PubMed Journals Articles About "Challenge" RSS

05:06 EDT 18th July 2018 | BioPortfolio

Challenge PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Challenge articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Challenge" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 3,500+

Challenge of the Mini-fluid Challenge: Filling Twice without Creating a Self-fulfilling Prophecy Design.

Realising the potential of various inhaled airway challenge agents through improved delivery to the lungs.

Inhaled airway challenges provoke bronchoconstriction in susceptible subjects and are a pivotal tool in the diagnosis and monitoring of obstructive lung diseases, both in the clinic and in the development of new respiratory medicines. This article reviews the main challenge agents that are in use today (methacholine, mannitol, adenosine, allergens, endotoxin) and emphasises the importance of controlling how these agents are administered. There is a danger that the optimal value of these challenge agents may...

Early Preparation and Inspiration for STEM Careers: Preliminary Report of the Epidemiology Challenge Randomized Intervention, 2014-2015.

Early Preparation and Inspiration for Careers in the Biomedical Sciences (EPIC) is a university-high school partnership for increasing high school student interest and persistence in the biomedical sciences. EPIC includes a year-long, project-based learning intervention, the Think Like an Epidemiologist Challenge (Epi Challenge). We describe the main components of the Epi Challenge and report on short-term changes in scientific literacy and science-related motivations and beliefs.

Improving Dermoscopic Image Segmentation with Enhanced Convolutional-Deconvolutional Networks.

Automatic skin lesion segmentation on dermoscopic images is an essential step in computer-aided diagnosis of melanoma. However, this task is challenging due to significant variations of lesion appearances across different patients. This challenge is further exacerbated when dealing with a large amount of image data. In this paper, we extended our previous work by developing a deeper network architecture with smaller kernels to enhance its discriminant capacity. In addition, we explicitly included color info...

The first MICCAI challenge on PET tumor segmentation.

Automatic functional volume segmentation in PET images is a challenge that has been addressed using a large array of methods. A major limitation for the field has been the lack of a benchmark dataset that would allow direct comparison of the results in the various publications. In the present work, we describe a comparison of recent methods on a large dataset following recommendations by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) task group (TG) 211, which was carried out within a MICCAI (Med...

Psychooncological Care: A Challenge.

Cancer patients and their relatives suffer from multiple psychological and social problems associated with the illness itself and its treatment. The major challenge for an excellent psychooncological support is the further development and nationwide implementation of effective, patient-centered, quality assured, and affordable concepts of treatment and care.

Studies on immunity and immunopathogenesis of parrot bornaviral disease in cockatiels.

We have demonstrated that vaccination of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) with killed parrot bornavirus (PaBV) plus recombinant PaBV-4 nucleoprotein (N) in alum was protective against disease in birds challenged with a virulent bornavirus isolate (PaBV-2). Unvaccinated birds, as well as birds vaccinated after challenge, developed gross and histologic lesions typical of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). There was no evidence that vaccination either before or after challenge made the infection more s...

The Effect of the 50 g Glucose Challenge Test on The Thiol/Disulfide Homeostasis in Pregnancy.

A 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) is recommended for screening all pregnant women for gestational diabetes mellitus. In this study, the effect of GCT on the thiol/disulfide balance was investigated.

Diagnostic Challenge with Nocardia Subretinal Abscess: A Case Report from Tuberculosis-Endemic Region.

To describe a case of Nocardia subretinal abscess, which posed a diagnostic challenge due to the presence of mycobacterial genome in sample obtained from fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB).

The furan microsolvation blind challenge for quantum chemical methods: First steps.

Herein we present the results of a blind challenge to quantum chemical methods in the calculation of dimerization preferences in the low temperature gas phase. The target of study was the first step of the microsolvation of furan, 2-methylfuran and 2,5-dimethylfuran with methanol. The dimers were investigated through IR spectroscopy of a supersonic jet expansion. From the measured bands, it was possible to identify a persistent hydrogen bonding OH-O motif in the predominant species. From the presence of ano...

Infection with Anthroponotic Cryptosporidium parvum does not fully protect the host against a subsequent challenge with C. hominis.

Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum are the major Cryptosporidium species that infect humans. Earlier studies in gnotobiotic piglets, model susceptible to both, showed that piglets recovered from infection with C. hominis were fully protected against challenge with same species but incompletely protected against C. parvum challenge. In the present study, piglets were infected with C. parvum first, and after recovery were re-challenged with C. parvum or C. hominis. Again, full protection was only observed ...

Improving Bone Regeneration Using Chordin siRNA Delivered by pH-Responsive and Non-Toxic Polyspermine Imidazole-4,5-Imine.

Bone nonunion remains a challenge for orthopaedists. The technological advancements that have been made in precisely silencing target genes have provided promising methods to address this challenge.

Hypertension management options: 2017 guideline.

The new hypertension guideline lowers the definition of high BP to 130/80 mm Hg. This means that millions of adults will now be diagnosed with hypertension and that many of those taking antihypertensive drugs are not at goal. The challenge is to communicate the change, the strength of evidence behind the change, and the options available to patients. Healthcare providers must be knowledgeable of the new guideline and must be ready to meet this challenge.

Sensory-Challenge Balance Exercises Improve Multisensory Reweighting in Fall-Prone Older Adults.

Multisensory reweighting (MSR) deficits in older adults contribute to fall risk. Sensory-challenge balance exercises may have value for addressing the MSR deficits in fall-prone older adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of sensory-challenge balance exercises on MSR and clinical balance measures in fall-prone older adults.

Respiratory and Laryngeal Function in Teachers: Pre- and Postvocal Loading Challenge.

The purpose of this study was to examine laryngeal and respiratory physiological changes in teachers before and after a 1-hour vocal loading challenge.

Physiological predictors of Hypoxic Challenge Testing (HCT) outcomes in Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD).

Pre-flight risk assessments are currently recommended for all Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) patients. Hypoxic challenge testing (HCT) can inform regarding the need for supplemental in-flight oxygen but variables which might predict the outcome of HCT and thus guide referral for assessment, are unknown.

Injectable trace minerals (selenium, copper, zinc, and manganese) alleviates inflammation and oxidative stress during an aflatoxin challenge in lactating multiparous Holstein cows.

Trace minerals are vital in the antioxidant response during oxidative stress; however, limited research is available on the effects of trace mineral supplementation during an aflatoxin (AF) challenge. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of 2 subcutaneous injections of 15 mg/mL of Cu, 5 mg/mL of Se, 60 mg/mL of Zn, and 10 mg/mL of Mn (Multimin 90, Multimin North America, Fort Collins, CO) given at 1 mL/90.7 kg of average body weight in response to an AF challenge. Fifty-eight Holstein cow...

The Prevalence and correlates of texting while driving among a Population-Based Sample of Ontario Students.

Texting while driving (TWD) has a deleterious impact on driving performance, and may pose a significant challenge to traffic safety. This challenge may be particularly relevant for young and inexperienced drivers. This study examined the prevalence and risk factors of writing text messages or emails while driving during the past twelve months.

Sympathetic nervous system activity measured by skin conductance quantifies the challenge of walking adaptability tasks after stroke.

Walking adaptability tasks are challenging for people with motor impairments. The construct of perceived challenge is typically measured by self-report assessments, which are susceptible to subjective measurement error. The development of an objective physiologically-based measure of challenge may help to improve the ability to assess this important aspect of mobility function. The objective of this study to investigate the use of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity measured by skin conductance to gau...

DCE MRI reveals early decreased and later increased placenta perfusion after a stress challenge during pregnancy in a mouse model.

Stress during pregnancy is known to have negative effects on fetal outcome. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine placental perfusion alterations after stress challenge during pregnancy in a mouse model.

Single-Cell Tracking Reveals a Role for Pre-Existing CCR5+ Memory Th1 Cells in the Control of Rhinovirus-A39 After Experimental Challenge in Humans.

Little is known about T cells that respond to human rhinovirus in vivo, due to timing of infection, viral diversity, and complex T-cell specificities. We tracked circulating CD4+ T cells with identical epitope specificities that responded to intranasal challenge with rhinovirus (RV)-A39, and we assessed T-cell signatures in the nose.

Exposure to lipopolysaccharide in utero alters the postnatal metabolic response in heifers.

This study was designed to determine the effect of prenatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure on the postnatal metabolic response to an LPS challenge in beef heifers. Pregnant, crossbred cows ( = 50) were assigned to a prenatal immune stimulation (PIS; = 25; administered 0.1 µg/kg BW LPS subcutaneously 233 ± 15d of gestation) or saline treatment group (Control; = 25). Birth and weaning BW of calves were collected. There was not (> 0.05) a treatment × gender interaction for birth weight or 205-d adjusted ...

The Economic Challenge of Centralised Treatment of Patients with Periprosthetic Infections.

Periprosthetic infection (PJI) is one of the most severe complications in joint arthroplasty. Correct diagnosis and adequate therapy represent an enormous interdisciplinary challenge. The necessary interdisciplinarity and complexity of treatment require therapy in centres. However, the high costs have not yet been analysed or discussed and are problematic. The aim of this work is therefore to compare the costs within a year of treatment in a department specialised in the treatment of periprosthetic infectio...

Oral food challenge using different target doses and time intervals between doses.

The oral food challenge (OFC) is a specific and vital tool used in clinical practice to identify the level of tolerance a person exhibits toward certain foods while diagnosing food-related allergies. OFC methods differ among countries. The aim of this review is to evaluate different target doses and determine the time interval between doses used for OFC.

Dietary L-glutamine supplementation improves growth performance, gut morphology, and serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens during necrotic enteritis challenge.

Necrotic enteritis (NE) causes significant economic losses in the broiler chicken industry, especially in birds raised without in-feed antibiotics. L-glutamine (Gln) is an amino acid that may compensate for metabolic losses from infection and improve the intestinal development. This study investigated the effects of dietary Gln (10 g/kg) supplementation on growth performance, intestinal lesions, jejunum morphology, and serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens during NE challenge. The study employed a ...

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