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17:05 EST 21st February 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Balancing model based memory free action selection under" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 55,000+

Balancing model-based and memory-free action selection under competitive pressure.

In competitive situations, winning depends on selecting actions that surprise the opponent. Such unpredictable action can be generated based on representations of the opponent's strategy and choice history (model-based counter-prediction) or by choosing actions in a memory-free, stochastic manner. Across five different experiments using a variant of a matching-pennies game with simulated and human opponents we found that people toggle between these two strategies, using model-based selection when recent win...


Phylogenomics of the genus Populus reveals extensive interspecific gene flow and balancing selection.

Phylogenetic analysis is complicated by interspecific gene flow and the presence of shared ancestral polymorphisms, particularly those maintained by balancing selection. In this study, we aimed to examine the prevalence of these factors during the diversification of Populus, a model tree genus in the Northern Hemisphere. We constructed phylogenetic trees of 29 Populus taxa using 80 individuals based on re-sequenced genomes. Our species tree analyses recovered four main clades in the genus based on consensus...

Beyond balancing selection: frequent mitochondrial recombination contributes to high female frequencies in gynodioecious Lobelia siphilitica L. (Campanulaceae).

Gynodioecy is a sexual system where females and hermaphrodites co-occur. In most gynodioecious angiosperms, sex is determined by an interaction between mitochondrial male-sterility genes (CMS) that arise via recombination and nuclear restorer alleles that evolve to suppress them. In theory, gynodioecy occurs when multiple CMS types are maintained at equilibrium frequencies by balancing selection. However, some gynodioecious populations contain very high frequencies of females. High female frequencies are no...


Predictive coding of action intentions in dorsal and ventral visual stream is based on visual anticipations, memory-based information and motor preparation.

Predictions of upcoming movements are based on several types of neural signals that span the visual, somatosensory, motor and cognitive system. Thus far, pre-movement signals have been investigated while participants viewed the object to be acted upon. Here, we studied the contribution of information other than vision to the classification of preparatory signals for action, even in the absence of online visual information. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and multivoxel pattern analysis ...

Modeling multilocus selection in an individual-based, spatially-explicit landscape genetics framework.

We implemented multilocus selection in a spatially-explicit, individual-based framework that enables multivariate environmental gradients to drive selection in many loci as a new module for the landscape genetics programs, CDPOP and CDMetaPOP. Our module simulates multilocus selection using a linear additive model, providing a flexible platform to evaluate a wide range of genotype-environment associations. Importantly, the module allows simulation of selection in any number of loci under the influence of an...

Tadalafil restores long-term memory and synaptic plasticity in mice with hepatic encephalopathy.

Tadalafil displays important neuroprotective effects in experimental models of neurodegenerative diseases, however its mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the action of Tadalafil on learning and memory, neuroinflammation, glial cell activation and neuroprotection in the experimental model of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) induced by Thioacetamide (TAA) in mice.

A Robust Model of Gated Working Memory.

Gated working memory is defined as the capacity of holding arbitrary information at any time in order to be used at a later time. Based on electrophysiological recordings, several computational models have tackled the problem using dedicated and explicit mechanisms. We propose instead to consider an implicit mechanism based on a random recurrent neural network. We introduce a robust yet simple reservoir model of gated working memory with instantaneous updates. The model is able to store an arbitrary real va...

Gated spiking neural network using Iterative Free-Energy Optimization and rank-order coding for structure learning in memory sequences (INFERNO GATE).

We present a framework based on iterative free-energy optimization with spiking neural networks for modeling the fronto-striatal system (PFC-BG) for the generation and recall of audio memory sequences. In line with neuroimaging studies carried out in the PFC, we propose a genuine coding strategy using the gain-modulation mechanism to represent abstract sequences based solely on the rank and location of items within them. Based on this mechanism, we show that we can construct a repertoire of neurons sensitiv...

Model-informed dose selection for Xentuzumab, a dual insulin-like growth factor-I/II -neutralizing antibody.

Over the past decade, the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-signalling pathway has gained substantial interest as potential therapeutic target in oncology. Xentuzumab, a humanised IgG1 monoclonal antibody, binds to IGF-I and IGF-II thereby inhibiting the downstream signalling essential for survival and tumour growth. This pathway is further regulated by circulating IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs). In this work, a mechanistic model characterising the dynamics and interactions of IGFs, IGFBPs and Xentuzumab has ...

Memory-Based Integral Sliding-Mode Control for T-S Fuzzy Systems With PMSM via Disturbance Observer.

In this article, the disturbance observer (DOB)-based memory integral sliding-mode control (ISMC) is designed for the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) model subject to mismatched disturbance through the Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy approach. Different from the previous studies, a memory-based ISMC scheme that has a constant delay is taken for the first time to design the ISMC for the T-S fuzzy systems. The DOB is given to estimate the disturbances, which are incorporated in the controller design to co...

Analysis of model-based and model-free CEST effect quantification methods for different medical applications.

Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) holds great potential to provide new metabolic information for clinical applications such as tumor, stroke and Parkinson's Disease diagnosis. Many active research and developments have been conducted to translate this emerging MRI technique for routine clinical applications. In general, there are two CEST quantification techniques: (i) model-free and (ii) model-based techniques. The reliability of these quantification techniques d...

Lymnaea stagnalis as model for translational neuroscience research: from pond to bench.

The purpose of this review is to illustrate how a reductionistic, but sophisticated, approach based on the use of a simple model system such as the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis (L. stagnalis), might be useful to address fundamental questions in learning and memory. L. stagnalis, as a model, provides an interesting platform to investigate the dialog between the synapse and the nucleus and vice versa during memory and learning. More importantly, the "molecular actors" of the memory dialogue are well-conserved...

Genetic Basis of Adaptation and Maladaptation via Balancing Selection.

Since human left Africa about 100 thousand years ago, they experienced numerous environmental as well as social transitions. During these transitions, their genome too experiences various forms of selective pressure and retained favorable advantageous alleles in their genome by either positive selection or balancing selection, while removing deleterious alleles through purifying selection. However, when an individual with certain advantageous genetic diversity is migrated to new contrasting environment or l...

Bayesian model selection for spatial capture-recapture models.

A vast amount of ecological knowledge generated over the past two decades has hinged upon the ability of model selection methods to discriminate among various ecological hypotheses. The last decade has seen the rise of Bayesian hierarchical models in ecology. Consequently, commonly used tools, such as the AIC, become largely inapplicable and there appears to be no consensus about particular model selection tool that can be universally applied. We focus on a specific class of competing Bayesian spatial capt...

Label- and modification-free-based in situ selection of bovine serum albumin specific aptamer.

Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment is a traditional approach to select aptamer, which has a great potential in biosensing field. However, chemical modifications of DNA library or targets before selection might block the real recognition and binding sites between aptamers and their targets. In this study, a label- and modification-free-based in situ selection strategy was developed to overcome the limitation. The strategy is an attempt to screen bovine serum albumin aptamers according ...

A Memory- and Accuracy-Aware Gaussian Parameter-Based Stereo Matching Using Confidence Measure.

Accurate stereo matching requires a large amount of memory at a high bandwidth, which restricts its use in resource-limited systems such as mobile devices. This problem is compounded by the recent trend of applications requiring significantly high pixel resolution and disparity levels. To alleviate this, we present a memory-efficient and robust stereo matching algorithm. For cost aggregation, we employ the semiglobal parametric approach, which significantly reduces the memory bandwidth by representing the c...

Role of the hippocampus in spatial memory in Japanese quail.

The Japanese quail is a powerful model to characterize behavioral, physiological, and neurobiological processes in Galliformes. Behavioral tests have already been adapted for quail to assess memory systems, but despite the pivotal role of the hippocampus in this cognitive process, its involvement in spatial memory has not been demonstrated in this species. In this study, lesions were created in the hippocampus of Japanese quail, and both lesioned and control quail were tested for spatial and cue-based learn...

Time-varying feature selection for longitudinal analysis.

We propose time-varying coefficient model selection and estimation based on the spline approach, which is capable of capturing time-dependent covariate effects. The new penalty function utilizes local-region information for varying-coefficient estimation, in contrast to the traditional model selection approach focusing on the entire region. The proposed method is extremely useful when the signals associated with relevant predictors are time-dependent, and detecting relevant covariate effects in the local re...

Decoding task engagement from distributed network electrophysiology in humans.

Here, our objective was to develop a binary decoder to detect task engagement in humans during two distinct, conflict-based behavioral tasks. Effortful, goal-directed decision-making requires the coordinated action of multiple cognitive processes, including attention, working memory and action selection. That type of mental effort is often dysfunctional in mental disorders, e.g. when a patient attempts to overcome a depression or anxiety-driven habit but feels unable. If the onset of engagement in this type...

Fitness effects but no temperature-mediated balancing selection at the polymorphic gene of .

Polymorphism in the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) protein of , like genetic variation in many other enzymes, has long been hypothesized to be maintained by a selective trade-off between thermostability and enzyme activity. Two major variants, named Fast and Slow, are distributed along latitudinal clines on several continents. The balancing selection trade-off hypothesis posits that Fast is favored at high latitudes because it metabolizes alcohol faster, whereas Slow is favored at low latitudes because it is ...

A Comparison of Matching and Weighting Methods for Causal Inference Based on Routine Health Insurance Data, or: What to do If an RCT is Impossible.

Due to a multitude of reasons Randomized Control Trials on the basis of so-called "routine data" provided by insurance companies cannot be conducted. Therefore the estimation of "causal effects" for any kind of treatment is hampered since systematic bias due to specific selection processes must be suspected. The basic problem of counterfactual, which is to evaluate the difference between two potential outcomes for the same unit, is discussed. The focus lies on the comparison of the performance of different ...

Female adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) show higher levels of anxiety-like behavior than males, but do not differ in learning and memory capacity.

Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are widely used as a translational model for human neuropsychiatric conditions. Many studies have not considered sex differences in their analyses. Here, we studied sex differences of adult zebrafish in two behavioral domains: Anxiety and Memory. To assess whether sex influences anxiety-like responses, we used two different behavioral protocols, the novel tank diving task and the light-dark test. To assess sex differences in learning and memory tasks, we explored two memory domains, ...

The trajectory of thought: Heavy-tailed distributions in memory foraging promote efficiency.

Free-recall tasks suggest human memory foraging may follow a heavy-tailed distribution, such as a Lévy flight, patch foraging, or area-restricted search - walk procedures that are common in other activities of cognitive agents, such as food foraging in both animals and humans. To date, research merely equates memory foraging with hunting in the physical world based on similarities in statistical structure. The current work supports that memory foraging follows a heavy-tailed distribution by using categorie...

Algorithm for free perforator flap selection in lower extremity reconstruction based on 563 cases.

Microsurgical lower extremity reconstruction remains a challenge. The use of perforator flaps in lower extremity reconstruction is expanding. The objective of this article is to review our experience and present an algorithm to guide in the selection of the ideal free perforator flap that can be tailored to each lower extremity defect.

Model selection for metabolomics: predicting diagnosis of coronary artery disease using automated machine learning (AutoML).

Selecting the optimal machine learning (ML) model for a given dataset is often challenging. Automated ML (AutoML) has emerged as a powerful tool for enabling the automatic selection of ML methods and parameter settings for the prediction of biomedical endpoints. Here, we apply the tree-based pipeline optimization tool (TPOT) to predict angiographic diagnoses of coronary artery disease (CAD). With TPOT, ML models are represented as expression trees and optimal pipelines discovered using a stochastic search m...


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