PubMed Journals Articles About "Alpha Antitrypsin Deficiency" RSS

20:29 EDT 20th October 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Alpha Antitrypsin Deficiency" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 3,400+

Longterm Homecare Augmentation Program in Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficient Patients.

Augmentation with human alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor is the only specific treatment for Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficiency (AATD), a rare genetic disease with symptoms of progressive COPD.

Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency in a French General Hospital: fortuitous detection rather than efficient screening.

We studied the characteristics of the screening procedure for alpha-1 antitrypsin at Nevers Hospital (France), together with the performance of serum protein gel electrophoresis for the fortuitous detection of patients with deficiency.

Testing for alpha-1 antitrypsin in COPD in outpatient respiratory clinics in Spain: A multilevel, cross-sectional analysis of the EPOCONSUL study.

Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is the most common hereditary disorder in adults, but is under-recognized. In Spain, the number of patients diagnosed with AATD is much lower than expected according to epidemiologic studies. The objectives of this study were to assess the frequency and determinants of testing serum α1-antitrypsin (AAT) levels in COPD patients, and to describe factors associated with testing.

Clinical and Histologic Features of Adults with Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency in a Non-Cirrhotic Cohort.

Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is an uncommonly recognized cause of liver disease in adults. Descriptions of the natural history of liver disease are limited to case series and patient reported data from disease registries. Liver pathology is limited to selected patients or unavailable. Therefore, our primary aim was to determine the prevalence and severity of liver fibrosis in an adult AATD population who were not known to have cirrhosis. Our secondary aims were to define risk factors for fibrosis a...

Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency as a common treatable mechanism in chronic respiratory disorders and for conditions different from pulmonary emphysema? A commentary on the new European Respiratory Society statement.

The European Respiratory Society recently published an important statement reviewing available evidence on diagnosis and treatment of lung disease associated to alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD). Several issues on this topic still remain unresolved and subject of interpretation according to different standard procedures and healthcare systems worldwide. The purpose of this commentary is to offer a critical contribution to most of these controversial issues in light of an Italian perspective for the mana...

α-antitrypsin polymerizes in alveolar macrophages of smokers with and without α-antitrypsin deficiency.

The deficiency of α-antitrypsin (AAT) is secondary to misfolding and polymerization of the abnormal Z-AAT in liver cells and is associated with lung emphysema. Alveolar macrophages (AM) produce AAT, however it is not known if Z-AAT can polymerize in AM, further decreasing lung AAT and promoting lung inflammation.

Coexistent Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency and Hereditary Hemochromatosis.

Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency and hereditary hemochromatosis are systemic diseases inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. The primary manifestation of AAT is early-onset pulmonary disease, while hemochromatosis primarily affects function of the liver, heart, and pancreas through excess iron deposition. No clear association between the two diseases has been delineated. We present a case in which a 34-year old female patient presenting with elevated liver enzymes during a visit for an unrelated a...

Presentation and Prognosis of liver disease in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.

Hyperpolarized He MRI Ventilatory Apparent Diffusion Coefficient of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency as a Candidate for Gene Editing.

Similarities in the Computed Tomography Appearance in α1-Antitrypsin Deficiency and Smoking-Related Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in a Smoking Collective.

Emphysematous destruction of lung parenchyma visible in computed tomography (CT) can be attributed to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or to α1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD).

hiPSC hepatocyte model demonstrates the role of unfolded protein response and inflammatory networks in α-antitrypsin deficiency.

α-antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the SERPINA1 gene. Individuals with the Z variant (Gly342Lys) retain polymerised protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of their hepatocytes, predisposing them to liver disease. The concomitant lack of circulating A1AT also causes lung emphysema. Greater insight into the mechanisms that link protein misfolding to liver injury will facilitate the design of novel therapies.

Gene Delivery of Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Using Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus (rAAV).

The challenge for alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT also known as SERPINA1) gene therapy is to achieve long term and high levels of AAT production. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector has several advantages for AAT gene delivery including no viral genes in the vector, no requirement of integration for long-term transgene expression, low immunogenicity, and wide tropism. AAV-mediated AAT gene therapy has been developed and tested in animal models for AAT deficiency, type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis,...

Amelioration of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Diseases with Genome Editing in Transgenic Mice.

Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a hereditary liver disease caused by mutations in the SERPINA1 gene. Most severe patients are homozygous for PiZ alleles (PiZZ; amino acid E324K), which lead to protein aggregates in hepatocytes and reduced circulating levels of AAT. The liver aggregates typically lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, and the reduced circulating AAT levels can lead to emphysema and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD). In this study, two CRISPR/Cas9 gene...

Human alpha 1-antitrypsin protects neurons and glial cells against oxygen and glucose deprivation through inhibition of interleukins expression.

Death due to cerebral stroke afflicts a large number of neuronal populations, including glial cells depending on the brain region affected. Drugs with a wide cellular range of protection are needed to develop effective therapies for stroke. Human alpha 1-antitrypsin (hAAT) is a serine proteinase inhibitor with potent anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and immunoregulatory activities. This study aimed to test whether hAAT can protect different kind of neurons and glial cells after the oxygen and glucose depri...

Retraction: The Immunoregulation Effect of Alpha 1-Antitrypsin Prolong β-Cell Survival after Transplantation.

Heterozygosity for the Alpha-1-antitrypsin Z-Allele in Cirrhosis is associated with more advanced Disease.

Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD) due to homozygosity for the Z-allele (ZZ) is an established risk factor for cirrhosis, but the liver disease risk in heterozygous Z-allele carriers (MZ) is controversial. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of the MZ genotype among patients with cirrhosis and the associated risk of decompensation and liver transplantation/mortality. An unselected cohort of 561 patients with cirrhosis and 248 deceased liver donors were genotyped for the A1ATD ri...

NorUDCA promotes degradation of α1-antitrypsin mutant Z protein by inducing autophagy through AMPK/ULK1 pathway.

Alpha-1 Antitrypsin (α1AT) Deficiency is a genetic disease in which accumulation of α1AT mutant Z (α1ATZ) protein in the ER of hepatocytes causes chronic liver injury, liver fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. No effective medical therapy is currently available for the disease. We previously found that norUDCA improves the α1AT deficiency associated liver disease by promoting autophagic degradation of α1ATZ protein in liver in a mouse model of the disease. The current study unravels the novel under...

Ataluren, a New Therapeutic for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficient Individuals with Nonsense Mutations.

Hetero-polymerization of α1-antitrypsin mutants in cell models mimicking heterozygosity.

The most common genotype associated with severe α1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is the Z homozygote. The Z variant (Glu342Lys) of α1-antitrypsin (AAT) undergoes a conformational change and is retained within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of hepatocytes leading to the formation of ordered polymeric chains and inclusion bodies. Accumulation of mutated protein predisposes to cirrhosis whilst plasma AAT deficiency leads to emphysema. Increased risk of liver and lung disease has also been reported in heteroz...

Comparison of non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency using magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) Quantification, and 2D-shear wave elastography (2D-SWE).

Although it has been known for decades that patients with alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) have an increased risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, limited data exist on non-invasive imaging-based methods for assessing liver fibrosis such as magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) quantification, and no data exist on 2D-shear wave elastography (2D-SWE). Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the applicability of different elasto...

In Vivo Analysis of Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Functions in Autoimmune Disease Models.

Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) is a circulating protein, a serpin, with multiple protective functions. Beside the well-known proteinase inhibitory function, which protects the lungs from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), many studies have shown that AAT inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression and functions. These anti-inflammatory and immune-regulatory properties have led to studies testing the therapeutic effect of AAT in autoimmune disease models. Initially, a study using recombinant ade...

Oxidation-resistant and thermostable forms of alpha-1 antitrypsin from inclusion bodies.

Native α1-antitrypsin (AAT) is a 52-kDa glycoprotein that acts as an antiprotease and is the physiological inhibitor of neutrophil serine proteases. The main function of AAT is to protect the lung from proteolytic damage induced by inflammation. AAT deficiency (AATD) is a codominant autosomal disorder caused by pathogenic mutations in SERPINA1 gene, leading to reduced levels of serum AAT. The deficiency is known to increase the risk of pulmonary emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a cons...

Cellular Models for the Serpinopathies.

Our current knowledge about the cellular mechanisms underlying serpin-related disorders, the serpinopathies, is predominantly based on studies in cell culture models of disease, particularly for alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT, SERPINA1) deficiency causing emphysema and the familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin (NS, SERPINI1) inclusion bodies (FENIB). FENIB, a neurodegenerative dementia, is caused by polymerization of NS (Miranda and Lomas, Cell Mol Life Sci 63:709-722, 2006; Roussel BD et al., Epileptic Disor ...

Alpha-1-antitrypsin ameliorates inflammation and neurodegeneration in the diabetic mouse retina.

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common cause of blindness in the working age population. Early events of DR are accompanied by neurodegeneration of the inner retina resulting in ganglion cell loss. These findings together with reduced retinal thickness are observed within the first weeks of experimental DR. Besides, an inflammatory process is triggered in DR in which the innate immune response plays a relevant role. Alpha 1 antitrypsin (AAT), an inhibitor of serine proteases, has shown anti-inflammato...

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