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Thyroid cancer is rapidly increasing in incidence worldwide in the past several decades, same as the incidence of metabolic syndrome. We performed a system review and meta-analysis of the association between metabolic syndrome, its components and insulin resistance and thyroid cancer incidence.

Thyroid abnormalities in patients with extreme insulin resistance syndromes.

Insulin and leptin may increase growth and proliferation of thyroid cells, underlying an association between type 2 diabetes and papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Patients with extreme insulin resistance due to lipodystrophy or insulin receptor mutations (INSR) are treated with high-dose insulin and recombinant leptin (metreleptin), which may increase risk of thyroid neoplasia. The aim of this study was to analyze thyroid structural abnormalities in patients with lipodystrophy and INSR mutation, and to assess...

Thyroid Nodules are More Prevalent in Subjects with Colon Polyps, Independent of Insulin Resistance.

Colorectal polyps and thyroid nodules are common disorders linked to hyperinsulinemia and metabolic syndrome (Mets). The direct association between these two diseases is not clear. We aimed to analyze the prevalence of thyroid nodules in subjects with and without colorectal polyps. The secondary aim was to establish the prevalence of Mets and its parameters in both disorders, and determine if insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia is a common underlying pathophysiological mechanism.

Metabolic Syndrome and Insulin Resistance Syndrome among Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Study from Central Vietnam.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrinopathies among reproductive-age women. Its metabolic features often overlap with those associated with metabolic syndrome (MS) and insulin resistance syndrome (IRS). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of MS and IRS in infertile Vietnamese women with PCOS.

The FTO rs9939609 "A" allele is associated with impaired fasting glucose and insulin resistance in Emirati population.

Fat mass and obesity-associated protein gene variants have shown diverse influence on body weight and metabolism across different populations. Overweight, obesity and metabolic syndrome are multifactorial major health problems in the UAE and worldwide. Insulin resistance represents the link between overweight and development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated two (FTO) variants in Emirati population, in relation to insulin resistance and different parameters of metabolic syn...

Assessment of Arterial Stiffness in Metabolic Syndrome Related to Insulin Resistance in Apparently Healthy Men.

Assessment of subclinical atherosclerosis in metabolic syndrome is one of the global health targets' priorities. This study aimed to evaluate the subclinical atherosclerosis in metabolic syndrome related to insulin resistance in healthy and physically active men.

The effects of metabolic syndrome, obesity, and the gut microbiome on load-induced osteoarthritis.

Metabolic syndrome is characterized by obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Metabolic syndrome is associated with osteoarthritis (OA), but it is unclear if the association is attributable to increased mechanical loading on joints caused by obesity or other aspects of metabolic syndrome. Here we examined the effects of metabolic syndrome, obesity, and the gut microbiome on load-induced OA.

Effect of Resistance Exercise on Serum Osteoprotegerin Levels and Insulin Resistance in Middle-Aged Women with Metabolic Syndrome.

BACKGROUND Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a soluble glycoprotein that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily. OPG is mainly secreted by bone. The relationship between acute resistance training, serum OPG levels and metabolic syndrome, including insulin resistance, remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of resistance exercise on serum OPG levels and insulin resistance in middle-aged women with metabolic syndrome. MATERIAL AND METHODS Twenty-four middle-aged ...

Adipokine levels are associated with insulin resistance in antipsychotics users independently of BMI.

The prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus is increased among patients with severe mental disorders, and particularly use of second generation antipsychotic drugs is associated with metabolic side effects. Antipsychotics have been found to alter levels of adipokines which regulate insulin sensitivity, but their role in antipsychotic-associated insulin resistance is not established, and it is unclear whether adipokines affect insulin resistance independently of body mass index...

Serum level of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 as a potential biomarker for medullary thyroid cancer.

Adipokines are the proteins secreted from adipose tissue and play an important role in the control of metabolism. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) is a novel adipokine with different biological role. As indicated by various studies, serum levels of DPP4 had been associated with body mass index (BMI), insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and malignancy. The aim of this study was to assess the serum levels of DPP4 in patients with medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) in comparison with these in the control group.

Improvement of insulin resistance via increase of GLUT4 and PPARγ in metabolic syndrome-induced rats treated with omega-3 fatty acid or l-carnitine.

Frequent consumption of fructose and saturated fatty acids increase risk of metabolic syndrome (MS). Features of MS include insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, visceral obesity, and hypertension. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of omega-3 and l-carnitine in ameliorating features of MS.

Assessment of Serum Levels of the Adipocytokine Chemerin in Colorectal Cancer Patients.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The tumor microenvironment is very important for determining cancer cell growth and spreading. Chemerin, a newly identified adipokine secreted by adipose tissue, is known to be associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance. The present study was carried out to investigate the association between serum levels of chemerin and colorectal cancer.

Metabolic Syndrome, Brain Insulin Resistance, and Alzheimer's Disease: Thioredoxin Interacting Protein (TXNIP) and Inflammasome as Core Amplifiers.

Empirical evidence indicates a strong association between insulin resistance and pathological alterations related to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in different cerebral regions. While cerebral insulin resistance is not essentially parallel with systemic metabolic derangements, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been established as a risk factor for AD. The circulating "toxic metabolites" emerging in metabolic syndrome may engage several biochemical pathways to promote oxidative stress and neuroinflammation lead...

Tumor Susceptibility Gene 101 Mediates Anoikis Resistance of Metastatic Thyroid Cancer Cells.

Resistance to anoikis is a pre-requisite step in metastasis, a major cause of death in patients with cancer, including thyroid cancer. Impairing anoikis resistance is a possible strategy for therapy of metastatic cancer. We, therefore, we aimed to investigate the key players of anoikis resistance.

Association between Atopic Dermatitis and the Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) may be associated with the metabolic syndrome and by that carry an increased risk of cardio-vascular disease. Our objective was to provide an update on current knowledge of the association between AD and metabolic syndrome, including each component of the metabolic syndrome. A systematic literature review was performed to identify studies investigating the association between metabolic syndrome and AD from PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library in accordance with the Preferred Repor...

Not All Clots Are Created Equal: A Review of Deficient Thrombolysis with Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome.

Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors associated with a prothrombotic, proinflammatory and hypofibrinolysis state. Although resistance to tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in metabolic syndrome patients has been associated with a defective fibrinolytic system, the factors and mechanisms underlining such resistance is unclear. While there is a great debate on proposed mechanisms, fundamental questions regarding resistance to tPA in metabolic syndrome patients with ischemic stroke re...

Insulin resistance: Review of the underlying molecular mechanisms.

Most human cells utilize glucose as the primary substrate, cellular uptake requiring insulin. Insulin signaling is therefore critical for these tissues. However, decrease in insulin sensitivity due to the disruption of various molecular pathways causes insulin resistance (IR). IR underpins many metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, impairments in insulin signaling disrupting entry of glucose into the adipocytes, and skeletal muscle cells. Although the exact underlying cause of...

High Genetic Risk Scores of ASIC2, MACROD2, CHRM3, and C2orf83 Genetic Variants Associated with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Impair Insulin Sensitivity and Interact with Energy Intake in Korean Women.

We explored the genetic variants that were associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by genome-wide association study (GWAS) and evaluated the association of genetic risk scores (GRS) of the selected genetic variants with insulin resistance and the interaction of the GRS with nutrient intake to develop insulin resistance.

Plasma Growth Arrest-Specific 6 Protein and Genetic Variations in the GAS6 Gene in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome.

Growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6) is a vitamin K-dependent protein secreted by immune cells, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and adipocytes. Recent studies indicate that Gas6 and receptors of the TAM (Tyro3, Axl, and Mer) family may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity, systemic inflammation, and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between plasma Gas6 protein and the c.843 + 7G>A Gas6 polymorphism in metabolic syndrome (MetS).

Development of metabolic syndrome after bilateral total thyroidectomy despite the l-t4 replacement therapy: A prospective study.

The literature about the frequency of metabolic syndrome in patients with multinodular goitre and a new onset of metabolic syndrome after total thyroidectomy is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of total thyroidectomy and thyroid hormones on a new onset of metabolic syndrome in patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and have received thyroid hormone replacement.

Serum profile of cytokines and their genetic variants in metabolic syndrome and healthy subjects: a comparative study.

To identify genetic variants in promoter areas of IL-6 -174 G>C and TNF-α -308 G>A in metabolic syndrome (Met S) and controls and associate them with Met S and serum cytokine levels. It was a cross-sectional study, including 224 cases of Met S and 200 controls. A fasting blood sample was taken and biochemical parameters including serum glucose, insulin, lipid profile, IL-6 and TNF-α were measured. Restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to identify the genetic variants of IL-6 and TNF-α. Serum ...

Thyroid Autoimmunity and Thyroid Cancer - The Pathogenic Connection: A 2018 Update.

The association between thyroid cancer and thyroid autoimmunity has long been suggested, but remains to be elucidated for several decades. Here the data on this issue are updated by summarizing relevant papers published between 2012 and early 2018. Although numerous papers demonstrated the significant increase in the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity (positive intrathyroidal lymphocyte infiltration and/or anti-thyroglobulin/thyroid peroxidase antibodies) in patients with thyroid cancers as compared to thos...

Effect of insulin on thyroid cell proliferation, tumor cell migration, and potentially related mechanisms.

Diabetes has recently been identified as a risk factor for a variety of cancers, possibly due to hyperinsulinemia or exogenous insulin use. Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, and its incidence has been exponentially increasing worldwide at an alarming rate. The aim of this study was to establish whether insulin use affects thyroid cancer development and progression, specifically cell proliferation and migration in vitro.

Fructose at the crossroads of the metabolic syndrome and obesity epidemics.

In this review, we highlight the specific metabolic effects of fructose consumption that are involved in the development of metabolic syndrome non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its association with obesity. The specifics effects of fructose on the liver are particularly germane to the development of a vicious cycle that starts with liver steatosis driving insulin resistance. These effects include 1) increased lipogenesis, 2) increased liver fat, 3) dyslipidemia 4) increased uric acid production which f...

A novel thyroid hormone receptor beta mutation (G357R) in a family with resistance to thyroid hormone β: extending the borders of the 'hot' region in the THRB gene.

Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) β is a syndrome characterized by high serum levels of thyroid hormone and unsuppressed serum thyrotropin (or thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH]) concentrations. RTHβ is caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB) gene, which are mostly clustered in three 'hot regions' along the gene. Here we report on a family with RTHβ caused by a novel mutation in the THRB gene (c.1069 G>C, p.G357R) occurring outside the historically known 'hot' regions.

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