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PubMed Journals Articles About "Bioengineering Inspired Three Dimensional Culture Systems Organoids Create" RSS

18:43 EDT 22nd March 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Bioengineering inspired three dimensional culture systems Organoids create" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 15,000+

Bioengineering-inspired three-dimensional culture systems: Organoids to create tumor microenvironment.

In recent years, in vitro three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems that better mimic in vivo physiology and tissue microenvironment have become important. It is used for the pre-clinical evaluation of the efficacy and safety profiles of new drug candidates developed especially for the treatment of various diseases including cancer. 3D cell culture techniques overcome the inadequacy of conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell culture models as they are much more informative than the 2D systems. And they can...


Initiation, Expansion, and Cryopreservation of Human Primary Tissue-Derived Normal and Diseased Organoids in Embedded Three-Dimensional Culture.

Organoids are primary patient-derived micro tissues grown within a three-dimensional extracellular matrix that better represents in vivo physiology and genetic diversity than existing two-dimensional cell lines. Organoids rely on the self-renewal and differentiation of tissue-resident stem cells that expand in culture and self-organize into complex three-dimensional structures. Depending on the tissue, organoids typically lack stromal, vascular, neural, and immune cells but otherwise can contain cells from ...

Intestinal organoids: A new paradigm for engineering intestinal epithelium in vitro.

In recent years, the advent of intestinal organoid culture systems has revolutionized in vitro studies of the small intestine epithelium. Intestinal organoids are derived from self-organizing and self-renewing intestinal stem cells and closely recapitulate the native intestinal epithelium. They therefore represent a more physiologically-relevant in vitro model than conventional cell cultures for studying intestinal development, biology and pathophysiology. Moreover, they represent a promising and unpreceden...


Modeling liver cancer and therapy responsiveness using organoids derived from primary mouse liver tumors.

The current understanding of cancer biology and development of effective treatments for cancer remain far from satisfactory. This in turn heavily relies on the availability of easy and robust model systems that resemble the architecture/physiology of the tumors in patients to facilitate research. Cancer research in vitro has mainly been based on the use of immortalized 2D cancer cell lines that deviate in many aspects from the original primary tumors. The recent development of the organoid technology allowi...

Recent progress in organoid culture to model intestinal epithelial barrier functions.

The intestinal epithelium not only acts as the physical structure that separates the intestinal lumen from the body but also actively participates in intestinal barrier functions. In the past decade, significant progress has been made in the development of culture technologies to maintain intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) as various forms of intestinal organoids. As these organoids allow for restoration of the physiological composition of IECs, they represent suitable models to study the mechanisms of deve...

Handling and Assessment of Human Primary Prostate Organoid Culture.

This paper describes a detailed protocol for three-dimensional (3D) culturing, handling, and evaluation of human primary prostate organoids. The process involves seeding of epithelial cells sparsely in a 3D matrix gel on a 96-well microplate with media changes to cultivate expansion into organoids. Morphology is then assessed by whole-well capturing of z-stack images. Compression of z-stacks creates a single in-focus image from which organoids are measured to quantify a variety of outputs, including circula...

Three-Dimensional Organoids in Cancer Research: The Search for the Holy Grail of Preclinical Cancer Modeling.

Most solid tumors become therapy resistant and will relapse, with no durable treatment option available. One major impediment to our understanding of cancer biology and finding innovative approaches to cancer treatment stems from the lack of better preclinical tumor models that address and explain tumor heterogeneity and person-to-person differences in therapeutic and toxic responses. Past cancer research has been driven by inadequate in vitro assays utilizing two-dimensional monolayers of cancer cells and ...

Mimicking Epithelial Tissues in Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Models.

Epithelial tissues are composed of layers of tightly connected cells shaped into complex three-dimensional (3D) structures such as cysts, tubules, or invaginations. These complex 3D structures are important for organ-specific functions and often create biochemical gradients that guide cell positioning and compartmentalization within the organ. One of the main functions of epithelia is to act as physical barriers that protect the underlying tissues from external insults. , epithelial barriers are usually mim...

Bioinspired and biomimetic systems for advanced drug and gene delivery.

Natural nanocarriers found in biological frameworks have motivated the scientists to fabricate new structures that help to build characteristic systems mimicking the natural processes. Furthermore, these bioinspired and biomimetic systems improve biocompatibility during drug and gene delivery applications. The success of such a drug delivery system depends on parameters like shape, surface, texture, movement, and preparation methods. To date, various bioinspired and biomimetic drug delivery systems are avai...

Substrate-independent immunomodulatory characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells in three-dimensional culture.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play important roles in tissue regeneration, and multi-lineage differentiation and immunomodulation are two major characteristics of MSCs that are utilized in stem cell therapy. MSCs in vivo have a markedly different three-dimensional (3D) niche compared to the traditional two-dimensional (2D) culture in vitro. A 3D scaffold is predicted to provide an artificial 3D environment similar to the in vivo environment. Significant changes in MSC differentiation are shown to be occurre...

Human iPS Cell-Derived Patient Tissues and 3D Cell Culture Part 1: Target Identification and Lead Optimization.

Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (HiPSCs), and new technologies to culture them into functional cell types and tissues, are now aiding drug discovery. Patient-derived HiPSCs can provide disease models that are more clinically relevant and so more predictive than the currently available animal-derived or tumor cell-derived cells. These cells, consequently, exhibit disease phenotypes close to the human pathology, particularly when cultured under conditions that allow them to recapitulate the tissue archit...

Building Models of Brain Disorders with Three-Dimensional Organoids.

Disorders of the nervous system are challenging to study and treat due to the relative inaccessibility of functional human brain tissue for research. Stem cell-derived 3D human brain organoids have the potential to recapitulate features of the human brain with greater complexity than 2D models and are increasingly being applied to model diseases affecting the central nervous system. Here, we review the use of human brain organoids to investigate neurological and psychiatric (neuropsychiatric) disorders and ...

On String Languages Generated by Spiking Neural P Systems with Structural Plasticity.

Spiking neural P systems (in short, SNP systems) are parallel and non-deterministic models of computation, inspired by the neural system of the brain. A variant of SNP systems known as SNP systems with structural plasticity (in short, SNPSP systems) includes the feature of adding or removing synapses among neurons. This feature is inspired by plasticity from neuroscience during cognition, learning etc. Despite the reductionist framework of SNP and SNPSP systems, such brain-like systems are capable of comput...

Permeability analyses and three dimensional imaging of interferon gamma-induced barrier disintegration in intestinal organoids.

The aberrant regulation of the epithelial barrier integrity is involved in many diseases of the digestive tract, including inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer. Intestinal epithelial cell organoid cultures provide new perspectives for analyses of the intestinal barrier in vitro. However, established methods of barrier function analyses from two dimensional cultures have to be adjusted to the analysis of three dimensional organoid structures. Here we describe the methodology for analysis of epit...

Dynamic human erythropoiesis in a three-dimensional perfusion bone marrow biomimicry.

Traditional culture systems for human erythropoiesis lack microenvironmental niches, spatial marrow gradients and dense cellularity rendering them incapable of effectively translating marrow physiology ex vivo. Herein, a bio-inspired three-dimensional (3D) perfusion bioreactor was engineered and inoculated with unselected single donor umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMNCs). Functional stromal and hematopoietic environments supporting long-term erythropoiesis were generated using defined medium supp...

Intestinal in vitro cell culture models and their potential to study the effect of food components on intestinal inflammation.

Cell cultures are widely used in pharmaceutical, medical, food/nutrition and biological sciences. In food and nutrition science, intestinal cell culture models of human origin are attracting increasing interest but are still rarely used in investigations of the effects of bioactive food compounds on intestinal inflammation. However, such in vitro models would, among other benefits, limit the use of in vivo models and could provide new molecular data. This review is an overview of two-dimensional (2D) and th...

Three-Dimensional Co-culture of Human Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells and Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells in a Biomimetic Hematopoietic Niche Microenvironment.

The development of cellular therapies to treat hematological malignancies has motivated researchers to investigate ex vivo culture systems capable of expanding the number of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) before transplantation. The strategies exploited to achieve relevant cell numbers have relied on culture systems that lack biomimetic niche cues thought to be essential to promote HSPC maintenance and proliferation. Although stromal cells adhered to 2-D surfaces can be used to support the expan...

Modeling Human Digestive Diseases with CRISPR-Cas9-modified Organoids.

Insights into the stem cell niche have allowed researchers to cultivate adult tissue stem cells as organoids that display structural and phenotypic features of healthy and diseased epithelial tissues. Organoids derived from patients' tissues are used as models of disease and to test drugs. CRISPR-Cas9 technology can be used to genetically engineer organoids for studies of monogenic diseases and cancer. We review the derivation of organoids from human gastrointestinal tissues and how CRISPR-Cas9 technology c...

Bioengineering and Metabolism Voices.

To explore the world where technology fuses with the life sciences, we asked a diverse group of scientists to tell us about bioengineering innovations that impact metabolism and physiology. From miniaturized models of physiological systems to smart drugs with feedback control, we take a journey with them through the frontiers of biomedicine.

Bioprinting of 3D breast epithelial spheroids for human cancer models.

3D human cancer models provide a better platform for drug efficacy studies than conventional 2D culture, since they recapitulate important aspects of the in vivo microenvironment. While biofabrication has advanced model creation, bioprinting generally involves extruding individual cells in a bioink and then waiting for these cells to self-assemble into a hierarchical 3D tissue. This self-assembly is time consuming and requires complex cellular interactions with other cell types, extracellular matrix compone...

Human SPG11 cerebral organoids reveal cortical neurogenesis impairment.

SPG11 linked hereditary spastic paraplegia is a complex monogenic neurodegenerative disease that in addition to spastic paraplegia is characterized by childhood onset cognitive impairment, thin corpus callosum and enlarged ventricles. We have previously shown impaired proliferation of SPG11 neural progenitor cells (NPCs). For delineation of potential defect in SPG11 brain development we employ 2D culture systems and 3D human brain organoids derived from SPG11 patients' iPSC and controls. We reveal that an i...

Enhanced in vitro virus expression using 3-dimensional cell culture spheroids for infection.

The way viruses interact with cultured cells and their surrounding environment is still a matter of debate. From a technical point of view, 2D cell cultures only partially exhibit the morpho-molecular pattern required for viral tropism, not reflecting the complexity of the microenvironment in vivo. Therefore, 3-D cell cultures are envisioned as an alternative approach to study viral replication possibly closer to in vivo conditions than 2D, representing the link between traditional cell culture and in vivo ...

Proteomic analysis of stromal and epithelial cell communications in human endometrial cancer using a unique 3D co-culture model.

Epithelial and stromal communications are essential for normal uterine functions and their dysregulation contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases including infertility, endometriosis, and cancer. Although many studies have highlighted the advantages of culturing cells in three-dimensional (3D) compared to the conventional two-dimensional (2D) culture system, one of the major limitations of these systems is the lack of incorporation of cells from non-epithelial lineages. In an effort to develop a cul...

Embryonic Stem Cells Derived Kidney Organoids as Faithful Models to Target Programmed Nephrogenesis.

The kidney is a complex organ that is comprised of thousands of nephrons developing through reciprocal inductive interactions between metanephric mesenchyme (MM) and ureteric bud (UB). The MM undergoes mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) in response to the signaling from the UB. The secreted protein Wnt4, one of the Wnt family members, is critical for nephrogenesis as mouse Wnt4 mutants fail to form pretubular aggregates (PTA) and therefore lack functional nephrons. Here, we generated mouse embryonic...

Paracrine potential of adipose stromal vascular fraction cells to recover hypoxia-induced loss of cardiomyocyte function.

Cell-based therapies shows promising results in cardiac function recovery mostly through paracrine-mediated processes (as angiogenesis) in chronic ischemia. In this study, we aim to develop a 2D (two-dimensional) in vitro cardiac hypoxia-model mimicking severe cardiac ischemia to specifically investigate the pro-survival paracrine effects of adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cell secretome released upon three-dimensional (3D) culture. For the 2D-cardiac hypoxia-model, neonatal rat cardi...


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