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PubMed Journals Articles About "Characterizing Individual Variation Strategic Attentional Control" RSS

09:50 EST 11th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

Characterizing Individual Variation Strategic Attentional Control PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Characterizing Individual Variation Strategic Attentional Control articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Characterizing individual variation strategic attentional control" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 24,000+

Characterizing individual variation in the strategic use of attentional control.

Goal-directed attentional control can substanially aid visual search, but only if it is recruited in an effective manner. Previously we found that strategies chosen to control attention vary considerably across individuals, and we proposed that effort avoidance may lead some individuals to choose suboptimal strategies. Here we present a more thorough analysis of individual differences in attentional control strategies. We used the adaptive choice visual search, which provides a method to quantify an individ...


Neural bases of enhanced attentional control: Lessons from action video game players.

The ability to resist distraction and focus on-task-relevant information while being responsive to changes in the environment is fundamental to goal-directed behavior. Such attentional control abilities are regulated by a constant interplay between previously characterized bottom-up and top-down attentional networks. Here we ask about the neural changes within these two attentional networks that may mediate enhanced attentional control.

Attentional bias modification alters intrinsic functional network of attentional control: A randomized controlled trial.

Attentional bias modification (ABM) alleviates anxiety by moderating biased attentional processing toward threat; however, its neural mechanisms remain unclear. We examined how ABM changes functional connectivity (FC) and functional network measures, leading to anxiety reduction.


The impact of stimulus uncertainty on attentional control.

We argue that stimulus uncertainty induces a cognitive state that can be linked to a concept that has been formerly described as 'curiosity' (Berlyne, 1949) - a state that motivates the agent to reduce the uncertainty by exploring it. In two attention filtering tasks we varied response compatibility and stimulus congruency. In addition, we manipulated whether stimulus congruency was predictable or random. In conditions with random presentation the impact of congruency on compatibility was more pronounced su...

Multiple attentional control settings at distinct locations without the confounding of repetition priming.

An attentional control setting (ACS), which is based on the task goal, induces involuntary attentional capture by a stimulus possessing a target-defining feature. It is unclear whether ACSs are maintained for multiple targets defined as conjunctions of a color and location. In the present study we examined the possibility of local ACSs for dual targets defined as combinations of color and location, using different paradigms: visual search in Experiment 1, and spatial cueing in Experiment 2. In Experiment 1,...

Light social drinkers are more distracted by irrelevant information from an induced attentional bias than heavy social drinkers.

It is well established that alcoholics and heavy social drinkers show a bias of attention towards alcohol-related items. Previous research suggests that there is a shared foundation of attentional bias, which is linked to attentional control settings. Specifically, attentional bias relates to a persistent selection of a Feature Search Mode which prioritises attentional bias-related information for selection and processing. However, no research has yet examined the effect of pre-existing biases on the develo...

Systems, variation, individuality and plant hormones.

Inter-individual variation in plants and particularly in hormone content, figures strongly in evolution and behaviour. Homo sapiens and Arabidopsis exhibit similar and substantial phenotypic and molecular variation. Whereas there is a very substantial degree of hormone variation in mankind, reports of inter-individual variation in plant hormone content are virtually absent but are likely to be as large if not larger than that in mankind. Reasons for this absence are discussed. Using an example of inter-indi...

Quality control limits: Are we setting them too wide?

Quality control charts (Levey Jennings Charts) are based on estimates of variation. There are two general approaches for estimating variation: those based on short-term variation and those based on long-term variation. We have observed that clinical laboratory science (CLS) tends to estimate variation using long-term variation but that most other fields use short-term variation. The objective of this study is to compare these two methods of estimating process variation, compare the accuracy of control limit...

Inhibitory attentional control in anxiety: Manipulating cognitive load in an antisaccade task.

Theorists have proposed that heightened anxiety vulnerability is characterised by reduced attentional control performance and have made the prediction in turn that elevating cognitive load will adversely impact attentional control performance for high anxious individuals to a greater degree than low anxious individuals. Critically however, existing attempts to test this prediction have been limited in their methodology and have presented inconsistent findings. Using a methodology capable of overcoming the l...

Selective Impairment of Attentional Networks of Executive Control in Middle-Aged Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

BACKGROUND The influence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on attention has been elusive. The Attention Network Test (ANT) was developed to evaluate the functioning of 3 individual attentional networks: orienting, alerting, and executive control. The purpose of this study was to use the ANT to assess attentional function and its sub-components in T2DM patients ages 40-60 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty T2DM patients and 30 healthy controls ages 40-60 years were recruited in this investigation. The ANT w...

The determinants of strategic thinking in preschool children.

Strategic thinking is an essential component of rational decision-making. However, little is known about its developmental aspects. Here we show that preschoolers can reason strategically in simple individual decisions that require anticipating a limited number of future decisions. This ability is transferred only partially to solve more complex individual decision problems and to efficiently interact with others. This ability is also more developed among older children in the classroom. Results indicate th...

Attentional bias to cannabis cues in cannabis users but not cocaine users.

Attentional bias to drug cues has been associated with the problematic use of drugs, including cannabis. The cognitive mechanisms underlying this bias are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cannabis-cue attentional bias is associated with disruptions in attentional processing. To this end, a novel cannabis-cue visual probe task that incorporated eye tracking technology and attention-based metrics derived from signal detection theory was administered to seventeen individ...

Metabolic Scope as a Proximate Constraint on Individual Behavioral Variation: Effects on Personality, Plasticity, and Predictability.

Behavioral ecologists have hypothesized that among-individual differences in resting metabolic rate (RMR) may predict consistent individual differences in mean values for costly behaviors or for behaviors that affect energy intake rate. This hypothesis has empirical support and presently attracts considerable attention, but, notably, it does not provide predictions for individual differences in (a) behavioral plasticity or (b) unexplained variation (residual variation from mean individual behavior, here ter...

Selective impairment of attentional set shifting in adults with ADHD.

Task switch protocols are frequently used in the assessment of cognitive control, both in clinical and non-clinical populations. These protocols frequently confound task switch and attentional set shift. The current study investigated the ability of adult ADHD patients to shift attentional set in the context of switching tasks.

Associations Between Control Beliefs and Response Time Inconsistency in Older Adults Vary as a Function of Attentional Task Demands.

Control beliefs are established correlates of cognitive aging. Despite recent demonstrations that response time inconsistency (RTI) represents a proxy for cognitive processing efficiency, few investigations have explored links between RTI and psychosocial correlates. We examined associations among RTI and control beliefs (perceived competence and locus of control) for two choice-response time (RT) tasks varying in their attentional demands.

Attentional capacities prior to drug exposure predict motivation to self-administer nicotine.

Nicotine can enhance attention and attribution of incentive salience to nicotine-associated stimuli. However, it is not clear whether inter-individual differences in attentional capacities prior to any exposure could play a role in vulnerability to nicotine self-administration. We further explored this vulnerability through pre-existing inter-individual differences in attention to a reward-predictive cue in drug-free animals.

A Longitudinal and Multidimensional Examination of the Associations Between Temperament and Self-Restraint During Toddlerhood.

Developing self-restraint, or the inhibition of behavior in response to a prohibition, is an important process during toddlerhood. The objective of this study was to gain a better understanding of individual differences in the development of self-restraint during toddlerhood by examining stable elements and growth of temperament (i.e., attentional control, behavioral inhibition, negative emotionality), general intelligence, and self-restraint. Participants were 412 same-sex twin pairs (approximately 90% Eur...

Winning or not losing? The impact of non-pain goal focus on attentional bias to learned pain signals.

Insights into the nature of cognitive bias, including attentional bias to threat signals, are considered pivotal to understanding (chronic) pain and related distress. It has been put forward that attention to pain-related threat is normally dynamic and relates to the motivational state of the individual. In this experiment we aimed (i) to replicate the finding that attentional bias for pain signals in healthy participants can be reduced when a non-pain goal is pursued, and (ii) to extend this finding by tak...

Assessing Feeding Preferences of a Consumer Guild: Partitioning Variation Among versus Within Species.

Interspecific variation in resource use is critical to understanding species diversity, coexistence, and ecosystem functioning. A growing body of research describes analogous intraspecific variation and its potential importance for population dynamics and community outcomes. However, the magnitude of intraspecific variation relative to interspecific variation in key dimensions of consumer-resource interactions remains unknown, hampering our understanding of the importance of this variation for population an...

Frontal EEG theta/beta ratio during mind wandering episodes.

In resting-state EEG, the ratio between frontal power in the slow theta frequency band and the fast beta frequency band (the theta/beta ratio, TBR) has previously been negatively related to attentional control. Also, increased theta and reduced beta power were observed during mind wandering (MW) compared to episodes of focused attention. Thus, increased resting-state frontal TBR could be related to MW, suggesting that previously observed relationships between TBR and attentional control could reflect MW epi...

Attention levels in young children who stutter.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS) differ in terms of attentional ability. Participants were 40 age- and gender-matched CWS and CWNS (aged between 72 and 120 months). Attentional ability was assessed using the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch), a clinical assessment battery comprising 13 attentional measures, assessing three areas of attention: selective attention, sustained attention, and attentional switchin...

Moderator Role of Looming Cognitive Style (LCS) in the Relationship Between Attentional Control and Anxiety: Difference Between Shifting and Focusing Dimensions.

Attentional control (AC) that is composed of shifting and focusing dimensions had been suggested as a transdiagnostic risk factor, associated with development and maintenance of various psychological disorders. In comparison, Looming Cognitive Style (LCS) had been documented as a trait-based, disorders-specific characteristic that is linked to high levels of subjectively felt anxiety. The present study investigated whether individual differences in LCS moderated the association of shifting and focusing with...

Visual Working Memory Load Disrupts Template-guided Attentional Selection during Visual Search.

Mental representations of target features (attentional templates) control the selection of candidate target objects in visual search. The question where templates are maintained remains controversial. We employed the N2pc component as an electrophysiological marker of template-guided target selection to investigate whether and under which conditions templates are held in visual working memory (vWM). In two experiments, participants memorized one or four shapes (low vs. high vWM load) before either being tes...

Attentional fluctuations induce shared variability in macaque primary visual cortex.

Variability in neuronal responses to identical stimuli is frequently correlated across a population. Attention is thought to reduce these correlations by suppressing noisy inputs shared by the population. However, even with precise control of the visual stimulus, the subject's attentional state varies across trials. While these state fluctuations are bound to induce some degree of correlated variability, it is currently unknown how strong their effect is, as previous studies generally do not dissociate chan...

Standing variation and the capacity for change: are endocrine phenotypes more variable than other traits?

Circulating steroid hormone levels exhibit high variation both within and between individuals, leading some to hypothesize that these phenotypes are more variable than other morphological, physiological, and behavioral traits. This should have profound implications for the evolution of steroid signaling systems, but few studies have examined how endocrine variation compares to that of other traits or differs among populations. Here we provide such an analysis by first exploring how variation in three measur...


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