PubMed Journals Articles About "Challenge" RSS

05:19 EST 12th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

Challenge PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Challenge articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Challenge" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 3,700+

Influenza Challenge and the Challenge of Drug Development.

Mobility Function and Recovery After Stroke: Preliminary Insights From Sympathetic Nervous System Activity.

Poststroke hemiparesis increases the perceived challenge of walking. Perceived challenge is commonly measured by self-report, which is susceptible to measurement bias. A promising approach to objectively assess perceived challenge is measuring sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity with skin conductance to detect the physiological stress response. We investigated the feasibility of using skin conductance measurements to detect task-related differences in the challenge posed by complex walking tasks in ad...

Auto-segmentation for Thoracic Radiation Treatment Planning: A Grand Challenge at AAPM 2017.

This report presents the methods and results of the Thoracic Auto-Segmentation Challenge organized at the 2017 Annual Meeting of American Association of Physicists in Medicine. The purpose of the challenge was to provide a benchmark dataset and platform for evaluating performance of auto-segmentation methods of organs at risk (OARs) in thoracic CT images.

Improving Dermoscopic Image Segmentation with Enhanced Convolutional-Deconvolutional Networks.

Automatic skin lesion segmentation on dermoscopic images is an essential step in computer-aided diagnosis of melanoma. However, this task is challenging due to significant variations of lesion appearances across different patients. This challenge is further exacerbated when dealing with a large amount of image data. In this paper, we extended our previous work by developing a deeper network architecture with smaller kernels to enhance its discriminant capacity. In addition, we explicitly included color info...

Interoperability in Health and Social Care: Organizational Issues are the Biggest Challenge.

A great asset of any healthcare system is "information" which includes, but not limited to patient data, clinical history and treatments. It is no secret that there is a growing demand for healthcare, however, this demand is yet to be achieved due to the challenge in the limitation of resources and the complexity of the problem area.

The Effect of the 50 g Glucose Challenge Test on The Thiol/Disulfide Homeostasis in Pregnancy.

A 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) is recommended for screening all pregnant women for gestational diabetes mellitus. In this study, the effect of GCT on the thiol/disulfide balance was investigated.

A Dynamic Assessment of Children's Physical Competence: The Dragon Challenge.

The first aim was to develop a dynamic measure of physical competence that requires a participant to demonstrate fundamental, combined and complex movement skills, and for assessors to score both processes and products (Dragon Challenge; DC). The second aim was to assess the psychometric properties of the DC in 10-14 year old children.

A survey of human shoulder functional kinematic representations.

In this survey, we review the field of human shoulder functional kinematic representations. The central question of this review is to evaluate whether the current approaches in shoulder kinematics can meet the high-reliability computational challenge. This challenge is posed by applications such as robot-assisted rehabilitation. Currently, the role of kinematic representations in such applications has been mostly overlooked. Therefore, we have systematically searched and summarised the existing literature o...

Diagnostic Challenge with Nocardia Subretinal Abscess: A Case Report from Tuberculosis-Endemic Region.

To describe a case of Nocardia subretinal abscess, which posed a diagnostic challenge due to the presence of mycobacterial genome in sample obtained from fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB).

Development of a web-based tool to evaluate competences of nursing students through the assessment of their clinical skills.

Assessing the clinical ability of nursing students continues to be a fundamental challenge within the nursing degree. Designing innovative teaching strategies while ensuring an educational experience that results in safe nursing practices is an additional challenge for all educators.

Evaluation of Simulated Lesions as Surrogates to Clinical Lesions for Thoracic CT Volumetry: The Results of an International Challenge.

To evaluate a new approach to establish compliance of segmentation tools with the computed tomography volumetry profile of the Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Alliance (QIBA); and determine the statistical exchangeability between real and simulated lesions through an international challenge.

Aerosol prime-boost vaccination provides strong protection in outbred rabbits against virulent type A Francisella tularensis.

Tularemia, also known as rabbit fever, is a severe zoonotic disease in humans caused by the gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis (Ft). While there have been a number of attempts to develop a vaccine for Ft, few candidates have advanced beyond experiments in inbred mice. We report here that a prime-boost strategy with aerosol delivery of recombinant live attenuated candidate Ft S4ΔaroD offers significant protection (83% survival) in an outbred animal model, New Zealand White rabbits, against aeros...

Transcriptomic analysis revealing hepcidin expression in Oryzias melastigma regulated through the JAK-STAT signaling pathway upon exposure to BaP.

Our previous study revealed that an antimicrobial peptide hepcidin, can be significantly up-regulated either with LPS challenge or upon exposure to Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in red sea bream, but the molecular mechanism involved in whether the transcriptional expression of hepcidin induced by LPS or BaP is regulated through a similar signaling pathway is not yet known. To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism, the marine model fish Oryzias melastigma was exposed to 1 μg/L BaP as well as challenged with...

Innate immune cell signatures in a BCWD-Resistant line of rainbow trout before and after in vivo challenge with Flavobacterium psychrophilum.

Phenotypes of myeloid-lineage cells remain poorly understood in the rainbow trout, and were the focus of this study, including effects of in vivo challenge to Flavobacterium psychrophilum (Fp), the cause of Bacterial Cold Water Disease (BCWD). A genetic line was used that is highly resistant to BCWD (R-line) as well as a susceptible control line (S-line). Using flow cytometry, we describe two Pax5-negative, myeloid-lineage populations: Population 1 consisted of small cells with high SSC and strong staining ...

Hypertension management options: 2017 guideline.

The new hypertension guideline lowers the definition of high BP to 130/80 mm Hg. This means that millions of adults will now be diagnosed with hypertension and that many of those taking antihypertensive drugs are not at goal. The challenge is to communicate the change, the strength of evidence behind the change, and the options available to patients. Healthcare providers must be knowledgeable of the new guideline and must be ready to meet this challenge.

Enhanced prediction of RNA solvent accessibility with long short-term memory neural networks and improved sequence profiles.

The de novo prediction of RNA tertiary structure remains a grand challenge. Predicted RNA solvent accessibility provides an opportunity to address this challenge. To the best of our knowledge, there is only one method (RNAsnap) available for RNA solvent accessibility prediction. However, its performance is unsatisfactory for protein-free RNAs.

Injectable trace minerals (selenium, copper, zinc, and manganese) alleviates inflammation and oxidative stress during an aflatoxin challenge in lactating multiparous Holstein cows.

Trace minerals are vital in the antioxidant response during oxidative stress; however, limited research is available on the effects of trace mineral supplementation during an aflatoxin (AF) challenge. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of 2 subcutaneous injections of 15 mg/mL of Cu, 5 mg/mL of Se, 60 mg/mL of Zn, and 10 mg/mL of Mn (Multimin 90, Multimin North America, Fort Collins, CO) given at 1 mL/90.7 kg of average body weight in response to an AF challenge. Fifty-eight Holstein cow...

The Prevalence and correlates of texting while driving among a Population-Based Sample of Ontario Students.

Texting while driving (TWD) has a deleterious impact on driving performance, and may pose a significant challenge to traffic safety. This challenge may be particularly relevant for young and inexperienced drivers. This study examined the prevalence and risk factors of writing text messages or emails while driving during the past twelve months.

A challenge for healthcare but just another opportunity for illegitimate online sellers: Dubious market of shortage oncology drugs.

Drug shortages mean a challenge to healthcare systems. Exposed patients or health care providers may seek alternative resources for these products online. The purpose of our study was to analyze the online availability of oncology shortage drugs at national and at international levels in 2014 and 2016.

DCE MRI reveals early decreased and later increased placenta perfusion after a stress challenge during pregnancy in a mouse model.

Stress during pregnancy is known to have negative effects on fetal outcome. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine placental perfusion alterations after stress challenge during pregnancy in a mouse model.

Fluid Challenge During Anesthesia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Assessing the volemic status of patients undergoing surgery is part of the routine management for the anesthesiologist. This assessment is commonly performed by means of dynamic indexes based on the cardiopulmonary interaction during mechanical ventilation (if available) or by administering a fluid challenge (FC). The FC is used during surgery to optimize predefined hemodynamic targets, the so-called Goal-Directed Therapy (GDT), or to correct hemodynamic instability (non-GDT).

Health information technology: current use and challenges for primary healthcare services.

Health information technology is developing rapidly, due to a profusion of actors and support from public policies. It generates new uses and functions, for both patients and professional users, thereby suggesting a "digital revolution" is coming. Nevertheless, e-Health's development meets with a particularly complex healthcare system, especially when it comes to primary care services. This situation creates four types of challenges. Firstly, an organizational challenge, meaning e-Health implementation need...

Colonization Limits Efficacy, but Not Immunogenicity, of Live-Attenuated Influenza Virus Vaccine and Enhances Pathogenesis After Influenza Challenge.

Intranasally administered live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines provide significant protection against heterologous influenza A virus (IAV) challenge. However, LAIV administration can modify the bacterial microbiota in the upper respiratory tract, including alterations in species that cause pneumonia. We sought to evaluate the effect of colonization on LAIV immunogenicity and efficacy in swine, and the impact of LAIV and IAV challenge on colonization and disease. LAIV immunogenicity was not sign...

Map Challenge: Analysis using a Pair Comparison Method based on Fourier Shell Correlation.

This document presents the analysis performed over the Map Challenge dataset using a new algorithm which we refer to as Pair Comparison Method. The new algorithm, which is described in detail in the text, is able to sort reconstructions based on a figure of merit and assigns a level of significance to the sorting. That is, it shows how likely the sorting is due to chance or if it reflects real differences.

Low-Dose Oral Food Challenge with Hazelnut: Efficacy and Tolerability in Children.

Hazelnut allergy (HA) is one of the more common food allergies (FAs) in Europe with a prevalence of 0.2%. The gold standard for diagnosing FA is oral food challenge (OFC) with the culprit food. Another purpose of OFC is to identify the "threshold level" of food as the dose that elicits symptoms. In this way it is possible to avoid a strict elimination diet and to determine the minimal quantity of the culprit food tolerated by the patient.

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