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PubMed Journals Articles About "Cell Derived Plasma Membrane Vesicles Permeable Hydrophilic Macromolecules" RSS

04:59 EDT 29th March 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Cell Derived Plasma Membrane Vesicles Permeable Hydrophilic Macromolecules" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 35,000+

Cell-Derived Plasma Membrane Vesicles Are Permeable to Hydrophilic Macromolecules.

Giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) are a widely used experimental platform for biochemical and biophysical analysis of isolated mammalian plasma membranes (PMs). A core advantage of these vesicles is that they maintain the native lipid and protein diversity of the PM while affording the experimental flexibility of synthetic giant vesicles. In addition to fundamental investigations of PM structure and composition, GPMVs have been used to evaluate the binding of proteins and small molecules to cell-derive...


High-throughput fluorescence correlation spectroscopy enables analysis of surface components of cell-derived vesicles.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) and cell-derived vesicles (CDVs), generated by fragmenting cellular membranes, have both been explored as therapeutic delivery vehicles. Surface proteins on these vesicles are of great importance as they are characteristic to the cell of origin and modulate vesicle interactions with target cells. Here, we introduced a high-throughput fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (ht-FCS) approach capable of characterizing vesicle surface proteins across a large number of samples. We use...

Replacing plasma membrane outer leaflet lipids with exogenous lipid without damaging membrane integrity.

We recently introduced a MαCD-based method to efficiently replace virtually the entire population of plasma membrane outer leaflet phospholipids and sphingolipids of cultured mammalian cells with exogenous lipids (Li et al, (2016) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 113:14025-14030). Here, we show if the lipid-to- MαCD ratio is too high or low, cells can round up and develop membrane leakiness. We found that this cell damage can be reversed/prevented if cells are allowed to recover from the exchange step by incubat...


Controlled division of cell-sized vesicles by low densities of membrane-bound proteins.

The proliferation of life on earth is based on the ability of single cells to divide into two daughter cells. During cell division, the plasma membrane undergoes a series of morphological transformations which ultimately lead to membrane fission. Here, we show that analogous remodeling processes can be induced by low densities of proteins bound to the membranes of cell-sized lipid vesicles. Using His-tagged fluorescent proteins, we are able to precisely control the spontaneous curvature of the vesicle membr...

Liver-derived extracellular vesicles: A cell by cell overview to isolation and characterization practices.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a diverse group of membrane-bound nanovesicles potentially released by every cell. With the liver's unique ensemble of cells and its fundamental physiological tasks, elucidating the role of EV-mediated hepatic cellular crosstalk and their role in different pathologies has been gaining the attention of many scientists.

Influence of mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles in vitro and their role in ageing.

This study assessed whether mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived extracellular vesicles influenced ageing and pluripotency markers in cell cultures where they are added.

Cancer extracellular vesicles as novel regulators of NK cell response.

Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells that play a major role in the immune surveillance against tumors and their activity is regulated through signals derived by a number of NK cell inhibitory and activating receptors as well as cytokines and other soluble factors released in the tumor microenvironment. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-enclosed particles secreted by all cell types, both in healthy and diseased conditions, and are important mediators of intercellular communication. Dep...

Plasma membrane Ca-permeable channels and sodium/calcium exchangers in tumorigenesis and tumor development of the upper gastrointestinal tract.

The upper gastrointestinal (GI) tumors are multifactorial diseases associated with a combination of oncogenes and environmental factors. Currently, surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and immunotherapy are relatively effective treatment options for the patients with these tumors. However, the asymptomatic phenotype of these tumors during the early stages poses as a significant limiting factor to diagnosis and often renders treatments ineffective. Therefore, new early diagnosis and effective therapy for uppe...

Circular RNA expression profiles in extracellular vesicles from the plasma of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Tumor-derived extracellular vesicles and their contents are involved in the development of human malignancies. Circular RNAs, enriched in extracellular vesicles, can regulate diverse cellular processes by acting as microRNA sponges or through other mechanisms. In the present study, we explored the potential roles of circular RNAs in extracellular vesicles in the development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). First, plasma was obtained from patients with PDAC (n=8) and healthy volunteers (n=8), and ...

SRRF-stream imaging of optogenetically controlled furrow formation shows localized and coordinated endocytosis and exocytosis mediating membrane remodeling.

Cleavage furrow formation during cytokinesis involves extensive membrane remodeling. In the absence of methods to exert dynamic control over these processes, it has been a challenge to examine the basis of this remodeling. Here we used a subcellular optogenetic approach to induce this at will and found that furrow formation is mediated by actomyosin contractility, retrograde plasma membrane flow, localized decrease in membrane tension and endocytosis. FRAP, 4-D imaging and inhibition or upregulation of endo...

Keeping in touch with the membrane; protein- and lipid-mediated confinement of caveolae to the cell surface.

Caveolae are small Ω-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane that play important roles in mechanosensing, lipid homeostasis and signaling. Their typical morphology is characterized by a membrane funnel connecting a spherical bulb to the membrane. Membrane funnels (commonly known as necks and pores) are frequently observed as transient states during fusion and fission of membrane vesicles in cells. However, caveolae display atypical dynamics where the membrane funnel can be stabilized over an extended p...

Critical Role of Lipid Scramblase TMEM16F in Phosphatidylserine Exposure and Repair of Plasma Membrane after Pore Formation.

Plasma membrane damage and cell death during processes such as necroptosis and apoptosis result from cues originating intracellularly. However, death caused by pore-forming agents, like bacterial toxins or complement, is due to direct external injury to the plasma membrane. To prevent death, the plasma membrane has an intrinsic repair ability. Here, we found that repair triggered by pore-forming agents involved TMEM16F, a calcium-activated lipid scramblase also mutated in Scott's syndrome. Upon pore formati...

Penetration of phospholipid membranes by poly-l-lysine depends on cholesterol and phospholipid composition.

Clusters of positively-charged basic amino acid residues, particularly lysine, are known to promote the interaction of many peripheral membrane proteins with the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane via electrostatic interactions. In this work, cholesterol's effects on the interaction between lysine residues and membranes have been studied. Using poly-l-lysine (PLL) and vesicles as models to mimic the interaction between lysine-rich protein domains and the plasma membrane, light scattering measurement...

Plasma-thrombin cell blocks: Potential source of DNA contamination.

Cell blocks are being used more frequently in cytology for ancillary testing, including molecular diagnostics. There are several different methods of processing cell blocks, with plasma-thrombin being one of the most common. Plasma is a blood-derived product and may be a source of DNA. The aim of this study was to determine whether the plasma used for the plasma-thrombin cell block method has amplifiable DNA that may potentially interfere with molecular testing results.

Semen Extracellular Vesicles From HIV-1-Infected Individuals Inhibit HIV-1 Replication In Vitro, and Extracellular Vesicles Carry Antiretroviral Drugs In Vivo.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived vesicles with diverse functions in intercellular communication including disease and infection, and EVs seem to influence HIV-1 pathogenesis. EVs isolated from HIV-1-uninfected semen (SE), but not blood (BE), contain factors that interfere with HIV-1 infection and replication in target cells. The reason for this dichotomy is unknown. Furthermore, the effect of HIV-1 infection and antiretroviral (ARV) drugs on the anti-HIV-1 effects of SE and BE is unknown. Here,...

Multiple poloxamers increase plasma membrane repair capacity in muscle and non-muscle cells.

Various previous studies established that the amphiphilic tri-block copolymer known as poloxamer 188 (P188) or Pluronic-F68 can stabilize the plasma membrane following a variety of injuries to multiple mammalian cell types. This characteristic led to proposals for the use of P188 as a therapeutic treatment for various disease states including muscular dystrophy. Previous studies suggest that P188 increases plasma membrane integrity by resealing plasma membrane disruptions through its affinity for the hydrop...

Plasma membrane tension regulates eisosome structure and function.

Eisosomes are membrane furrows at the cell surface of yeast that have been shown to function in two seemingly distinct pathways, membrane stress response and regulation of nutrient transporters. We found that many stress conditions affect both of these pathways by changing plasma membrane tension and thus the morphology and composition of eisosomes. For example, alkaline stress causes swelling of the cell and an endocytic response which together increases membrane tension, thereby flattening the eisosomes. ...

Ejection of large particulate materials from giant unilamellar vesicles induced by electropulsation.

Electroporation or electropermeabilization is a technique to open a pore in the lipid bilayer membrane of cells and vesicles transiently to increase its permeability to otherwise impermeable molecules. However, the upper size limit of the materials permeable through this operation has not been studied in the past. Here, we investigate the size of the material that can be released (ejected) from giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) upon electric pulsation. We confirm that the volume of GUV shrinks in a stepwise...

An Aβ42 double mutant inhibits Aβ42-induced plasma and mitochondrial membrane disruption in artificial membranes, isolated organs and intact cells.

Destabilization of plasma and inner mitochondrial membranes by extra- and intracellular amyloid β peptide (Aβ42) aggregates may lead to dysregulated calcium flux through the plasma membrane, mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis and neuronal cell death in patients with Alzheimer's disease. In the current study, experiments performed with artificial membranes, isolated mitochondria, and neuronal cells allowed us to understand the mechanism by which a non-aggregating Aβ42 double mutant (designated Aβ42DM) exer...

Extracellular vesicles released by melanocytes after UVA irradiation promote intercellular signaling via miR21.

Skin pigmentation is controlled by complex crosstalk between melanocytes and keratinocytes and is primarily induced by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Several aspects of UVA-induced signaling remain to be explored. In skin cells, UVA induces plasma membrane damage, which is repaired by lysosomal exocytosis followed by instant shedding of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from the plasma membrane. The released EVs are taken up by neighboring cells. To elucidate the intercellular crosstalk induced by UVA...

Whole-cell imaging of plasma membrane receptors by 3D lattice light-sheet dSTORM.

The molecular organization of receptors in the plasma membrane of cells is paramount for their functionality. We combined lattice light-sheet (LLS) microscopy with three-dimensional (3D) single-molecule localization microscopy (dSTORM) and single-particle tracking to quantify the expression and distribution, and mobility of CD56 receptors on whole fixed and living cells, finding that CD56 accumulated at cell-cell interfaces. For comparison, we investigated two other receptors, CD2 and CD45, which showed dif...

Death by Retrograde Transport: Avoiding the Apoptosis Default.

In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Ko et al. (2019) describe a form of regulated necrosis that depends on active, retrograde transport of vesicles from the plasma membrane to the Golgi. The cell death is distinct from defined modalities including apoptosis, and most tumor lines show enhanced sensitivity to it.

Probing the subcellular distribution of phosphatidylinositol reveals a surprising lack at the plasma membrane.

The polyphosphoinositides (PPIn) are central regulatory lipids that direct membrane function in eukaryotic cells. Understanding how their synthesis is regulated is crucial to revealing these lipids' role in health and disease. PPIn are derived from the major structural lipid, phosphatidylinositol (PI). However, although the distribution of most PPIn has been characterized, the subcellular localization of PI available for PPIn synthesis is not known. Here, we used several orthogonal approaches to map the sub...

Expression pattern of androgen receptors, AR-V7 and AR-567es, in circulating tumor cells and paired plasma-derived extracellular vesicles in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer.

Androgen-receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) is a highly promising liquid biopsy predictive biomarker showing primary or acquired resistance to novel androgen receptor signaling inhibitors in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We present for the first time the expression pattern of AR-FL, AR-V7, and AR-567es at a quantitative level in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and paired plasma-derived extracellular vesicles in mCRPC. We first developed and analytically validated a novel multiplex R...

Extracellular vesicles transmit epithelial growth factor activity in the intestinal stem cell niche.

Extracellular vesicles (EV) are membrane-surrounded vesicles that represent a novel way of intercellular communication by carrying biologically important molecules in a concentrated and protected form. The intestinal epithelium is continuously renewed by a small proliferating intestinal stem cell population (ISC), residing at the bottom of the intestinal crypts in a specific microenvironment, the stem cell niche. By using 3D mouse and human intestinal organoids, we show that intestinal fibroblast-derived EV...


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