PubMed Journals Articles About "Baclofen" RSS

02:57 EDT 23rd March 2019 | BioPortfolio

Baclofen PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Baclofen articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Baclofen" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 35

Pharmacokinetics and toxicity of high-dose baclofen in ICU patients.

High-dose baclofen could prove beneficial in patients with unhealthy alcohol use in intensive care units (ICU). However, the pharmacokinetic properties of baclofen are unknown in this population. Our objectives were to investigate the pharmacokinetics of baclofen and the relationship between baclofen exposure and its toxicity in the ICU.

An intoxication mimicking brain death: baclofen.

Baclofen is a derivative of gamma-aminobutyric acid, used mainly for the treatment of muscle spasticity. Baclofen overdose can result in severe respiratory depression, autonomic disturbances, seizures and coma. Here we report a 15-year-old girl who was found unresponsive, intubated and admitted to the PICU. On initial presentation, her Glasgow Coma Score was 3, with fixed dilated pupils. EEG revealed cerebral bioelectric activity and ground amplitudes significantly lower than normal. Supportive treatments w...

Interactions between Baclofen and DC-Induced Plasticity of Afferent Fibers within the Spinal Cord.

The aims of the study were to compare effects of baclofen, a GABA receptor agonist commonly used as an antispastic drug, on direct current (DC) evoked long-lasting changes in the excitability of afferent fibers traversing the dorsal columns and their terminal branches in the spinal cord, and to examine whether baclofen interferes with the development and expression of these changes. The experiments were performed on deeply anesthetized rats by analyzing the effects of DC before, during and following baclofe...

Subcutaneous dexmedetomidine for baclofen withdrawal during palliative sedation.

Sudden cessation of baclofen can produce a withdrawal syndrome even if it was previously orally administered. We present the case of a man who exhibited signs of baclofen withdrawal syndrome during palliative sedation. Attempts were made to induce muscle relaxation with ever-increasing doses of benzodiazepine. Ultimately, control over the withdrawal syndrome was regained by using a continuous subcutaneous infusion (CSCI) of dexmedetomidine, a highly selective α adrenergic agonist. Very limited published re...

Baclofen-loaded PLGA nanoparticles for neuropathic pain management: In-vitro and In-vivo Evaluation.

In the present work, PLGA nanoparticles of baclofen (Bcf-PLGA-NPs) were developed and optimized using nanoprecipitation method. The average particle size of the Bcf-PLGA-NP was found to be 124.8 nm, polydispersity index of 0.225 and zeta potential was found to be in the range of -20.4 mV. In-Vitro dissolution studies showed that baclofen was released from PLGA NPs in a sustained fashion from 50 % release in 2.5 hrs to 80-85% in 24 hrs. MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay...

Inherited Ataxia and Intrathecal Baclofen for the Treatment of Spasticity and Painful Spasms.

Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) treatment is considered a powerful tool in the management of severe spasticity in neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, and traumatic spinal cord and brain injury.

Total and acylated ghrelin plasma levels as potential long-term response markers in alcohol-dependent patients receiving high-dose of the GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen.

The orexigenic hormone ghrelin is involved in the regulation of food intake and energy balance. Previous findings suggest its involvement in the modulation of mesolimbic reward pathways, thus potentially being relevant in the pathophysiology of substance use disorders such as alcohol dependence. In the present study, we assessed plasma levels of total and acylated ghrelin within the BACLAD trial, where alcohol-dependent patients received individually titrated high-dose baclofen (30-270 mg/d) within a rand...

The effect of baclofen combined with a proton pump inhibitor in patients with refractory laryngopharyngeal reflux: a prospective, open-label study in thirty-two patients.

Thirty-two patients with refractory LPR confirmed by 24-h MII-pH were given a 3-month course of baclofen 10 mg three times a day combined with PPI 15 mg twice a day. Changes in RSI and reflux-related quality of life from baseline to after treatment were evaluated. MII-pH monitoring of refractory LPR patients showed that the number of non-acid reflux was much higher than acid reflux in laryngopharyngeal reflux and full-column reflux. After 3 months of PPI + baclofen medication, most RSI items and quality of ...

Application of 3D printing technology and quality by design approach for development of age-appropriate pediatric formulation of baclofen.

Pediatric population is a sensitive sector of the healthcare and pharmaceutical field with additional needs compared to the adult population. Extemporaneous formulations for children are generally prepared by manipulating adult formulations, but medication errors can result in suboptimal efficacy and with significant safety concerns. The aim of proposed project was to explore a 3D printing technology for the development of customized minicaplets of baclofen for the pediatric population. Based on results of ...

Efficacy and Safety of Botulinum Toxin Type A in Spasticity Caused by Spinal Cord Injury: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

BACKGROUND Baclofen is approved by the US FDA to treat spasticity, but its sustained use may cause drug addiction. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin type A versus baclofen in spasticity. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 336 patients who had spasticity caused by spinal cord injury were enrolled in a randomized (in 1: 1: 1: ratio) for placebo, controlled trial. Patients had received baclofen (BA group, n=112), local intramuscular injection of 500 U Botulinum ...

Intrathecal Baclofen Pump versus Globus Pallidus Interna Deep Brain Stimulation in Adult Patients with Severe Cerebral Palsy.

There is no consensus on a standardized approach to spasticity or dystonia management of cerebral palsy (CP). This study aimed to investigate clinical outcomes and compare therapeutic responses for pallidal stimulation versus intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy in adult patients with severe CP.

Effects of lorazepam and baclofen on short- and long-latency afferent inhibition.

Short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) is modulated by GABA receptor activity while the pharmacological origin of long-latency afferent inhibition remains unknown. This is the first study to report that LAI is reduced by the GABA positive allosteric modulator lorazepam, and that both SAI and LAI are not modulated by the GABA agonist baclofen. These findings advance the understanding of neural mechanisms that underlie afferent inhibition.

Baclofen for neurogenic fever in a patient with cerebral contusion.

The effects of amygdala and cortical inactivation on taste neophobia.

The current study examined the effects of transient inactivation of the basolateral amygdala (BLA; Experiment 1) and gustatory cortex (GC; Experiment 2) on the expression of taste neophobia and its recovery. We found that inactivation (induced by infusions of baclofen/muscimol) of each structure before exposure to a novel saccharin (0.5%) solution elevated intake on Trial 1 (i.e., taste neophobia was attenuated) and, surprisingly, decreased intake on Trial 2. It seems unlikely that this intake reduction on ...

Modulation of tonic immobility by GABAA and GABAB receptors of the medial amygdala.

Tonic immobility (TI) is a temporary state of profound motor inhibition associated with great danger as the attack of a predator. Previous studies carried out in our laboratory evidenced high Fos-IR in the posteroventral region of the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MEA) after induction of the TI response. Here, we investigated the effects of GABA and GABA of the MEA on TI duration. Intra-MEA injections of the GABA agonist muscimol and GABA agonist baclofen reduced TI response, while intra-MEA injections of...

The striking effects of deep cerebellar stimulation on generalized fixed dystonia: case report.

Cerebellar neuromodulation could influence the pathological abnormalities of movement disorders through several connections between the cerebellum and the basal ganglia or other cortices. In the present report, the authors demonstrate the effects of cerebellar deep brain stimulation (DBS) on a patient with severe generalized fixed dystonia (FD) that was refractory to bilateral pallidotomy and intrathecal baclofen therapy. A previously healthy 16-year-old girl presented with generalized FD. Bilateral pallido...

Accuracy and Precision of the SynchroMed II Pump.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and precision of SynchroMed II programmable infusion pumps for delivery of intrathecal baclofen to treat severe spasticity.

Intrathecal baclofen for multiple sclerosis related spasticity: A twenty year experience.

Evaluate long-term efficacy and safety of ITB in treating MS-related spasticity over ∼ 20 years of service provision in a single centre.

The Neural Basis of Motion Sickness.

Although motion of the head and body has been suspected or known as the provocative cause for generation of motion sickness for centuries, it is only within the last 20 years that the source of the signal generating motion sickness and its neural basis have been firmly established. Here we briefly review the source of the conflicts that cause the body to generate the autonomic signs and symptoms that constitute motion sickness, and provide a summary of the experimental data that has led to an understanding ...

GABA receptors in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus mediate β-adrenoceptor-induced elevations of plasma noradrenaline in rats.

In the brain, various neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline and GABA regulate peripheral sympathetic functions. Previously, it has been reported that both β-adrenoceptor activation and GABA receptor activation in the brain are involved in the elevation of plasma noradrenaline levels. However, it is unknown whether these pathways interact with each other. In the present study, we examined the relationship between the central actions of β-adrenoceptor activation and GABA receptor activation with regard to...

Compatibility of Baclofen, Carvedilol, Hydrochlorothiazide, Mercaptopurine, Methadone Hydrochloride, Oseltamivir Phosphate, Phenobarbital, Propranolol Hydrochloride, Pyrazinamide, Sotalol Hydrochloride, Spironolactone, Tacrolimus Monohydrate, Ursodeoxycholic Acid, and Vancomycin Hydrochloride Oral Suspensions Compounded with SyrSpend SF pH4.

Compounded liquid medication is frequently required in children to allow easy dose adjustment and overcome swallowing difficulties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of oral suspensions compounded with SyrSpend SF PH4 and the commonly used active pharmaceutical ingredients baclofen 2.0 mg/mL, carvedilol 5.0 mg/mL, hydrochlorothiazide 2.0 mg/mL, mercaptopurine 10.0 mg/mL, methadone hydrochloride 10.0 mg/mL, oseltamivir phosphate 6.0 mg/mL, phenobarbital 9.0 mg/mL and 15.0 mg/mL, propr...

Dexmedetomidine protects rats from postoperative cognitive dysfunction via regulating the GABA R-mediated cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling pathway.

This work attempts to discuss whether dexmedetomidine (Dex) can protect rats from postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) through regulating the γ-aminobutyric acid- receptor (GABA R)-mediated cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) - protein kinase A (PKA) - cAMP-response element binding (cAMP-PKA-CREB) signaling pathway. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a non-surgical group (Control), a surgical group (Model), a surgical group treated with Dex (Model + Dex), a surgical group treated with GABA R...

A systematic review of using myorelaxants in treatment of low back pain.

A systematic review summarizes the results of studies on the efficacy of myorelaxants (tolperisone, tizanidine, thiocolchicoside or baclofen) in the treatment of acute nonspecific low back pain published up to Dec. 2017. The authors conclude that there are enough data to confirm the efficacy of myorelaxants in treatment of nonspecific low back pain, myorelaxants are recommended as monotherapy or in combination with analgesics or NSAID, the nonsedative drugs tolperisone or thiocolchicoside should be preferre...

Brain GABA levels are reduced in alcoholic liver disease: A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

Baclofen, a selective γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor agonist, has emerged as a potential treatment for alcohol use disorder with much unexplained variation in response to treatment efficacy and dose regimen. Several positive studies include patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and/or history of heavy drinking. The aim of this paper was to examine the association of cortical GABA+ concentration with severity of liver disease (including markers of liver injury) and other clinical characteristics ...

Refractory GERD, beyond proton pump inhibitors.

Pharmacologic therapy, surgery, minimally invasive therapies, and alternative therapies are different options available for the management of refractory GERD. The choice may depend on the cause of refractoriness. Increased gastric acid suppression therapy might be useful in the rare patients with persistent elevated esophageal acid exposure on proton pump inhibitors (PPI). Potassium-competitive acid blockers (P-CAB) might induce a more important acid inhibition than PPI. Baclofen might act as a reflux inhib...

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