a growing interest in tattoos in other parts of the globe such as Latin America [3] but overall data are scarce. We report an international online survey among a representative sample of the general population from five major countries (Brazil 209 million inhabitants, China 1 386 million, France 67 million, Russia 144 million and United-States, USA, 325 million) [4]. The data collection procedure was identical to previous studies [1,5,6] and has been...


Evaluation of neuroprotective activity of digoxin and semisynthetic derivatives against partial chemical ischemia.

Recently, cardiotonic steroids (CTS) have been shown to lead to the activation of Na,K-ATPase at low concentrations in brain, promoting neuroprotection against ischemia. We report here the results of the use of digoxin and its semisynthetic derivatives BD-14, BD-15, and BD-16 against partial chemical ischemic induction followed by reperfusion in murine neuroblastoma cells neuro-2a (N2a). For chemical ischemic induction, sodium azide (5 mM) was used for 5 hours, and then reperfusion was induced for 24 ...

LncRNA SNHG15 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma progression by sponging miR-141-3p.

Small nucleolar RNA host gene 15 (SNHG15) is a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), which promotes progression of multiple cancers. Its specific function in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), however, is uncertain. The aims of our study were, therefore, to explore the role of SNHG15 in HCC. SNHG15 and miR-141-3p expression were assessed via quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in 58 paired HCC samples and adjacent matched adjacent normal tissues. CCK-8 assay, flow cytometric examination, and wound healing/invasion ass...

Biomaterial Surface Hydrophobicity Mediated Serum Protein Adsorption and Immune Responses.

The nature of the protein corona forming on a biomaterial surfaces can affect the performance of implanted devices. This study investigated the role of surface chemistry and wettability on human serum-derived protein corona formation on biomaterial surfaces, and the subsequent effects on cellular innate immune response. Plasma polymerization, a substrate independent technique, was employed to create nano-thin coatings with four specific chemical functionalities, and a spectrum of surface charges and wettabi...

Hip to be square: oxetanes as design elements to alter metabolic pathways.

Oxetane-containing ring systems are increasingly used in medicinal chemistry programs to modulate drug-like properties. We have shown previously that oxetanes are hydrolyzed to diols by human microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH). Mapping the enzymes which contribute to drug metabolism is important, since an exaggerated dependence on one specific isoenzyme increases the risk of drug-drug interactions with co-administered drugs. Herein we illustrate that mEH-catalyzed hydrolysis is an important metabolic pathwa...

glypy - An open source glycoinformatics library.

Glycoinformatics is a critical resource for the study of glycobiology, and glycobiology is a necessary component for understanding the complex interface between intra- and extra-cellular spaces. Despite this, there is limited software available to scientists studying these topics, requiring each to create fundamental data structures and representations anew for each of their applications. This leads to poor uptake of standardization and loss of focus on the real problems. We present glypy, a library written...

Metabolic Control via Nutrient Sensing Mechanisms: Role of Taste Receptors and the Gut-Brain Neuroendocrine Axis.

Nutrient sensing plays an important role in ensuring that appropriate digestive or hormonal responses are elicited following the ingestion of fuel substrates. Mechanisms of nutrient sensing in the oral cavity have been fairly well-characterized and involve lingual taste receptors. These include heterodimers of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) of the T1R family for sensing sweet (T1R2-T1R3) and umami (T1R1-T1R3) stimuli; the T2R family for sensing bitter stimuli; and ion channels for conferring sour and sa...

Breast Cancer: Occluded Role of Mitochondria N-acetylserotonin/Melatonin Ratio in Co-ordinating Pathophysiology.

A plethora of factors contribute to the biochemical underpinnings of breast cancer, in the absence of any clear, integrative framework. This article proposes that melatonergic pathway regulation within mitochondria provides an integrative framework for the wide array of data driving breast cancer pathophysiology. As melatonin is toxic to breast cancer cells, its production within mitochondria poses a significant challenge to breast cancer cell survival. Consequently, the diverse plasticity in breast cancer ...

Housing conditions modulate spontaneous physical activity, feeding behavior, aerobic running capacity and adiposity in C57BL/6J mice.

There is evidence of reduced adiposity in rodents living in a large cages (LC) as compared to animals housed in small cages (SC). Because spontaneous physical activity (SPA) provides an important portion of the total daily energy expenditure, an increase of SPA in rodents kept in LC could explain their reduced body fat accumulation. The relationship between SPA and components of physical fitness (i.e. aerobic and anaerobic fitness and body leanness) has not been previously determined. We examined the effect...

Intestinal Gel-Forming Mucins Polymerize by Disulfide-Mediated Dimerization of D3 Domains.

The mucin 2 glycoprotein assembles into a complex hydrogel that protects intestinal epithelia and houses the gut microbiome. A major step in mucin 2 assembly is further multimerization of preformed mucin dimers, thought to produce a honeycomb-like arrangement upon hydrogel expansion. Important open questions are how multiple mucin 2 dimers become covalently linked to one another and how mucin 2 multimerization compares with analogous processes in related polymers such as respiratory tract mucins and the hem...

Multiple exposures to organophosphate flame retardants alter urinary oxidative stress biomarkers among children: The Hokkaido Study.

Organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) are used as additives in plastics and other applications such as curtains and carpets as a replacement for brominated flame retardants. As such, exposure to PFR mixtures is widespread, with children being more vulnerable than adults to associated health risks such as allergies and inflammation. Oxidative stress is thought to be able to modulate the development of childhood airway inflammation and atopic dermatitis. To evaluate these associations, the present study inv...

Analysis and occurrence of benzotriazole ultraviolet stabilisers in different species of seaweed.

Benzotriazole ultraviolet stabilisers (BUVSs) are emerging compounds used in personal care products and in other products, such as plastics, to absorb UV light. BUVSs have been described as bioaccumulative, persistent and toxic, so it is of great interest to understand their presence in the environment. Some marine organisms, such as seaweeds, have been used as bioindicators of contamination in the environment because they are able to accumulate metals and organic compounds. We have selected seaweeds to dev...

Microbiome - growing importance in medicine.

Optimization of Digestion - How Nutrition and Microbiome Affect Each Other.

Nutrition affects intestinal bacteria by stimulating the expansion of bacteria that can metabolize the nutrient components offered. Conversely, gut bacteria help to optimize food digestion and increase energy intake. Thus, the intestinal microbiome is regulated primarily by nourishment: it determines the composition, function and diversity of the microbiome. As a result, the intestinal microbiome helps to optimize energy and substrate production from food. This is beneficial in cases of imminent malnutritio...

Microbiome And Gastrointestinal Diseases.

For some years, microbiome research has become a thriving topic. The most diverse and hitherto poorly understood connections of interactions of the microbiome with the host body (human) seem to play an important role in the genesis of a wide variety of diseases. This article focuses on the importance of the microbiome in gastrointestinal diseases and presents therapeutic approaches.The intestinal microbiome will not be understood completely for a long time due to the highly complex relationships and variety...

Gut Microbiome and Cardiovascular Disease.

Aging, physical activity, bodyweight and diet are well established risk factors for cardiovascular disease. For all of these factors a great impact on the intestinal microbiome has been described. The current review will discuss available data regarding the role of the gut microbiome in regulating blood pressure, vascular function and its possible contribution to atherosclerosis and heart failure.

Resistance Exercise-induced Changes in Muscle Metabolism are Load-dependent.

Lower-load (LL), higher-repetition resistance exercise training (RET) can increase muscle mass similar degree as higher-load (HL), lower-repetition RET. However, little is known about how LL and HL RET modulate other aspects of the RET phenotype such as satellite cells, myonuclei, and mitochondrial proteins. We aimed to investigate changes in muscle mass, muscle strength, satellite cell activity, myonuclear addition, and mitochondrial protein content following prolonged RET with LL and HL RET.

Dietary protein restriction increases hepatic leptin receptor mRNA and plasma soluble leptin receptor in male rodents.

Leptin is an adipokine that regulates adipose tissue mass through membrane-anchored leptin receptor (Ob-R). Extracellular domain of Ob-R in plasma is called soluble leptin receptor (sOb-R), and is the main leptin-binding protein. Based on a previous DNA microarray analysis that showed induction of hepatic Ob-R mRNA in low-protein diet-fed mice, this study aimed to clarify the effect of dietary protein restriction on hepatic Ob-R mRNA and plasma sOb-R levels. First, the effect of protein restriction on hepat...

Pharmacogenomics Clinical Annotation Tool (PharmCAT).

Pharmacogenomics (PGx) decision support and return of results is an active area of precision medicine. One challenge of implementing PGx is extracting genomic variants and assigning haplotypes in order to apply prescribing recommendations and information from CPIC, FDA, PharmGKB, etc. PharmCAT (1) extracts variants specified in guidelines from a genetic dataset derived from sequencing or genotyping technologies; (2) infers haplotypes and diplotypes; and (3) generates a report containing genotype/diplotype-b...

Effects of nutrient supply, herbivory, and host community on fungal endophyte diversity.

The microbes contained within free-living organisms can alter host growth, reproduction, and interactions with the environment. In turn, processes occurring at larger scales determine the local biotic and abiotic environment of each host that may affect the diversity and composition of the microbiome community. Here, we examine variation in the diversity and composition of the foliar fungal microbiome in the grass host, Andropogon gerardii, across four mesic prairies in the central United States. Compositio...

Structures of single-layer β-sheet proteins evolved from β-hairpin repeats.

Free-standing single β-sheets are extremely rare in naturally occurring proteins, even though β-sheet motifs are ubiquitous. Here we report on crystal structures of three homologous, single-layer, anti-parallel β-sheet proteins, comprised of three or four twisted β-hairpin repeats. The structures reveal that, in addition to the hydrogen bond network characteristic of β-sheets, additional hydrophobic interactions mediated by small clusters of residues adjacent to the turns likely play a significant role...

Reactive oxygen species and reactive carbonyl species constitute a feed-forward loop in the auxin signaling for lateral root formation.

In auxin-stimulated roots, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the hormone-induced activation of respiratory burst oxidase homologous NADPH oxidases facilitates lateral root (LR) formation. In this study, in order to verify that ROS can modulate auxin signaling, we examined the involvement of the lipid peroxide-derived agents known as reactive carbonyl species (RCS) in LR formation. When auxin was added to Arabidopsis thaliana roots, the levels of RCS, e.g., acrolein, 4-hydroxynonenal and croton...

The gut microbiome alters immunophenotype and survival from sepsis.

The microbiome is increasingly implicated in immune regulation and mortality from sepsis. Mice with identical genetic backgrounds but distinct microbiomes were obtained from different vendors and analyzed following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). β diversity of the microbiome measured from feces demonstrated significant differences between The Jackson Laboratory (Jax; Bar Harbor, ME, USA) and Charles River Laboratories (CR; Wilmington, MA, USA) C57/B6 mice. Jax mice had 7-d mortality of 90% following CL...


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