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Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to investigate spontaneous hemodynamic fluctuations in the bilateral temporal cortices for typically developing (TD) children and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder struggle with motor difficulties throughout the life span, and these motor difficulties may affect independent living skills and quality of life. Yet, we know little about how whole-body movement may distinguish individuals with autism spectrum disorder from individuals with typical development. In this study, kinematic and postural sway data were collected during multiple sessions of videogame play in 39 youth with autism spectrum disorder and 23 age-matched youth...
Regression is frequently described in Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Limited comprehensive studies have been conducted in patients with ASD with regression.
Over the recent years, machine learning algorithms have been more widely and increasingly applied in biomedical fields. In particular, its application has been drawing more attention in the field of psychiatry, for instance, as diagnostic tests/tools for autism spectrum disorder. However, given its complexity and potential clinical implications, there is ongoing need for further research on its accuracy.
Children with autism spectrum disorder are at risk of developing internalizing and externalizing problems. However, information on early development of behavior problems and the contributing role of emotional functioning in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder is scarce. This study collected data of boys with and without autism spectrum disorder ( = 156; age: 2-6 years) over three consecutive years (three waves), about their internalizing and externalizing symptoms and emotional functionin...
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) coordinates a labor-intensive process to measure the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among children in the United States. Random forests methods have shown promise in speeding up this process, but they lag behind human classification accuracy by about 5%. We explore whether more recently available document classification algorithms can close this gap.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous disorder. Research has explored potential ASD subgroups with preliminary evidence supporting the existence of behaviorally and genetically distinct subgroups; however, research has yet to leverage machine learning to identify phenotypes on a scale large enough to robustly examine treatment response across such subgroups. The purpose of the present study was to apply Gaussian Mixture Models and Hierarchical Clustering to identify behavioral phenotypes of ASD ...
Current evidence indicates that nutritional status in newborns, especially the duration of breastfeeding, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder. We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze relevant studies with findings of an association between autism spectrum disorder and breastfeeding patterns, and undertook an extensive dose-response analysis to interpret the results more accurately. Ten electronic databases and manual search of reference lists were used to identify rel...
This study aimed to draw a cross-task comparison on visuospatial processing in autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability. Participants with autism spectrum disorder were matched with typically developing individuals on general intelligence and perceptual reasoning index. The two groups were subsequently compared on visuospatial processing speed, visuo-perceptual, visuo-constructive, and visuospatial working memory tasks. Our results revealed similar performances between autism spectrum disord...
In children with autism spectrum disorder, there have been equivocal results regarding primary caregiver education level and its influence on sleep. Thus, we assessed if lower primary caregiver education level is associated with more sleep problems. We evaluated 4,636 children with autism spectrum disorder in the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network's United States and Canadian registry, whose caregivers completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Using regression analysis, there was an associati...
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with several oropharyngeal abnormalities, including dysbiosis in the oral microbiota. Since the oral cavity is the start of the gastrointestinal tract, this strengthens and extends the notion of a microbial gut-brain axis in ASD and even raises the question whether a microbial oral-brain axis exists. It is clear that oral bacteria can find their way to the brain through a number of pathways following routine dental procedures. A connection between the oral microb...
Difficulty performing age-appropriate motor skills affects up to 83% of children with autism spectrum disorder. This systematic review examined the effect of motor and physical activity intervention on motor outcomes of children with autism spectrum disorder and the effect of motor learning strategies on motor skill acquisition, retention, and transfer. Six databases were searched from 2000 to 2019. Forty-one studies were included: 34 intervention studies and 7 motor learning studies. The overall quality of...
Females with autism spectrum disorder have been reported to exhibit fewer and less severe restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests compared to males. This difference might indicate sex-specific alterations of brain networks involved in autism symptom domains, especially within cortico-striatal and sensory integration networks. This study used a well-controlled twin design to examine sex differences in brain anatomy in relation to repetitive behaviors.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined as a group of genetically and clinically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders. Interplay between de novo and inherited rare variants has been suspected in the development of ASD.
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) is a developmental and neurological disorder that affects all aspects of social communication, with limited and stereotypical interest, and atypical responses to sensory stimuli. Diagnosis of ASD is currently phenotype based with no reliable laboratory test available to assist clinicians. Researches have shown that individuals with autism often exhibit dysfunction of cytokines.
Although advanced parental age holds an increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), its role as a potential risk factor for an atypical white matter development underlying the pathophysiology of ASD has not yet been investigated. The current study was aimed to detect white matter disparities in ASD, and further investigate the relationship of paternal and maternal age at birth with such disparities.
Universal early screening for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is recommended but not routinely performed.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a general neurodevelopmental disorder associated with altered brain connectivity. However, most connectivity analyses in ASD focus on static functional connectivity, largely neglecting brain activity dynamics that have been reported to provide deeper insight into the underlying mechanisms of brain functions. Therefore, we anticipate that the use of dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) with interaction of clustering measures could help characterize ASD severity and reveal m...
Impaired multisensory integration in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may arise from functional dysconnectivity among brain systems. Our study examines the functional connectivity integration between primary modal sensory regions and heteromodal processing cortex in ASD, and whether abnormalities in network integration relate to clinical severity.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder caused by complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies suggest that Vitamin D3 or bumetanide therapy may improve the core symptoms of ASD in some individuals. However, there are no guidelines that provide clinicians with evidence-based treatment regimens for the use of these therapies in ASD.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), previously called autism, is a developmental condition that can cause significant social, communication, and behavioral challenges. Early symptoms of ASD can easily be overlooked. Clinicians who can recognize the symptoms of ASD can help children get prompt referral to specialists and early intervention, which is key to improving developmental outcomes for children with ASD.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) consists of altered performance of a range of skills, including social/communicative and motor skills. It is unclear whether this altered performance results from atypical acquisition or learning of the skills or from atypical "online" performance of the skills. Atypicalities of skilled actions that require both motor and cognitive resources, such as abnormal gesturing, are highly prevalent in ASD and are easier to study in a laboratory context than are social/communicative sk...
Anxiety is common among youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), often interfering with adaptive functioning. Psychological therapies are commonly used to treat school-aged youth with ASD; their efficacy has not been established.
Dietary interventions such as restrictive diets or supplements are common treatments for young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Evidence for the efficacy of these interventions is still controversial.
Early life social experiences shape neural pathways in infants to develop lifelong social skills. This review presents the first unified circuit-based model of social learning that can be applied to early life social development, drawing together unique human developmental milestones, sensitive learning periods, and behavioral and neural scaffolds. Circuit domains for social learning are identified governing Activation, Integration, Discrimination, Response and Reward (AIDRR) to sculpt and drive human socia...