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PubMed Journals Articles About "Beecher Pass Fifty Years Determining Death Legally" RSS

16:30 EDT 23rd March 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Beecher pass Fifty Years Determining Death Legally" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 18,000+

Beecher Dépassé: Fifty Years of Determining Death, Legally.

Five decades ago, Henry Knowles Beecher, a renowned professor of research anesthesiology, sought to solve a problem created by modern medicine. The solution proposed by Beecher and his colleagues on the Ad Hoc Committee of the Harvard Medical School to Examine the Definition of Brain Death proved very influential.1 Indeed, other contemporaneous medical developments magnified its significance yet also made the solution it offered somewhat problematic. As we mark this fiftieth anniversary, at a time when conc...


A Path Not Taken: Beecher, Brain Death, and the Aims of Medicine.

It has been fifty years since a report by an ad hoc committee of Harvard Medical School ushered in the widespread adoption of brain death as a definition of death. Yet brain death remains disputed as an acceptable definition within bioethics. The continuous debate among bioethicists has had three key recurring features: first and foremost, argument over alleged flaws in the conceptual logic and consistency of the "whole-brain" approach as a description of the meaning of death; second, efforts to fix perceiv...

Brain Death and the Law: Hard Cases and Legal Challenges.

The determination of death by neurological criteria-"brain death"-has long been legally established as death in all U.S. jurisdictions. Moreover, the consequences of determining brain death have been clear. Except for organ donation and in a few rare and narrow cases, clinicians withdraw physiological support shortly after determining brain death. Until recently, there has been almost zero action in U.S. legislatures, courts, or agencies either to eliminate or to change the legal status of brain death. Desp...


Who is legally responsible for deaths caused by air pollution?

A person's death is deemed unnatural when it is the result of an external force. This definition, however, does not apply when the cause of death is a respiratory or cardiovascular process triggered by a high concentration of an air pollutant, even if other deaths from toxicological causes (poisonings, overdoses, etc.) are. The distinction between natural and unnatural cause of death, although not internationally standardized, is critical in determining wrongfulness and liability, which in turn can have fin...

Brain Death: A Conclusion in Search of a Justification.

At its inception, "brain death" was proposed not as a coherent concept but as a useful one. The 1968 Ad Hoc Committee of the Harvard Medical School to Examine the Definition of Brain Death gave no reason that "irreversible coma" should be death itself, but simply asserted that the time had come for it to be declared so. Subsequent writings by chairman Henry Beecher made clear that, to him at least, death was essentially a social construct, and society could define it however it pleased. The first widely end...

Contentious Ethical and Legal Aspects of Determination of Brain Death.

Although the concept of death by neurologic criteria is accepted throughout much of the world and death can legally be determined by neurologic criteria throughout the United States, the process is fraught with contentious ethical and legal controversies. I explore historic and contemporary ethical and legal disputes about determination of death by neurologic criteria including the need for consent from patients' surrogates prior to determination of death, the role of religion in determination of death, man...

Death: An Evolving, Normative Concept.

Constantin Reliu had been working for twenty years as a cook in Turkey when he returned to his hometown of Barlad, Romania, to discover that, there, he was dead. His former wife had, unbeknownst to him, at some point during his stay in Turkey registered him as deceased in Romania. He has since been living a legal nightmare trying to prove to Romanian authorities that he is, in fact, alive. Reliu is not alone in finding out that the legal system is not as attuned to physiological activity or biological asses...

One hundred fifty years after Donders: Insights from unpublished data, a replication, and modeling of his reaction times.

Mental processes take a measurable amount of time, which was discovered by Donders one hundred fifty years ago. He reports process durations in his classic study with the a-, b-, and c-methods (i.e., simple, choice, go/no-go) using a speech repetition task. His reaction time pattern was a 

Coaching to NCLEX-RN Success: A Postgraduation Intervention to Improve First-Time Pass Rates.

First-time NCLEX-RN pass rates are often used to evaluate the effectiveness of prelicensure nursing programs. Faced with pass rates that had declined from 85.71% to 64.86% over a period of 4 years, this baccalaureate-nursing program developed a postgraduation coaching intervention to assist graduates in developing an individualized plan as they prepared for their examination.

Brain stem death - an overview.

The concept of brain death has been a very intriguing topic and has taken many forms over the years. Brain stem death is a complex state of inactivity defined by the loss of reflexes of the pathways that pass through the brain stem, the 'shaft' of the brain which links the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum where there is apnoea, loss of eye movement and pain sensation. There are many criteria, based on which a person can be said to be brain dead. The best recognised of these are the Harv...

Factors contributing to practitioner choice when declining involvement in legally available care: A scoping protocol.

As legislation addressing medical treatments continues to evolve, there are several circumstances (eg, abortion, assisted dying) in which health practitioners may choose to not provide legally available care options. It is not always clear what underlies practitioner choice, as some research has suggested non-participation in care provision is not always due to an ethical abstention but may represent other factors. This results in tension between a practitioner's right to refrain from practices deemed moral...

Let's do it together! The role of interaction in false belief understanding.

From the interaction theory perspective, we aimed to verify whether the interactive context in which theory of mind is measured can allow children younger than 4 years to pass the verbal false belief task (FBT). Therefore, an interactive FBT (iFBT) was devised, in which children were actively engaged in the story, and was used to test 210 children twice: first when they were 3 years old and again when they were 3.5 years old. Most 3-year-olds were unable to pass the iFBT (28% passed), but a half year ...

Brain Death at Fifty: Exploring Consensus, Controversy, and Contexts.

This special report is published in commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the "Report of the Ad Hoc Committee of the Harvard Medical School to Examine the Definition of Brain Death," a landmark document that proposed a new way to define death, with implications that advanced the field of organ transplantation. This remarkable success notwithstanding, the concept has raised lasting questions about what it means to be dead. Is death defined in terms of the biological failure of the organism to maintain...

Comparison of administration of platelet concentrates suspended in M-sol or BRS-A for pediatric patients.

Two different platelet additive solutions (PASs), M-sol and BRS-A, used in succession, have been reported as novel PASs in Japan. However, there are not enough clinical data comparing platelet concentrates (PCs) suspended in these PASs.

Rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis among known HIV-infected patients in Oyo State, Nigeria.

A major opportunistic infection among HIV-infected people is tuberculosis (TB). It accelerates the deadly progression of HIV which results in further decline in the patient's immune status and early death. More than 9 million people suffer from this debilitating coinfection worldwide. More worrisome is the fact that some patients now develop resistance to rifampicin, a first-line drug against TB. This study therefore aimed at determining the rifampicin-resistant TB prevalence rate among known HIV-positive p...

Imposing Death: Religious Witness on Brain Death.

The bioethical, professional, and policy discourse over brain death criteria has been portrayed by some scholars as illustrative of the minimal influence of religious perspectives in bioethics. Three questions then lie at the core of my inquiry: What interests of secular pluralistic societies and the medical profession are advanced in examining religious understandings of criteria for determining death? Can bioethical and professional engagement with religious interpretations of death present substantive in...

Requirements for band-pass activation of Ca-sensitive proteins such as NFAT.

Several proteins are sensitive to frequency-modulated oscillations of calcium levels. Most of them exhibit increased activities for faster frequencies, a characteristic here referred to as high-pass activation. In contrast, the transcription factor NFAT is optimally activated at a specific frequency, a behaviour we call band-pass activation. We constructed a kinetic model of NFAT activation, confirming its ability for band-pass activation at experimentally observed frequencies. To characterise the requireme...

Lifetime Risk of Stroke and Coronary Heart Disease Deaths According to Blood Pressure Level: EPOCH-JAPAN (Evidence for Cardiovascular Prevention From Observational Cohorts in Japan)

Lifetime risk (LTR) provides an absolute risk assessment during the remainder of one’s life. Few studies have focused on the LTRs of stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD), categorized by fine blood pressure in Asian populations. We aimed to assess it using a large database of a meta-analysis with the individual participant data. The present metaanalysis included 107 737 Japanese (42.4% men; mean age, 55.1 years) from 13 cohorts. During the mean follow-up of 15.2±5.3 years (1 559 136 person-years), 1922...

Fifty years after Favaloro, coronary artery bypass surgery is still an ART.

Low Pass-rate in postgraduate surgical examination in Nigeria and its contribution to the low surgeon workforce in the country; a review article.

Surgical postgraduate examiners and examinees in Nigeria complain of the low pass rate at all levels of the postgraduate surgical training examinations to which several factors are contributing. For several years there has been being a persistently low surgeon workforce in the country despite having two surgeon producing institutions been for at least 37 years. A review of the probable causes was carried out to shed more light on the matter. At the time of writing there are 52 National Postgraduate Medical ...

Functional characterization of ABCC9 variants identified in sudden unexpected natural death.

Genetic variation in ion channel genes ('channelopathies') are often associated with inherited arrhythmias and sudden death. Genetic testing ('molecular autopsies') of channelopathy genes can be used to assist in determining the likely causes of sudden unexpected death. However, different in silico approaches can yield conflicting pathogenicity predictions and assessing their impact on ion channel function can assist in this regard.

One hundred and fifty years ago Charcot reported multiple sclerosis as a new neurological disease.

Risk factors associated with severe outcomes in adult hospitalized patients according to influenza type and subtype.

Seasonal influenza is a cause of hospitalization, especially in people with underlying disease or extreme age, and its severity may differ depending on the types and subtypes of circulating viruses. We investigated the factors associated with ICU admission or death in hospitalized patients with severe laboratory-confirmed influenza according to the viral type and subtype. An observational epidemiological study was carried out in patients aged ≥18 years from 12 Catalan hospitals between 2010 and 2016. For ...

Not Every Pass Can Be an Assist: A Data-Driven Model to Measure Pass Effectiveness in Professional Soccer Matches.

In professional soccer, nowadays almost every team employs tracking technology to monitor performance during trainings and matches. Over the recent years, there has been a rapid increase in both the quality and quantity of data collected in soccer resulting in large amounts of data collected by teams every single day. The sheer amount of available data provides opportunities as well as challenges to both science and practice. Traditional experimental and statistical methods used in sport science do not seem...

Reflections on the early invasive clinical cardiac electrophysiology era through fifty manuscripts: 1967-1992.

In 1967, researchers in The Netherlands and France independently reported a new technique, later called programmed electrical stimulation. The ability to reproducibly initiate and terminate arrhythmias heralded the beginning of invasive clinical cardiac electrophysiology as a medical discipline. Over the next fifty years, insights into the pathophysiologic basis of arrhythmias would transform the field into an interventional specialty with a tremendous armamentarium of procedures. In 2015, the variety and c...


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