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PubMed Journals Articles About "Brain State Dependent Modulation Neuronal Firing Membrane Potential" RSS

09:21 EDT 20th June 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Brain State Dependent Modulation Neuronal Firing Membrane Potential" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 48,000+

Brain-State-Dependent Modulation of Neuronal Firing and Membrane Potential Dynamics in the Somatosensory Thalamus during Natural Sleep.

The thalamus plays a central role in sleep rhythms in the mammalian brain and, yet, surprisingly little is known about its function and interaction with local cortical oscillations during NREM sleep (NREM). We investigated the neuronal correlates of cortical barrel activity in the two corresponding thalamic nuclei, the ventral posterior medial (VPM), and the posterior medial (Pom) nuclei during natural NREM in mice. Our data reveal (1) distinct modulations of VPM and Pom activity throughout NREM episodes, (...


β3-Adrenergic receptor-dependent modulation of the medium afterhyperpolarization in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.

Action potential firing in hippocampal pyramidal neurons is regulated by generation of an afterhyperpolarization (AHP). Three phases of AHP are recognised, with the fast AHP regulating action potential firing at the onset of a burst, and the medium and slow AHPs supressing action potential firing over 100s of milliseconds and seconds respectively. Activation of β-adrenergic receptors suppresses the slow AHP by a protein kinase A-dependent pathway. However, little is known regarding modulation of the medium...

Diurnal properties of voltage-gated Ca currents in SCN and roles in action potential firing.

Circadian oscillations in spontaneous action potential firing in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) translates time-of-day throughout the mammalian brain. The ion channels that regulate the circadian pattern of SCN firing have not been comprehensively identified. Ca channels regulate action potential activity across many types of excitable cells, and the activity of L-, N-, P/Q-, R-type channels are required for normal daytime firing frequency in SCN neurons and circuit rhythms. Only the L-type Ca current ex...


Parallel signaling pathways of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) regulate several intrinsic ion channels.

Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), acting through its cognate receptors PAC1, VPAC1, and VPAC2, is a pleiotropic signaling neuropeptide of the vasoactive intestinal peptide/secretin/glucagon family. PACAP has known functions in neuronal growth, development, and repair, and central PACAP signaling has acute behavioral consequences. One of the ways in which PACAP may affect neuronal function is through the modulation of intrinsic membrane currents to control neuronal excitability. Her...

NMDA Receptors potentiate activity-dependent dendritic release of neuropeptides from hypothalamic neurons.

Using "sniffer" cell biosensors, we evaluated the effects of specific firing patterns and frequencies on activity-dependent somatodendritic release of VP from PVN neurones. Somatodendritic release of VP was rarely observed during continuous firing but was strengthened by clustered activity. Moreover, release evoked at any given frequency was robustly potentiated by NMDAR-mediated firing. Differently from axonal release, NMDAR activation was necessary for somatodendritic release to occur at physiological fir...

A new avenue for treating neuronal diseases: ceftriaxone, an old antibiotic demonstrating behavioral neuronal effects.

Several neurodegenerative disorders, namely Parkinson's disease dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, and Alzheimer's disease, share common pathophysiological features, such as (1) cognitive deficits, (2) glutamatergic hyperactivity-related excitotoxicity, and (3) deposition of α-synuclein (α-syn) and β-amyloid (Aβ). Ceftriaxone (CEF) is a well-tested and safe drug that has been used as an antibiotic for several decades. Recent studies have demonstrated the following effects of CEF: (1) increasing glutam...

A Theoretical Framework to Derive Simple, Firing-Rate-Dependent Mathematical Models of Synaptic Plasticity.

Synaptic plasticity serves as an essential mechanism underlying cognitive processes as learning and memory. For a better understanding detailed theoretical models combine experimental underpinnings of synaptic plasticity and match experimental results. However, these models are mathematically complex impeding the comprehensive investigation of their link to cognitive processes generally executed on the neuronal network level. Here, we derive a mathematical framework enabling the simplification of such detai...

TET enzymes in neurophysiology and brain function.

The dynamic nature of epigenetic DNA modifications is crucial for regulating gene expression in an experience-dependent manner and, thus, a potential mediator of neuronal plasticity and behavior. The discovery of the involvement of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and Ten Eleven Translocation (TET) family of enzymes in the demethylation pathway uncovered a potential link between neuronal TET protein function and cognitive processes. In this review, we provide an overview on how profile of 5hmC and TET enzymes...

Modulation of voltage-dependent K+ conductances in photoreceptors trades off investment in contrast gain for bandwidth.

Modulation is essential for adjusting neurons to prevailing conditions and differing demands. Yet understanding how modulators adjust neuronal properties to alter information processing remains unclear, as is the impact of neuromodulation on energy consumption. Here we combine two computational models, one Hodgkin-Huxley type and the other analytic, to investigate the effects of neuromodulation upon Drosophila melanogaster photoreceptors. Voltage-dependent K+ conductances: (i) activate upon depolarisation t...

The Inhibitory Effect of Different Patterns of Low Frequency Stimulation on Neuronal Firing following Epileptiform Activity in Rat Hippocampal Slices.

Low frequency stimulation (LFS) has inhibitory effect on hyperexcitability during epileptic states. However, knowledge is lacking about LFS patterns that can exert an optimal antiepileptic effect. In this study, the effect of different numbers of pulses and current intensities of 1 Hz LFS applied at various time points of epileptiform activity was evaluated in high-K model of epileptiform activity (EA). LFS was applied to the Schaffer collaterals, and changes in the excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons wer...

Review: Methods of Firing Rate Estimation.

Neuronal firing rate is traditionally defined as the number of spikes per time window. The concept is essential for the rate coding hypothesis, which is still the most commonly investigated scenario in neuronal activity analysis. The estimation of dynamically changing firing rate from neural data can be challenging due to the variability of spike times, even under identical external conditions, hence a wide range of statistical measures have been employed to solve this particular problem. In this paper we r...

Locus Coeruleus tracking of prediction errors optimises cognitive flexibility: An Active Inference model.

The locus coeruleus (LC) in the pons is the major source of noradrenaline (NA) in the brain. Two modes of LC firing have been associated with distinct cognitive states: changes in tonic rates of firing are correlated with global levels of arousal and behavioural flexibility, whilst phasic LC responses are evoked by salient stimuli. Here, we unify these two modes of firing by modelling the response of the LC as a correlate of a prediction error when inferring states for action planning under Active Inference...

Calcium signaling: a key regulator of neuronal migration.

Neuronal migration is a crucial event in neuronal development for the construction of brain architecture and neuronal networks. Newborn neurons proliferate in the germinal zone and start migration toward their final destination. Migrating neurons adopt different routes, cell shapes, and migratory modes depending on extracellular factors and outer physical substrates. Intracellular Ca2+ is an essential second messenger that regulates diverse cellular functions by activating Ca2+-dependent signaling molecules...

3-D geometry and irregular connectivity dictate neuronal firing in frequency domain and synchronization.

The replication of the complex structure and three dimensional (3-D) interconnectivity of neurons in the brain is a great challenge. A few 3-D neuronal patterning approaches have been developed to mimic the cell distribution in the brain but none have demonstrated the relationship between 3-D neuron patterning and network connectivity. Here, we used photolithographic crosslinking to fabricate in vitro 3-D neuronal structures with distinct sizes, shapes or interconnectivities, i.e., milli-blocks, micro-strip...

An Electric Take on Neural Fate and Cortical Development.

Membrane potential is well-studied in neuronal physiology, but its role in brain development and cell fate determination is less well understood. In two recent studies, bioelectric properties of progenitors and migrating neurons are shown to be tightly regulated, and their disruption leads to abnormalities in fate determination and neuronal positioning.

Reinforcement schedules differentially affect learning in neuronal operant conditioning in rats.

Operant conditioning of neuronal activity is a core process for better operation of brain-machine interfaces. However, few studies have investigated the role of reinforcement schedules in neuronal operant conditioning, although they are very effective in behavioral operant conditioning. To test the effect of different reinforcement schedules, the authors trained single-neuron activity in the motor cortex using fixed ratio (FR) and variable ratio (VR) schedules in rats. Neuronal firing rates were enhanced in...

Mitochondrial Membrane Protein Associated Neurodegeneration   (MPAN) with a Novel C19orf12 Mutation in the First Decade of Life.

Mitochondrial membrane protein associated neurodegeneration (MPAN) belongs to the Neuronal brain iron accumulation (NBIA) spectrum disorder. It is caused by mutation in the C19orf12 gene. A 13-y-old previously healthy girl born to non-consanguineous marriage couple presented with regression of motor and cognitive milestones and decreased vision in both eyes, since 8 y of age. Examination revealed pyramidal signs, dystonia, dysarthria and pale optic disc. Neuroimaging showed streaking of medial medullary lam...

Perineuronal nets decrease membrane capacitance of peritumoral fast spiking interneurons in a model of epilepsy.

Brain tumor patients commonly present with epileptic seizures. We show that tumor-associated seizures are the consequence of impaired GABAergic inhibition due to an overall loss of peritumoral fast spiking interneurons (FSNs) concomitant with a significantly reduced firing rate of those that remain. The reduced firing is due to the degradation of perineuronal nets (PNNs) that surround FSNs. We show that PNNs decrease specific membrane capacitance of FSNs permitting them to fire action potentials at supra-ph...

Mechanisms of noradrenergic modulation of synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability in ventral horn neurons of the rat spinal cord.

Noradrenaline (NA) modulates the spinal motor networks for locomotion and facilitates neuroplasticity, possibly assisting neuronal network activation and neuroplasticity in the recovery phase of spinal cord injuries. However, neither the effects nor the mechanisms of NA on synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability in spinal ventral horn (VH) neurons are well characterized, especially in rats aged 7 postnatal days or older. To gain insight into NA regulation of VH neuronal activity, we used a whole-cel...

Reactive oxygen species regulate activity-dependent neuronal plasticity in .

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been extensively studied as damaging agents associated with ageing and neurodegenerative conditions. Their role in the nervous system under non-pathological conditions has remained poorly understood. Working with the larval locomotor network, we show that in neurons ROS act as obligate signals required for neuronal activity-dependent structural plasticity, of both pre- and postsynaptic terminals. ROS signaling is also necessary for maintaining evoked synaptic transmission...

Neuronal Receptors Display Cytoskeleton-Independent Directed Motion on the Plasma Membrane.

Directed transport of transmembrane proteins is generally believed to occur via intracellular transport vesicles. However, using single-particle tracking in rat hippocampal neurons with a pH-sensitive quantum dot probe that specifically reports surface movement of receptors, we have identified a subpopulation of neuronal EphB2 receptors that exhibit directed motion between synapses within the plasma membrane itself. This receptor movement occurs independently of the cytoskeleton but is dependent on choleste...

Hemodynamic and neuronal responses to cocaine differ in awake versus anesthetized animals: Optical brain imaging study.

Cocaine is a highly addictive drug with complex pharmacological effects. Most preclinical imaging studies investigating the effects of cocaine in the brain have been performed under anesthesia, which confounds findings. To tackle this problem, we used optical imaging to compare the effects of cocaine in the awake versus the anesthetized state. For this purpose, we customized an air floating mobile cage to fit the multi-wavelength spectral and laser speckle optical imaging system and implanted a multi-layer ...

Characterizing the fluctuations of dynamic resting-state electrophysiological functional connectivity: Reduced neuronal coupling variability in mild cognitive impairment and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease.

The characterization of brain functional connectivity is a helpful tool in the study of the neuronal substrates and mechanisms that are altered in Azheimer's Disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Recently, there has been a shift towards the characterization of dynamic functional connectivity (dFC), discarding the assumption of connectivity stationarity during the resting-state. The majority of these studies have been performed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings, with on...

Heterogeneous network dynamics in an Excitatory-Inhibitory network model by distinct intrinsic mechanisms in the Fast spiking interneurons.

Fast spiking interneurons (FSINs) have an important role in neuronal network dynamics. Although plasticity of synaptic properties is known to affect network synchrony, the role of plasticity of FSINs' intrinsic excitability on network dynamics remain elusive. Using computational approaches in an excitatory-FSIN model network (EI) based on previously established hippocampal neuronal models we show that altered FSIN intrinsic excitability robustly affects the coherence and frequency of network firing monotoni...

Estimation of neuronal firing rate using Bayesian Adaptive Kernel Smoother (BAKS).

Neurons use sequences of action potentials (spikes) to convey information across neuronal networks. In neurophysiology experiments, information about external stimuli or behavioral tasks has been frequently characterized in term of neuronal firing rate. The firing rate is conventionally estimated by averaging spiking responses across multiple similar experiments (or trials). However, there exist a number of applications in neuroscience research that require firing rate to be estimated on a single trial basi...


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