PubMed Journals Articles About "73763989 Placebo 73763989 56136379 Placebo 56136379 Nucleos Analog" RSS

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Showing "73763989 Placebo 73763989 56136379 Placebo 56136379 Nucleos Analog" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 1,200+

Placebo effects in the neuroendocrine system: conditioning of the oxytocin responses.

Evidence exists that placebo effects may influence hormone secretion. However, only few studies examined placebo effects in the endocrine system, including oxytocin placebo effects. We studied whether it is possible to trigger oxytocin placebo effects using a classical conditioning paradigm.

The Powerful Placebo Effect in Cough: Relevance to Treatment and Clinical Trials.

Interest in the placebo effect of medicines has developed from the use of placebo treatments as controls in clinical trials into a whole new area of research around how placebos fit into a psychosocial model of therapeutics. The large placebo effect associated with cough medicines is both a problem and an opportunity for researchers: a problem for clinical trials on new actives as the active must beat the large placebo effect, and an opportunity for harnessing the placebo effect to produce effective cough m...

Model-Informed Approach to Assess the Treatment Effect Conditional to the Level of Placebo Response.

One of the most important reasons for failure of placebo-controlled randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) is the lack of appropriate methodologies for detecting treatment effect (TE = difference between placebo and active treatment response) in presence of excessively low/high levels of placebo response. Although, the higher the level of placebo response in a trial, the lower the apparent detectable TE. TE is usually estimated in a conventional analysis of a RCT as an 'apparent' TE value conditional ...

Use of placebo in French hospitals: data from polyvalent medicine units.

A placebo drug is defined as a treatment without any specific pharmacological efficacy, that works when the patient thinks to receive an active treatment, through a psychological and physiological mechanism. This study aimed to evaluate the use of placebo in French hospitals, in Polyvalent Medicine units. A questionnaire comprising 15 items was sent to 372 units. The analysis of 153 responses was conducted from dynamic crosstabs in Excel and using the R software available online. The survey confirmed that ...

GLP-1 Analog Modulates Appetite, Taste Preference, Gut Hormones and Regional Body Fat Stores in Adults with Obesity.

Obesity is associated with alterations in appetite, gastrointestinal (GI) hormone levels and excessive fat mass. We previously published a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, 16-week trial on effects of once daily GLP-1 analog, liraglutide on weight, satiation, and gastric functions in obese volunteers. The aim of this sub-study was to compare to placebo the effects of liraglutide on appetite, taste preference, regional body fat stores and anthropometric measurements.

Pain Response to Open Label Placebo in Induced Acute Pain in Healthy Adult Males.

Placebo treatments even if known to the patient to be placebo, so-called "open label placebo," may be effective in reducing chronic painThe effects of the extent of placebo education are poorly understood WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: Using a well-characterized electrical pain sensitization model in human volunteers, the effects of short versus detailed placebo educational protocols were measuredOpen label placebo treatment reduced pain sensitization in the volunteers, but the extent of placebo ed...

What affects the placebo effect?

To determine whether electronic bladder diaries are associated with a larger placebo effect than paper diaries in studies of overactive bladder (OAB). To identify any other factors in study design that may influence the placebo effect.

Placebos can change affective contexts: an event-related potential study.

An unpleasant context (bitter aftertaste) is able to reduce the late positive potential (LPP) elicited by affective pictures. This study attempted to influence this context with a placebo. Sixty-eight women were randomly assigned to three groups: Water, Bitter/No-Placebo, Bitter/Placebo. Participants in the 'bitter groups' first rinsed their mouth with wormwood tea that caused a bitter aftertaste. Subsequently, the placebo group received sham light therapy on the tongue to 'reduce the sensitivity of the tas...

Early score fluctuation and placebo response in a study of major depressive disorder.

Early score fluctuation in double-blind, placebo-controlled studies may affect the reliability of the baseline measurement and adversely affect the eventual study outcome. We examined the effect of early score fluctuation during a 2-week double-blind placebo lead-in period in a phase II, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of adjunctive s-adenosyl methionine (MSI-195) in MDD subjects who had had an inadequate response to ongoing antidepressant treatment. The overall study failed to meet its specified end...

Operant conditioning as a new mechanism of placebo effects.

Placebo effects are considered to be learning phenomena. There is a growing body of evidence supporting the role of both classical conditioning and observational learning in the induction of placebo effects. However, the third basic learning process, operant conditioning, was not considered as a mechanism of placebo effects until very recently. Unlike classically conditioned responses, which are induced by stimuli that precede the behavior, operant behaviors are shaped and maintained by their consequences. ...

A Kantian defence of placebo deception.

In this article I offer a defence of the use of deceptive placebos-inert treatments like sugar pills or saline injections-in clinical practice. In particular, I will defend what I call the ideal placebo case-where a doctor or nurse has good reason to believe that a deceptive placebo offers a patient's best, or only, chance of some therapeutic benefit. Taking a Kantian approach to the question of clinical placebo use, I examine the Kantian prohibition on deception as interference with the will of a rational ...

Factors Influencing Placebo Responses in Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Trials: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Studies.

A better understanding of placebo responses and the specific factors influencing these outcomes is important for clinical trial design. We investigated the magnitude of placebo responses at 3 months and the potential factors influencing these outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) clinical trials.

When therapeutic expectancies are violated: An fMRI study.

Positive and negative expectancies drive behavioral and neurobiological placebo and nocebo effects which in turn can have profound effects on patient improvement or worsening. However, expectations of events and outcomes are often not met in daily life and clinical practice. It is currently unknown how this affects placebo and nocebo effects. We have demonstrated that the violation of expectancies, such as when a discrepancy between what is expected and what is actually presented, reduces both placebo and n...

Understanding the Placebo and Nocebo Effects in the Context of Sport: A Psychosocial Perspective.

Research over the past 15 years on the placebo effect has substantiated its contribution to the efficacy of established treatments for a range of clinical conditions and identified its underlying mechanisms. There is also evidence that placebo effects contribute to the performance benefits of many ergogenic aids, and that performance can worsen when dummy treatments are associated with expectations of a harmful outcome (i.e., the nocebo effect). Unfortunately, the bulk of sport research involving placebos a...

Evaluating the Placebo Status of Nebulized Normal Saline in Patients With Acute Viral Bronchiolitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

In therapeutic trials for acute viral bronchiolitis, consistent clinical improvement in groups that received nebulized normal saline (NS) as placebo raises the question of whether nebulized NS acts as a treatment rather than a placebo.

Meta-analysis of placebo group dropout in adult antidepressant trials.

Minimizing dropouts across antidepressant, placebo-controlled trials remains a major opportunity to improve the efficiency of trials. This meta-analysis investigated placebo dropout rate and its predictors in second generation antidepressant (SGA) for anxiety, depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

The neural processes of acquiring placebo effects through observation.

Learning through social observation is critical for humans. The present study investigates the neural processes underlying the acquisition of placebo effects through observational learning. We created a new functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm where participants (n = 38, healthy, both sexes) observed a demonstrator experiencing pain relief by a placebo treatment cream and experiencing pain without a treatment (control cream), and subsequently performed the same procedure themselves. Par...

OPRM1 rs1799971, COMT rs4680, and FAAH rs324420 genes interact with placebo procedures to induce hypoalgesia.

Genetics studies on the placebo hypoalgesic effect highlight a promising link between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the dopamine, opioid, and endocannabinoid genes and placebo hypoalgesia. However, epistasis and replication studies are missing. In this study, we expanded on previous findings related to the 3 SNPs in the opioid receptor mu subunit (OPRM1 rs1799971), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT rs4680), and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH rs324420) genes associated with placebo hypoalgesia...

Adherence-adjustment in placebo-controlled randomized trials: An application to the candesartan in heart failure randomized trial.

The per-protocol effect provides important information in randomized trials with incomplete adherence. Yet, because valid estimation typically requires adjustment for prognostic factors that predict adherence, per-protocol effect estimates are often met with skepticism. In placebo-controlled trials, however, the validity of adjustment can be indirectly verified by demonstrating no association between adherence and the outcome among the placebo arm. Here, we describe a two-stage procedure in which we first a...

Inadequate description of placebo and sham controls in a review of recent trials.

Poorly described placebo/sham controls inhibit appraisal of active intervention benefits and harms. The 12-item Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist was developed to improve the reporting of active intervention components. The extent to which TIDieR is used to guide description of placebo or sham control is not known.

Pharmacogenomics and Placebo Response in a Randomized Clinical Trial in Asthma.

Genetic variation may differentially modify drug and placebo treatment effects in randomized trials (RCTs). In asthma, although lung function and asthma control improvements are commonplace with placebo, pharmacogenomics of placebo versus drug response remains unexamined. In a GWAS of subjective and objective outcomes with placebo treatment in Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) of nedocromil/budesonide versus placebo (N=604), effect estimates for lead SNPs were compared across arms. The coughing/whe...

Effects of oxytocin on placebo and nocebo effects in a pain conditioning paradigm: a randomized controlled trial.

Oxytocin has been shown to increase trust, decrease anxiety and affect learning as has been observed in conditioning paradigms. Trust, anxiety and learning are important factors that influence placebo effects. In this study we investigated whether oxytocin can increase placebo analgesia, decrease nocebo hyperalgesia, and influence extinction processes of both. Eighty male volunteers were assigned to a 40 IU of oxytocin nasal spray group, or to a placebo control group. Placebo analgesia and nocebo hyperalges...

The influence of personality traits on the placebo/nocebo response: A systematic review.

Some people might be more prone to placebo and nocebo responses than others depending on their personality traits. We aimed to provide a systematic review on the influence of personality traits on placebo and nocebo responses in controlled and uncontrolled studies.

Efficacy and placebo response of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for primary insomnia.

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been considered a promising technique for the treatment of primary insomnia. However, its efficacy and placebo response remains unclear due to limited clinical data. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to examine the efficacy and placebo response of rTMS.

"I put it in my head that the supplement would help me": Open-placebo improves exercise performance in female cyclists.

This study investigated the effect of open-placebo on cycling time-trial (TT) performance. Twenty-eight trained female cyclists completed a 1-km cycling TT following a control session or an open-placebo intervention. The intervention consisted of an individual presentation, provided by a medic, in which the concept of open-placebo was explained to the participant, before she ingested two red and white capsules containing flour; 15 min later, they performed the TT. In the control session, the participant sat...

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