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PubMed Journals Articles About "Centrosomal Actin Assembly Required Proper Mitotic Spindle Formation" RSS

22:02 EDT 25th June 2019 | BioPortfolio

Centrosomal Actin Assembly Required Proper Mitotic Spindle Formation PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Centrosomal Actin Assembly Required Proper Mitotic Spindle Formation articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Centrosomal Actin Assembly Required Proper Mitotic Spindle Formation" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 16,000+

Centrosomal Actin Assembly Is Required for Proper Mitotic Spindle Formation and Chromosome Congression.

Cytoskeletal cross talk between actin filaments and microtubules is a common mechanism governing the assembly of cellular structures, i.e., during filopodia formation or cilia organization. However, potential actin-microtubule interactions during mammalian cell divisions are less well understood. At mitotic entry, centrosomes propagate the formation of the mitotic spindle, thereby aligning individual chromosomes to the metaphase plate, a process coined chromosome congression. Here, we identify actin filamen...


Spindle-F-actin interactions in mitotic spindles in an intact vertebrate epithelium.

Mitotic spindles are well-known to be assembled from and dependent on microtubules. In contrast, whether actin filaments (F-actin) are required for or are even present in mitotic spindles has long been controversial. Here we have developed improved methods for simultaneously preserving F-actin and microtubules in fixed samples and exploited them to demonstrate that F-actin is indeed associated with mitotic spindles in intact embryonic epithelia. We also find that there is an "F-actin cycle", in which the d...

NDP52 tunes cortical actin interaction with astral microtubules for accurate spindle orientation.

Oriented cell divisions are controlled by a conserved molecular cascade involving Gαi, LGN, and NuMA. Here, we show that NDP52 regulates spindle orientation via remodeling the polar cortical actin cytoskeleton. siRNA-mediated NDP52 suppression surprisingly revealed a ring-like compact subcortical F-actin architecture surrounding the spindle in prophase/prometaphase cells, which resulted in severe defects of astral microtubule growth and an aberrant spindle orientation. Remarkably, NDP52 recruited the actin...


Mitotic Spindle: Illuminating Spindle Positioning with a Biological Lightsaber.

In metazoans, positioning of the mitotic spindle is controlled by the microtubule-dependent motor protein dynein, which associates with the cell cortex. Using optogenetic tools, two new studies examine how the levels and activity of dynein are regulated at the cortex to ensure proper positioning of the mitotic spindle.

Bisphenol A disrupts mitotic progression via disturbing spindle attachment to kinetochore and centriole duplication in cancer cell lines.

Bisphenol A [BPA, 2,2-bis-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane] is one of the most prevalent synthetic environmental estrogens; as an endocrine disruptor, it is associated with endocrine-related cancers including breast, ovarian, and prostate. However, the mechanisms by which BPA contributes to carcinogenesis are unclear. This study aims to clarify its toxic effects on mitotic cells and investigate the molecular mechanism. In vitro effects of BPA on mitotic progression were examined by performing experiments on HeLa ce...

Viral Infection or IFN-α Alters Mitotic Spindle Orientation by Modulating Pericentrin Levels.

Congenital microcephaly occurs in utero during Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. The single-gene disorder, Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPDII), also leads to microcephaly and is concomitant with a decrease in the centrosomal protein, pericentrin (PCNT). This protein is a known contributor of mitotic spindle misorientation and ultimately, microcephaly. Similar to MOPDII, either viral infection or interferon (IFN)-α exposure reduced PCNT levels at the mitotic spindle poles. We unexpected...

Chromosome misalignment is associated with PLK1 activity at cenexin-positive mitotic centrosomes.

The mitotic kinase, polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), facilitates the assembly of the two mitotic spindle poles, which are required for the formation of the microtubule-based spindle that ensures appropriate chromosome distribution into the two forming daughter cells. Spindle poles are asymmetric in composition. One spindle pole contains the oldest mitotic centriole, the mother centriole, where the majority of cenexin, the mother centriole appendage protein and PLK1 binding partner, resides. We hypothesized that P...

Mps1 regulates spindle morphology through MCRS1 to promote chromosome alignment.

Accurate partitioning of chromosomes during mitosis is essential for genetic stability and requires the assembly of the dynamic mitotic spindle and proper kinetochore-microtubule attachment. The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) monitors the incompleteness and errors in kinetochore-microtubule attachment and delays anaphase. The SAC kinase Mps1 regulates the recruitment of downstream effectors to unattached kinetochores. Mps1 also actively promotes chromosome alignment during metaphase, but the underlying m...

Heat shock-induced mitotic arrest requires heat shock protein 105 for the activation of spindle assembly checkpoint.

Heat shock causes proteotoxic stress that induces various cellular responses, including delayed mitotic progression and the generation of an aberrant number of chromosomes. In this study, heat shock delayed the onset of anaphase by increasing the number of misoriented cells, accompanied by the kinetochore localization of budding uninhibited by benzimidazole-related (BubR)1 in a monopolar spindle (Mps)1-dependent manner. The mitotic delay was canceled by knockdown of mitotic arrest defect (Mad)2. Knockdown o...

BubR1 phosphorylates CENP-E as a switch enabling the transition from lateral association to end-on capture of spindle microtubules.

Error-free mitosis depends on accurate chromosome attachment to spindle microtubules, powered congression of those chromosomes, their segregation in anaphase, and assembly of a spindle midzone at mitotic exit. The centromere-associated kinesin motor CENP-E, whose binding partner is BubR1, has been implicated in congression of misaligned chromosomes and the transition from lateral kinetochore-microtubule association to end-on capture. Although previously proposed to be a pseudokinase, here we report the stru...

RXXPEG motif of MERIT40 is required to maintain spindle structure and function through its interaction with Tankyrase1.

Deubiquitinase BRISC complex plays important role in the maintenance of spindle structure and function; However, the underlying mechanism remains largely undefined. Here we demonstrated that MERIT40, a core component of BRISC complex, directly interacts with the RXXPEG motif in the ARC-V domain of Tankyrase1(TNKS1). Mutation of the RXXPEG motif in the MERIT40 (R28A) disrupted its interaction with TNKS1. Consistent with these data, R28A mutant cells displayed multiple mitotic defects including aberrant spind...

Mitotic motor CENP-E cooperates with PRC1 in temporal control of central spindle assembly.

Error-free cell division depends on the accurate assembly of the spindle midzone from dynamic spindle microtubules to ensure chromatid segregation during metaphase-anaphase transition. However, the mechanism underlying the key transition from the mitotic spindle to central spindle before anaphase onset remains elusive. Given the prevalence of chromosome instability phenotype in gastric tumorigenesis, we developed a strategy to model context-dependent cell division using a combination of light sheet microsco...

Roles and mechanisms of Kinesin-6 KIF20A in spindle organization during cell division.

Mitotic kinesin is crucial for spindle assembly and chromosome segregation in cell division. KIF20A/MKlp2, a member of kinesin-6 subfamily, plays important roles in the central spindle organization at anaphase and cytokinesis. In this review, we briefly introduce the discovery and classification of kinesin-6 motors in model organisms, and summarize the biochemical features and mechanics of KIF20A proteins. We emphasize the complicated interactions of KIF20A with partner proteins, including MKlp1, Plk1 and R...

Muscle specific stress fibers give rise to sarcomeres in cardiomyocytes.

The sarcomere is the contractile unit within cardiomyocytes driving heart muscle contraction. We sought to test the mechanisms regulating actin and myosin filament assembly during sarcomere formation. Therefore, we developed an assay using human cardiomyocytes to monitor sarcomere assembly. We report a population of muscle stress fibers, similar to actin arcs in non-muscle cells, which are essential sarcomere precursors. We show sarcomeric actin filaments arise directly from muscle stress fibers. This requi...

EphA2 phosphorylation at Ser897 by the Cdk1/MEK/ERK/RSK pathway regulates M-phase progression via maintenance of cortical rigidity.

Successful cell division is accomplished by the proper formation of the mitotic spindle. Here, we show that EphA2 knockdown causes mitotic errors, including a delay in M-phase progression, asymmetric spindle positioning, multipolar spindles, and cell blebs. It has been known that EphA2 is phosphorylated at Tyr588, which is triggered by the ligand binding, and at Ser897 downstream of growth factor signaling. Upon mitotic entry, EphA2 is phosphorylated at Ser897, accompanied by a reduction in Tyr588 phosphory...

Orchestrating Nuclear Envelope Sealing during Mitosis.

Sealing of the nascent nuclear envelope during mitotic exit is mediated by the polymeric ESCRT-III protein machinery. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Ventimiglia et al. (2018) identify the ESCRT-III-associated protein CC2D1B as a lipid-binding coordinator of late-mitotic ESCRT-III assembly and disassembly of the mitotic spindle.

Enhanced Dendritic Actin Network Formation in Extended Lamellipodia Drives Proliferation in Growth-Challenged Rac1 Melanoma Cells.

Actin assembly supplies the structural framework for cell morphology and migration. Beyond structure, this actin framework can also be engaged to drive biochemical signaling programs. Here, we describe how the hyperactivation of Rac1 via the P29S mutation (Rac1) in melanoma hijacks branched actin network assembly to coordinate proliferative cues that facilitate metastasis and drug resistance. Upon growth challenge, Rac1-harboring melanoma cells massively upregulate lamellipodia formation by dendritic actin ...

Microtubule nucleation during central spindle assembly requires NEDD1 phosphorylation on Serine 405 by Aurora A.

During mitosis, the cell sequentially constructs two microtubule-based spindles to ensure faithful segregation of chromosomes. A bipolar spindle first pulls apart the sister chromatids, then a central spindle further separates them away. Although the assembly of the first spindle is well described, the assembly of the second remains poorly understood. We report here that the inhibition of Aurora A leads to an absence of the central spindle due to a lack of nucleation of microtubules in the midzone. In the a...

Regulation of JMY's actin nucleation activity by TTC5/STRAP and LC3 during autophagy.

Actin plays indispensable roles in autophagosome biogenesis. Branched actin networks assembled within phagophore membranes are required for generating the autophagosome membrane shape and movement. The ARP2/3 complex and its regulators, such as JMY (junction mediating and regulatory protein, p53 cofactor), translocate to phagophore membranes to promote local actin filament formation during autophagy. Hu et al., recently showed that during autophagy LC3 recruits JMY to the phagophore and promotes its actin n...

Structure and function of Spc42 coiled-coils in yeast centrosome assembly and duplication.

Centrosomes and spindle pole bodies (SPBs) are membraneless organelles whose duplication and assembly is necessary for bipolar mitotic spindle formation. The structural organization and functional roles of major proteins in these organelles can provide critical insights into cell division control. Spc42, a phosphoregulated protein with an N-terminal dimeric coiled-coil, assembles into a hexameric array at the budding yeast SPB core, where it functions as a scaffold for SPB assembly. Here, we present in vitr...

Sizes of actin networks sharing a common environment are determined by the relative rates of assembly.

Within the cytoplasm of a single cell, several actin networks can coexist with distinct sizes, geometries, and protein compositions. These actin networks assemble in competition for a limited pool of proteins present in a common cellular environment. To predict how two distinct networks of actin filaments control this balance, the simultaneous assembly of actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3)-branched networks and formin-linear networks of actin filaments around polystyrene microbeads was investigated with a r...

Assembly of a Parts List of the Human Mitotic Cell Cycle Machinery.

The set of proteins required for mitotic division remains poorly characterised. Here, an extensive series of correlation analyses of human and mouse transcriptomics data was performed to identify genes strongly and reproducibly associated with cells undergoing S/G2-M phases of the cell cycle. In so doing, a list of 701 cell cycle-associated genes were defined and whilst it was shown that many are only expressed during these phases, the expression of others is also driven by alternative promoters. Of this li...

Cofilin-Mediated Actin Stress Response Is Maladaptive in Heat-Stressed Embryos.

Environmental stress threatens the fidelity of embryonic morphogenesis. Heat, for example, is a teratogen. Yet how heat affects morphogenesis is poorly understood. Here, we identify a heat-inducible actin stress response (ASR) in Drosophila embryos that is mediated by the activation of the actin regulator Cofilin. Similar to ASR in adult mammalian cells, heat stress in fly embryos triggers the assembly of intra-nuclear actin rods. Rods measure up to a few microns in length, and their assembly depends on el...

Actin Post-translational Modifications: The Cinderella of Cytoskeletal Control.

Actin is one of the most abundant proteins in eukaryotic cells and the main component of the microfilament system. It plays essential roles in numerous cellular activities, including muscle contraction, maintenance of cell integrity, and motility, as well as transcriptional regulation. Besides interacting with various actin-binding proteins (ABPs), proper actin function is regulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as acetylation, arginylation, oxidation, and others. Here, we explain how act...

The quantification and regulation of microtubule dynamics in the mitotic spindle.

Microtubules play essential roles in cellular organization, cargo transport, and chromosome segregation during cell division. During mitosis microtubules form a macromolecular structure known as the mitotic spindle that is responsible for the accurate segregation of chromosomes between the two daughter cells. This is accomplished thanks to finely tuned control of microtubule dynamics. Even small changes in microtubule dynamics during spindle formation and/or operation may lead to chromosome mis-segregation,...


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