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PubMed Journals Articles About "Canalicular Junctions Osteocyte Lacuno Canalicular Network Cortical Bone" RSS

14:55 EDT 16th June 2019 | BioPortfolio

Canalicular Junctions Osteocyte Lacuno Canalicular Network Cortical Bone PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Canalicular Junctions Osteocyte Lacuno Canalicular Network Cortical Bone articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Canalicular Junctions Osteocyte Lacuno Canalicular Network Cortical Bone" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 11,000+

Canalicular Junctions in the Osteocyte Lacuno-Canalicular Network of Cortical Bone.

The osteocyte lacuno-canalicular network (LCN) is essential for bone remodeling since osteocytes regulate cell recruitment. This has been proposed to occur through liquid flow induced shear forces in the canaliculi. Models of the LCN have thus far assumed that it contains canaliculi connecting the osteocyte lacunae. However, here we reveal that enlarged spaces occur at places where several canaliculi cross; we name these spaces canalicular junctions. We characterize them in detail within mice cortical bone ...


Third harmonic generation imaging and analysis of the effect of low gravity on the lacuno-canalicular network of mouse bone.

The lacuno-canalicular network (LCN) hosting the osteocytes in bone tissue represents a biological signature of the mechanotransduction activity in response to external biomechanical loading. Using third-harmonic generation (THG) microscopy with sub-micrometer resolution, we investigate the impact of microgravity on the 3D LCN structure in mice following space flight. A specific analytical procedure to extract the LCN characteristics from THG images is described for ex vivo studies of bone sections. The ana...

Comparison of external and endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy for distal canalicular or common canalicular obstruction: A retrospective study of 44 lacrimal systems.

Distal canalicular or common canalicular obstruction is a less frequent cause of lacrimal system obstruction and may be one of the more difficult lacrimal conditions to treat. Two different techniques for distal canalicular or common canalicular obstruction, both external and endoscopic approaches, have satisfactory overall success rates without statistically significant differences. The Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy method is advantageous over external dacryocystorhinostomy in limited invasiveness, less...


Ageing characteristics of bone indicated by transcriptomic and exosomal proteomic analysis of cortical bone cells.

Degenerative changes in the skeleton play an important role in ageing. As the foremost sensors and orchestrators of bone remodelling, osteocytes contribute significantly to the health of the skeleton. Embedded in a mineralized bone matrix, the osteocyte network and the surrounding lacunar canaliculae work together as a functional syncytium-the osteocytic lacunar-canalicular system (OLCS). However, changes in the OLCS during ageing and related mechanisms cannot be fully understood by using traditional histol...

Inter-site Variability of the Human Osteocyte Lacunar Network: Implications for Bone Quality.

This article provides a review on the variability of the osteocyte lacunar network in the human skeleton. It highlights characteristics of the osteocyte lacunar network in relation to different skeletal sites and fracture susceptibility.

Changes in the osteocyte lacunocanalicular network with aging.

Osteoporosis is an aging-related disease of reduced bone mass that is particularly prevalent in post-menopausal women, but also affects the aged male population and is associated with increased fracture risk. Osteoporosis is the result of an imbalance whereby bone formation by osteoblasts no longer keeps pace with resorption of bone by osteoclasts. Osteocytes are the most abundant cells in bone and, although previously thought to be quiescent, they are now known to be active, multifunctional cells that play...

ABCB4 / MDR3 in health and disease - at the crossroads of biochemistry and medicine.

Several ABC transporters of the human liver are responsible for the secretion of bile salts, lipids and cholesterol. Their interplay protects the biliary tree from the harsh detergent activity of bile salts. Among these transporters, ABCB4 is essential for the translocation of phosphatidylcholine lipids from the inner to the outer leaflet of the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. ABCB4 deficiency can result in altered phosphatidylcholine to bile salt ratios, which led to intrahepatic cholestasis of pregna...

Role of ERK1/2 in TNFα-induced internalization of Abcc2 in rat hepatocyte couplets.

TNFα is a cytokine whose levels are increased in inflammatory pathologies that are associated with cholestasis. Endocytic internalization of Abcc2 (multidrug resistance-associated protein 2), a canalicular transporter of organic anions that is implicated in the clearance of clinically important drugs, is a phenomenon that occurs in inflammatory liver diseases, and it has been established that cytokines act as mediators. However, the intracellular mechanism involved in this effect remains unknown. The aim o...

Cathepsin K-deficient osteocytes prevent lactation-induced bone loss and parathyroid hormone suppression.

Lactation induces bone loss to provide sufficient calcium in the milk, a process that involves osteoclastic bone resorption but also osteocytes and perilacunar resorption. The exact mechanisms by which osteocytes contribute to bone loss remain elusive. Osteocytes express genes required in osteoclasts for bone resorption, including cathepsin K (Ctsk), and lactation elevates their expression. We show that Ctsk deletion in osteocytes prevented the increase in osteocyte lacunar area seen during lactation, as we...

A novel nonosteocytic regulatory mechanism of bone modeling.

Osteocytes, cells forming an elaborate network within the bones of most vertebrate taxa, are thought to be the master regulators of bone modeling, a process of coordinated, local bone-tissue deposition and removal that keeps bone strains at safe levels throughout life. Neoteleost fish, however, lack osteocytes and yet are known to be capable of bone modeling, although no osteocyte-independent modeling regulatory mechanism has so far been described. Here, we characterize a novel, to our knowledge, bone-model...

Glucose Restriction Promotes Osteocyte Specification by Activating a PGC-1α-Dependent Transcriptional Program.

Osteocytes, the most abundant of bone cells, differentiate while they remain buried within the bone matrix. This encasement limits their access to nutrients and likely affects their differentiation, a process that remains poorly defined. Here, we show that restriction in glucose supply promotes the osteocyte transcriptional program while also being associated with increased mitochondrial DNA levels. Glucose deprivation triggered the activation of the AMPK/PGC-1 pathway. AMPK and SIRT1 activators or PGC-1α ...

Invasive Ductular Reaction Operates Hepatobiliary Junctions upon Hepatocellular Injury in Rodents and Humans.

Ductular reaction (DR) is observed in virtually all liver diseases both in humans and rodents. Depending on the injury, DR is confined within the periportal area or invades the parenchyma. Upon severe hepatocellular injury, invasive DR has been proposed to arise for supplying the liver with new hepatocytes. However, experimental data evidenced that DR contribution to hepatocyte repopulation is at the most modest, unless replicative capacity of hepatocytes is abrogated. Here, we proposed that invasive DR cou...

A new noninvasive mechanical bending test accurately predicts ulna bending strength in cadaveric human arms.

High error rates in the prediction of fragility fractures by bone mineral density have motivated searches for better clinical indicators of bone strength, and the high incidence of non-hip, non-spine fractures has raised interest in cortical bone. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of Cortical Bone Mechanics Technology™. CBMT is a new non-invasive 3-point bending technique for measuring the mechanical properties of cortical bone in the ulnas of living humans.

Mechanical competence and bone quality develop during skeletal growth.

Bone fracture risk is influenced by bone quality, which encompasses bone's composition as well as its multi-scale organization and architecture. Aging and disease deteriorate bone quality leading to reduced mechanical properties and higher fracture incidence. Largely unexplored is how bone quality and mechanical competence progress during longitudinal bone growth. Human femoral cortical bone was acquired from fetal (n=1), infantile (n=3), and 2-14 year-old cases (n=4) at the mid-diaphysis. Bone quality was ...

Slow dynamics in microcolumnar gap junction network of developing neocortical pyramidal neurons.

Gap junctions mediate electrical coupling between neurons and modulate their firing activity. In mouse neocortical layer 5, the major types of pyramidal neurons organize into cell type-specific microcolumns that exhibit modular neuronal activity. During cortical development, microcolumn neurons are electrically coupled in a cell type-specific manner at the stage of synaptogenesis, forming a dense network of gap junctions. However, modulation of neuronal activity by the gap junction network has not been exam...

Time course of rapid bone loss and cortical porosity formation observed by longitudinal μCT in a rat model of CKD.

Rodent studies of bone in chronic kidney disease have primarily relied on end-point examinations of bone microarchitecture. This study used longitudinal in vivo microcomputed tomography (in vivo μCT) to characterize the onset and progression of bone loss, specifically cortical porosity, in the Cy/+ rat of model of CKD.

Association between cortical bone microstructure and statin use in older women.

Treatment with statins has been associated with increased bone mineral density (BMD), but if this association depends on differences in cortical or trabecular volumetric bone microstructure is unknown.

Monocanalicular Stents in Eyelid Lacerations A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

To determine the efficacy and complication rates of monocanalicular stents in the setting of canalicular lacerations.

No Signature of Osteocytic Osteolysis in Cortical Bone from Lactating NMRI Mice.

The roles of osteocytes in bone homeostasis have garnered increasing attention since it has been realized that osteocytes communicate with other organs. It has long been debated whether and/or to which degree osteocytes can break down the bone matrix surrounding them in a process called osteocytic osteolysis. Osteocytic osteolysis has been indicated to be induced by a number of skeletal challenges including lactation in CD1 and C57BL/6 mice, whereas immobilization-induced osteocytic osteolysis is still a ma...

Changes in trabecular bone score and bone mineral density following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

It has been demonstrated that bone mineral density (BMD) loss is substantial within the first 12 months after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT). Declines in BMD showed a disproportionate cortical bone loss even though trabecular bone is metabolically more active than cortical bone. This finding suggests a unique mechanism. However, the structural bone deficits after alloHSCT have not been well characterized. The trabecular bone score (TBS) has emerged as a method to assess bone...

Material anisotropy and elasticity of cortical and trabecular bone in the adult mouse femur via AFM indentation.

This paper investigates the elastic properties of bone tissue in the adult mouse femur through Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) indentation with the goal of understanding its microstructure and underlying mechanics at the nano length scale. Both trabecular and cortical bone types are studied. In particular, we examined the elasticity of cortical bone and individual trabeculae in the longitudinal and transverse directions of the samples. For cortical bone, the elastic modulus in the longitudinal direction was f...

Different Effects of Fluoride Exposure on the Three Major Bone Cell Types.

Fluoride accumulates and is toxic to bones. Clinical bone lesions occur in a phased manner, being less severe early in the natural course of skeletal fluorosis. Previous research rarely focused on osteocyte, osteoclast, and osteoblast at the same time, although these three types of cells are involved in the process of fluorosis. In this study, commitment of bone cells was performed according to their respective characteristics. Osteocyte-like cells were verified by protein expression of sclerostin (SOST) in...

Paget's Disease of Long Bones: Microstructural Analyses of Historical Bone Samples.

Although Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is the second most common metabolic bone disease, there is only limited information about the microarchitecture of affected bones. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine cortical and trabecular bone properties in clinically relevant locations by microcomputed tomography (µCT). Ten femora and ten tibiae affected by Paget's disease taken from the Natural History Museum Vienna were compared to 13 femora and 10 tibiae of non-affected body donors. Digitization o...

Osteocytic connexin 43 channels affect fracture healing.

The cross-talk between cells is very critical for moving forward fracture healing in an orderly manner. Connexin (Cx) 43-formed gap junctions and hemichannels mediate the communication between adjacent cells and cells and extracellular environment. Loss of Cx43 in osteoblasts/osteocytes results in delayed fracture healing. For investigating the role of two channels in osteocytes in bone repair, two transgenic mouse models with Cx43 dominant negative mutants driven by a 10 kb-DMP1 promoter were generated: ...

Bone mineral density, structure, distribution and strength in men with prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy.

Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) improves survival in men with advanced prostate cancer (PCa), but has been associated with compromised skeletal health and increased fracture risk. However, limited previous research has investigated determinants of bone strength beyond DXA-derived areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in this population group. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the effects of ADT in men with PCa on BMD, bone structure, estimates of whole bone strength and cortical bone d...


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