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PubMed Journals Articles About "Active Mode Excretion Across Digestive Tissues Predates Origin" RSS

04:04 EST 26th February 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Active mode excretion across digestive tissues predates origin" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 15,000+

Active mode of excretion across digestive tissues predates the origin of excretory organs.

Most bilaterian animals excrete toxic metabolites through specialized organs, such as nephridia and kidneys, which share morphological and functional correspondences. In contrast, the excretory mechanisms in non-nephrozoans are largely unknown, and therefore the reconstruction of ancestral excretory mechanisms is problematic. Here, we investigated the excretory mode of members of the Xenacoelomorpha, the sister group to Nephrozoa, and Cnidaria, the sister group to Bilateria. By combining gene expression, in...


Bioavailability, tissue distribution and excretion studies of a potential anti-osteoporotic agent, medicarpin, in female rats using validated LC-MS/MS method.

Medicarpin, one of the active constituents isolated from the extract of Butea monosperma, has been shown to have various pharmacological activities including potent anti-osteoporotic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the oral pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion of medicarpin following single oral dose administration in female rats. Oral pharmacokinetics was explored at 5 and 20 mg/kg while tissue distribution, urinary and fecal excretion were studied following 20 mg/kg...

A Multi-Mode Rehabilitation Robot with Magnetorheological Actuators Based on Human Motion Intention Estimation.

Lower extremity paralysis has become common in recent years, and robots have been developed to help patients recover from it. This paper presents such a robotic system that allows for two working modes, the robot-active mode and human-active mode. The robot is designed to be equipped with magnetorheological (MR) actuators that have the advantages of high torque, fast response, flexible controllability, low power consumption and safety guarantee. The design and characteristics of the MR actuator are introduc...


Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion of saponins after intravenous administration of ShenMai Injection in rats.

ShenMai Injection (SMI) is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been extensively applied in the treatment of coronary artery disease and tumor for many years. However, there is still lack of deep research on the behaviors of SMI in vivo. In this study, a reliable, specific, and sensitive method was developed for simultaneous determination of sixteen saponins found in SMI using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokineti...

Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability and urinary excretion of scopolin and its metabolite scopoletin in Sprague-Dawley rats by LC-MS/MS.

The aim of this study is to investigate the pharmacokinetics, bioavailability and urinary excretion of scopolin and its metabolite scopoletin in rat. A LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of scopolin and scopoletin in rat biomatrices was developed and validated over the rage of 5.0-2000 ng/mL. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a Hypersil GOLD C18 column with acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water as mobile phase with gradient elution. Detection was performed in the positive ioniza...

Origin of robust out-of-plane ferroelectricity in d1T-MoS2 monolayer.

The d1T-MoS2, distorted-1T group-VIB transition metal dichalcogenides monolayer, is considered as promising atomically thin out-of-plane ferroelectric materials. We study the origin of the ferroelectricity in d1T-MoS2 monolayer using first-principles calculations and the Landau theory of phase transition. In contrast to conventional improper ferroelectrics, we find that the polarization has dependence on both primary and secondary modes. It turns out that the charge imbalance between chalcogen atoms at diff...

Utility of Dual Red Imaging for Endoscopic Hemostasis of Gastric Ulcer Bleeding.

Dual red imaging (DRI; Red Dichromatic Imaging (RDI)) is a new type of image-enhanced endoscopy composed of two long wavelengths that together can visualize vessels in the deep submucosa of the gastrointestinal wall. We treated a case of gastric ulcer bleeding in which the bleeding point could be clearly visualized using DRI. A 71-year-old man who was taking warfarin for atrial fibrillation noticed tarry stool, entered a state of hypovolemic shock, and underwent emergency esophagogastroduodenoscopy. The pro...

Safety Profile of the New Harmonic Focus: Different Emissivity and Temperature Behavior Between the Active and the Inactive Blade.

Ultrasonic devices disperse less energy in the tissues. The new Harmonic Focus+ (HF+) seems to be more efficient but thermal damages have been reported. This study examined the temperature and the emissivity profile of the active and passive blades of the HF+, on a pig tissue model at different power settings. The FLIR System B series thermal imaging camera has been used on various biological pig tissues to evaluate the emissivity of the ultrasonic device. The active blade heats up faster than the passive o...

Study on the interaction between lovastatin and three digestive enzymes and the effect of naringin and vitamin C on it by spectroscopy and docking methods.

Lovastatin is a typical drug interacting with grapefruit juice and naringin and vitamin C are main active constituents in fruit juice. It is necessary to study the interaction between lovastatin and digestive enzymes and the effect of naringin and vitamin C on the interaction. Pepsin, trypsin and α-chymotrypsin were selected as representatives of digestive tract enzymes, and fluorescence spectroscopy was employed to study the interaction of lovastatin with three digestive enzymes and the effect of naringin...

The accumulation of microplastics in fish from an important fish farm and mariculture area, Haizhou Bay, China.

Marine fisheries and aquaculture can match growing demand for marine protein from an increasing population. However, the microplastics (MPs) in marine environments may pose a threat to human health through food chains by seafood consumption. The MPs have been found lodged in the digestive tracts and other tissues of various sea animals, nevertheless, little is known in regard to the accumulation of MPs in fish from major fish farms and mariculture areas, especially in non-digestive tissues of fishes. This s...

Effect of Loop Diuretics on the Fractional Excretion of Urea in decompensated Heart Failure.

Fractional excretion of urea (FEUrea) is often used to understand the etiology of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients receiving diuretics. While FEUrea demonstrates diagnostic superiority over fractional excretion of sodium (FENa), clinicians often assume FEUrea is not affected by diuretics.

Proteases and nucleases across midgut tissues of N. viridula (Hemiptera:Pentatomidae) display distinct activity profiles that are conserved through life stages.

The southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula is a polyphagous pest of commercially important crops during both nymph and adult stages. This insect has recently transitioned from a secondary agricultural pest to one of primary concern. Novel management solutions are needed due to the limited effectiveness of current control strategies. We performed biochemical and transcriptomic analyses to characterize digestive enzymes in the salivary glands and along midgut tissues of N. viridula nymphs and adults fed on...

Successful Pregnancies After Regression of AA Amyloidosis by Anti-inflammatory Therapy in Chronic Active Crohn's Disease.

Fatty acid profile as a discriminatory tool for the origin of lamb muscle and adipose tissue from different pastoral grazing areas in North Macedonia - A short communication.

The fatty acid (FA) profiles of lamb muscle and adipose tissue originating from ten different grazing areas in North Macedonia and an assessment of whether the meat origin could be distinguished on the basis of FA profile are presented. Muscle and adipose tissues of three-month-old male lambs (crossbreds of autochthonous Ovcepolian and Württemberg) reared on spring pastures were studied. Statistically significant differences in the individual FA contents, FA groups and FA ratios were observed between lamb ...

Uptake and excretion dynamics of gold nanoparticles in cancer cells and fibroblasts.

Radiotherapy is one of the main treatments used to fight cancer. A major limitation of this modality is the lack of selectivity between cancerous and healthy tissues. One of the most promising strategies proposed this last decade is the addition of nanoparticles with high-atomic number to enhance radiation effects in tumors. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)are considered as one of the best candidates because of their high radioenhancing property, simple synthesis and low toxicity. Ultra small AuNPs (core size...

Telomere length measurement in tumor and non-tumor cells as a valuable prognostic for tumor progression.

Telomere shortening has been supposed to be implicated in both aging and various human diseases especially carcinogenesis process. This phenomenon can lead to a chromosomal instability, contributing to a cell immortalization and tumor induction. In our study, we analyzed the role of telomere shortening in cancer progression, in Tunisian patients with digestive cancer. We measured the absolute telomere length in tumoral vs healthy adjacent tissues of each patient by using a q-RT PCR method and we investigate...

The "cold revolution". Present and future applications of cold-active enzymes and ice-binding proteins.

Psychrophilic organisms adapted to cold environments produce molecules of relevance for biotechnological application, in particular enzymes active at low temperatures and ice-binding proteins that control the growth of ice crystals. The use of cold-active enzymes supports low temperature processes that preserve heat labile compounds and can result, in some circumstances, in energy saving. Among the several possible applications in biotransformations, this paper focuses on reactions of relevance for the food...

Effects of acute ammonia toxicity on oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis in digestive gland and gill of Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea).

Ammonia is one of the major pollutants associated with the main river basins due to ammonification of uneaten food and animal excretion, which usually brings detrimental health effects to aquatic invertebrate. However, the mechanisms of ammonia toxicity in aquatic invertebrate have rarely been reported. In this study, C. fluminea was exposed to different levels of ammonia (control group, 10 mg/L, and 25 mg/L) for 24 h and 48 h, and digestive gland and gill were collected to explore toxic effects on ...

On-chip silicon dual-mode multiplexer via a subwavelength grating-based directional coupler and a mode blocker.

An on-chip silicon dual-mode multiplexer (MUX) is proposed via a subwavelength grating (SWG)-based directional coupler and a mode blocker. The proposed mode MUX is optimized by utilizing the three-dimensional full-vectorial finite-difference time-domain-based band structure and propagation calculations. The simulated results indicate that an ultralow mode cross talk of $ - {40}\,\,{\rm dB}$-40dB at the operating wavelength of 1550 nm can be achieved by introducing a ${{\rm TE}_0}$TE mode blocker. Benefiting...

Peruvian scallop Argopecten purpuratus: From a key aquaculture species to a promising biondicator species.

The present study analyzed the Peruvian scallop Argopecten purpuratus and its food sources for metal and fatty acid concentrations in order to determine spatial and temporal differences. Metals such as copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) in gills and iron (Fe) and Zn in sediments were the most significant explaining factors for spatial differentiations (degree of contamination), while for fatty acids, it was C14:0, C15:0, C16:0 and C18:0 in A. purpuratus' muscle and in its food sources, which explai...

Effects of chlorothalonil on the antioxidant defense system of mussels Perna perna.

Chlorothalonil is an effective fungicide used in agriculture and formulations of antifouling paints, which use and possible toxicity has been generating great concern. Thus, the present study investigated the effects of chlorothalonil on the antioxidant defense system (ADS) of the mussel Perna perna. The ADS was evaluated in gills and digestive gland after 24 h and 96 h of exposure to environmental relevant levels of chlorothalonil (0.1 and 10 μg/L). The activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD...

Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, excretion, and metabolic analysis of Schisanlactone E, a bioactive ingredient from Kadsura heteroclita (Roxb) Craib, in rats by UHPLC-MS/MS and UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS.

Schisanlactone E (SE) is a bioactive ingredient extracted from the stem of Kadsura heteroclita (Roxb) Craib. SE has various pharmacological activity such as anti-tumor and anti-leukemia effects. However, its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion have rarely been examined. In this study, new quali-quantitative analytical methods were developed for metabolic and pharmacokinetic studies of SE in rats. A UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed to determine SE in rat plasma, urine, and feces. Samples were...

Enzymatic activities in the digestive tract of spirostreptid and spirobolid millipedes (Diplopoda: Spirostreptida and Spirobolida).

Millipedes represent a model for the study of organic matter transformation, animal-microbial interactions, and compartmentalisation of digestion. The activity of saccharidases (amylase, laminarinase, cellulase, xylanase, chitinase, maltase, cellobiase, and trehalase) and protease were measured in the midgut and hindgut contents and walls of the millipedes Archispirostreptus gigas and Epibolus pulchripes. Assays done at pH 4 and 7 confirmed activities of all enzymes except xylanase. Hydrolysing of starch ...

Blue laser imaging and linked color imaging improve the color difference value and visibility of colorectal polyps in underwater conditions.

Underwater endoscopic mucosal resection (UEMR) has become widespread for treating colorectal polyps. However, which observational mode is best suited for determining polyp margins underwater remains unclear. To determine the best mode, we analyzed three imaging modes: white light imaging (WLI), blue laser imaging (BLI) and linked color imaging (LCI).

Influence of the mode of application of universal adhesive systems on adhesive properties to fluorotic enamel.

The objective of this study is to compare the resin-enamel bond strength (mμSBS), in-situ degree of conversion (DC), and the enamel-etching pattern (SEM/EDX) of universal adhesive systems when applied to sound and fluorotic enamel. Ninety-eight human molars were sectioned into 4 parts and divided into 24 groups according to 1) enamel surface (sound or fluorotic enamel), 2) adhesive system (Clearfil Universal Bond [CUB], Futurabond U [FBU], iBond Universal [IBU], and Scotchbond Universal [SBU]), and 3) appl...


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