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PubMed Journals Articles About "Aerobic Fitness Relates Differential Attentional Language Related Cognitive" RSS

03:34 EDT 19th October 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Aerobic fitness relates differential attentional language related cognitive" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 28,000+

Aerobic fitness relates to differential attentional but not language-related cognitive processes.

Compelling evidence supports an association between the attribute of aerobic fitness and achievement scores on standardized tests of reading. However, such standardized assessments provide only a broad valuation of a complex network of language related sub-processes that contribute to reading and are heavily confounded by other attention-related processes. The present investigation sought to clarify the nature of the association between aerobic fitness and language processing in a sample of college-aged adu...


Cognitive Performance, Aerobic Fitness, Motor Proficiency, and Brain Function Among Children Newly Diagnosed With Craniopharyngioma.

Craniopharyngioma survivors experience cognitive deficits that negatively impact quality of life. Aerobic fitness is associated with cognitive benefits in typically developing children and physical exercise promotes recovery following brain injury. Accordingly, we investigated cognitive and neural correlates of aerobic fitness in a sample of craniopharyngioma patients.

Prospective Memory Relates to Attentional Control: Differential Patterns in Old Age.

We investigated the associations of prospective memory (PM) with memory, attentional control, and conscientiousness and whether they differed between young-old (YO) and old-old adults (OO).


A relationship between weak attentional control and cognitive distortions, explained by negative affect.

People high in negative affect (anxiety or depression) show cognitive distortions, specific thinking errors which contribute to the maintenance of their condition. It is thought that weak attentional control is a risk factor for negative affect and emotional disorders, because weak attentional control exaggerates the expression of attentional bias, another cognitive feature of emotional disorders. We wondered whether weak attentional control might similarly exaggerate the expression of cognitive distortions...

Relationship between brachial and popliteal artery low-flow mediated constriction in older adults: Impact of aerobic fitness on vascular endothelial function.

We previously observed that brachial artery (BA) low-flow mediated constriction (L-FMC) is inversely related to aerobic fitness (i.e., VOpeak) in older adults (OA). However, it is unclear if an L-FMC response is elicited in the popliteal artery (POP) or if a similar inverse relationship with aerobic fitness exists. Considering that the POP experiences larger shear stress fluctuations during sedentary behaviors and traditional lower limb modes of aerobic exercise, we tested the hypotheses that: 1) heterogene...

Commentary on the Article "Interpreting Aerobic Fitness in Youth: The Fallacy of Ratio Scaling"-Is Body Mass the Best Body Size Descriptor to Normalize Aerobic Fitness in the Pediatric Population?

Attentional bias, craving and cannabis use in an inpatient sample of adolescents and young adults diagnosed with cannabis use disorder: The moderating role of cognitive control.

Motivational processes like attentional bias and craving have been related to substance use. However, results are inconclusive. The present cross-sectional study was designed to replicate and extend previous research by investigating the relationships between attentional bias, craving, cognitive control and (severity of) cannabis use in a sample of inpatient adolescents and young adults (aged 18-30) diagnosed with CUD according to DSM-5. Contrary to expectations, our sample did not show attentional bias for...

Effects of exercise dose and type during breast cancer chemotherapy on longer-term patient-reported outcomes and health-related fitness: A randomized controlled trial.

The Combined Aerobic and Resistance Exercise (CARE) Trial compared different types and doses of exercise performed during breast cancer chemotherapy. Here, we report the longer-term follow-up of patient-reported outcomes, health-related fitness, and exercise behavior at 6, 12, and 24 months postintervention. A multicenter trial in Canada randomized 301 breast cancer patients initiating chemotherapy to thrice weekly, supervised exercise consisting of a standard dose of 25-30 minutes of aerobic exercise (STAN...

Chester treadmill police tests as alternatives to 15-m shuttle running.

Police officers require a specific level of aerobic fitness to allow them to complete personal safety training and specialist roles. Officers' aerobic fitness is assessed using the 15-m multi-stage fitness test (MSFT); however, due to the agility required and risk of injury, two alternative treadmill tests have been designed to predict four of the key minimum VO2 criteria of 35, 41, 46 and 51 ml·kg-1·min-1.

Psychological Symptoms and Stress Are Associated With Decrements in Attentional Function in Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy.

Decrements in attentional function-perceived effectiveness in everyday functioning related to cognitive dysfunction-are frequently reported by cancer patients during treatment. However, patients vary widely in their experiences of changes in attentional function.

Cognitive Control along the Language Spectrum: From the Typical Bilingual Child to Language Impairment.

Cognitive control refers to the ability to perform goal-directed behaviors in the presence of other compelling actions or in the face of habitual practices. Cognitive control functions play a critical role in children's language processing and literacy development. In recent years, many clinicians have expanded their assessment and treatment to target specific cognitive skills. Our goal is to provide a review of recent findings on cognitive control functions in children with different language status (i.e.,...

The Role of S100B in Aerobic Training Efficacy in Older Adults with Mild Vascular Cognitive Impairment: Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Aerobic training improves cognitive and brain outcomes across different populations and neurocognitive disorders of aging, including mild subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment (SIVCI). However, little is known of the underlying mechanisms through which aerobic training exerts its beneficial effects on the brain. Recently, S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) has been proposed a possible mediator of aerobic training. Thus we conducted a secondary analysis of data collected from the proof-of-co...

Interpreting Youth Aerobic Fitness: Promoting Evidence-Based Discussion–A Response to Dotan (2019)

We welcome Raffy Dotan’s Letter to the Editor (14) as it gives us another opportunity to promote evidence-based discussion of the development of youth aerobic fitness. Readers of our contributions to the 2019 Special Issue of Pediatric Exercise Science (6,27,28) will recall that we concluded with, “The authors encourage all pediatric exercise scientists to engage with this discussion, to share ideas and methods, and be willing to explore alternatives. There are many issues to resolve and constructive, c...

A systematic review of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness on P3b.

Given accumulating evidence indicating that acute and chronic physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are related to modulation of the P3b-ERP component, this systematic review provides an overview of the field across the last 30+ years and discusses future directions as the field continues to develop. A systematic review was conducted on studies of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness on P3b. PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched from database inception to March 28, 2018. Sear...

Higher striatal D2-receptor availability in aerobically fit older adults but non-selective intervention effects after aerobic versus resistance training.

There is much evidence that dopamine is vital for cognitive functioning in aging. Here we tested the hypothesis that aerobic exercise and fitness influence dopaminergic neurotransmission in the striatum, and in turn performance on offline working-memory updating tasks. Dopaminergic neurotransmission was measured by positron emission tomography (PET) and the non-displacable binding potential (BP) of [C]raclopride, i.e. dopamine (DA) D2-receptor (D2R) availability. Fifty-four sedentary older adults underwent ...

Cortical thickness lateralization and its relation to language abilities in children.

The humans' brain asymmetry is observed in the early stages of life and known to change further with age. The developmental trajectory of such an asymmetry has been observed for language, as one of the most lateralized cognitive functions. However, it remains unclear how these age-related changes in structural asymmetry are related to changes in language performance. We collected longitudinal structural magnetic resonance imaging data of children from 5 to 6 years to investigate structural asymmetry develop...

Brain network reconfiguration for language and domain-general cognitive control in bilinguals.

For bilinguals, language control is needed for selecting the target language during language production. Numerous studies have examined the neural correlates of language control and shown a close relationship between language control and domain-general cognitive control. However, it remains unknown how these brain regions coordinate with each other when bilinguals exert cognitive control over linguistic and nonlinguistic representations. We addressed this gap using an extended unified structural equation mo...

Aerobic exercise modulates transfer and brain signal complexity following cognitive training.

Although recent evidence has demonstrated the potent effect of physical exercise to increase the efficacy of cognitive training, the neural mechanisms underlying this causal relationship remain unclear. Here, we used multiscale entropy (MSE) of electroencephalography (EEG)-a measure of brain signal complexity-to address this issue. Young males were randomly assigned to either a 20-day dual n-back training following aerobic exercise or the same training regimen following a reading. A feature binding working ...

Attention in Bilingual Children With Developmental Language Disorder.

Purpose Attention and language are hypothesized to interact in bilingual children and in children with developmental language disorder (DLD). In children who are bilingual, attentional control may be enhanced by repeated experience regulating 2 languages. In children with DLD, subtle weaknesses in sustained attention may relate to impaired language processing. This study measured attentional control and sustained attention in monolingual and bilingual children with and without DLD in order to examine the po...

Bilingualism and Dementia: Cognitive Reserve to Linguistic Competency.

Despite the large number of elderly bilinguals at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia worldwide, significant questions remain about the relationship between speaking more than one language and later cognitive decline. Bilingualism may impact on cognitive and neural reserve, time of onset of dementia symptoms and neuropathology, and linguistic competency in dementia. This review indicates increased cognitive reserve from executive (monitoring, selecting, inhibiting) control of two languages and in...

A Combined EEG-fNIRS Study Investigating Mechanisms Underlying the Association between Aerobic Fitness and Inhibitory Control in Young Adults.

The current evidence suggests that aerobic fitness is associated with inhibitory control of executive functioning in children and older adults. However, the relative contributions of different neurophysiological mechanisms to this relation remain unclear and have not yet been examined in young adults. The present study aimed to compare inhibitory control between high and low-fit young adult men, and to investigate a possible mediation of fitness effects by conflict monitoring (N450 component of event-relate...

Cognitive inhibition and attentional biases in the affective go/no-go performance of depressed, suicidal populations.

Although cognitive inhibition deficits and attentional biases have been associated with suicidality, these findings have not been consistently reported across samples. The aim of the current study was to further investigate these variables among participants with differing suicidal risk.

Shoulder Muscular Fatigue From Static Posture Concurrently Reduces Cognitive Attentional Resources.

The goal of this work is to determine whether muscular fatigue concurrently reduces cognitive attentional resources in technical tasks for healthy adults.

Social anxiety and attentional bias variability: electrophysiological evidence of attentional control deficits.

Attentional control has an important role in attentional bias in social anxiety. This study aimed to investigate whether attentional bias in social anxiety was caused by attentional control deficit. Event-related potentials and behavioural attentional bias index (trial-level attentional bias variability) were recorded as participants completed the dot-probe task. The behaviour result showed that compared with the low socially anxious individuals, the high socially anxious individuals had a marginally higher...

Prefrontal sensitivity to changes in language form and semantic content during speech production.

In bilingual speakers, language switching might involve a change in language form, meaning, or both. However, the neural substrates of language control in the three switching conditions have not been specified. We examined bilingual speech production using a picture-naming paradigm that teased apart language and semantic switching. Bilingual participants named two serially presented pictures, which show the same or different object, with one or two languages. The three switching conditions showed distinct n...


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