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PubMed Journals Articles About "Clostridium Perfringens Epsilon Toxin Induces Blood Brain Barrier" RSS

07:15 EST 16th December 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin induces blood brain barrier" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 20,000+

Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin induces blood brain barrier permeability via caveolae-dependent transcytosis and requires expression of MAL.

Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ETX) is responsible for causing the economically devastating disease, enterotoxaemia, in livestock. It is well accepted that ETX causes blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability, however the mechanisms involved in this process are not well understood. Using in vivo and in vitro methods, we determined that ETX causes BBB permeability in mice by increasing caveolae-dependent transcytosis in brain endothelial cells. When mice are intravenously injected with ETX, robust ETX b...


Immunization with recombinant fusion of LTB and linear epitope (40-62) of epsilon toxin elicits protective immune response against the epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringens type D.

Epsilon toxin (Etx) produced by Clostridium perfringens types B and D, a major causative agent of enterotoxaemia causes significant economic losses to animal industry. Conventional vaccines against these pathogens generally employ formalin-inactivated culture supernatants. However, immunization with the culture supernatant and full length toxin subjects the animal to antigenic load and often have adverse effect due to incomplete inactivation of the toxins. In the present study, an epitope-based vaccine agai...

The pore structure of Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin.

Epsilon toxin (Etx), a potent pore forming toxin (PFT) produced by Clostridium perfringens, is responsible for the pathogenesis of enterotoxaemia of ruminants and has been suggested to play a role in multiple sclerosis in humans. Etx is a member of the aerolysin family of β-PFTs (aβ-PFTs). While the Etx soluble monomer structure was solved in 2004, Etx pore structure has remained elusive due to the difficulty of isolating the pore complex. Here we show the cryo-electron microscopy structure of Etx pore as...


Inactivated recombinant Escherichia coli as a candidate vaccine against Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin in sheep.

Clostridium perfringens type A is the causative agent of gas gangrene and gastroenteric ("yellow lamb disease") disease in ruminants, with C. perfringens alpha toxin (CPA) being the main virulence factor in the pathogenesis of these illnesses. In the present study, we have developed recombinant Escherichia coli bacterins expressing rCPA and used it to vaccinate rabbits and sheep. Doses of up to 200 μg of rCPA used for inoculation, induced 13,82 IU.mL of neutralizing antitoxin in rabbits, which is three tim...

Immunization of rabbits with recombinant Clostridium perfringens alpha toxins CPA-C and CTB-CPA-C in a bicistronic design expression system confers strong protection against challenge.

The Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin (CPA), encoded by the plc gene, is the causative pathogen of gas gangrene, which is a lethal infection. In this study, we used an E. coli system for the efficient production of recombinant proteins and developed a bicistronic design (BCD) expression construct consisting of two copies of the C-terminal (247-370) domain of the alpha toxin (CPA-C) in the first cistron, followed by Cholera Toxin B (CTB) linked with another two copies of CPA-C in the second cistron that is...

Diversity of CRISPR/Cas system in Clostridium perfringens.

Clostridium perfringens is an important pathogen of human and livestock infections, posing a threat to health. The horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of plasmids that carry toxin-related genes is involved in C. perfringens pathogenicity. The CRISPR/Cas system, which has been identified in a wide range of prokaryotes, provides acquired immunity against HGT. However, information about the CRISPR/Cas system in Clostridium perfringens is still limited. In this study, 111 C. perfringens strains with publicly availab...

silico design and in vitro analysis of a recombinant trivalent fusion protein candidate vaccine targeting virulence factor of Clostridium perfringens.

Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a multifactorial disease in broiler that is caused by colonization of Clostridium perfringens in their gastrointestinal tract. Recently several immunogenic proteins from virulent C. perfringens have been considered as vaccines to provide protection against NE. In this study, a novel trivalent fusion protein including immunogenic epitopes of three virulence factors of, NetB, alpha toxin and a metallopeptidase protein (NAM) was designed using in silico studies. Circular dichroism sp...

The Tcp plasmids of Clostridium perfringens require the resP gene to ensure stable inheritance.

Many of the disease-causing toxins of the pathogenic bacterium Clostridium perfringens are harboured on large, highly stable, conjugative plasmids. Previous work has established the requirement of a ParMRC-like partitioning system for plasmid maintenance, but little is known about other mechanisms used to ensure stable plasmid inheritance. The archetypal 47 kb Tcp plasmid, pCW3, encodes a gene, resP, whose putative product has sequence similarity to members of the serine recombinase family of site-specifi...

Intestinal Clostridium species lower host susceptibility to enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection.

Susceptibility to enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection varies among humans. The intestinal microbiota seems to play an essential role in host defense against EHEC, thus we hypothesized that indigenous bacteria, such as Clostridium ramosum and Clostridium perfringens, could influence susceptibility to EHEC infection. To evaluate the effect of indigenous bacteria on EHEC infection, germ-free mice were pre-colonized with each indigenous bacterium, and then infected with EHEC O157:H7. Pre-coloniz...

Occurrence and multilocus sequence typing of Clostridium perfringens isolated from retail duck products in Tai'an region, China.

Clostridium perfringens is an important zoonotic microorganism, which can cause diseases in animal and human under certain conditions. Contamination of C. perfringens in chicken and pork meat has been reported worldwide, but it is rarely reported in duck products. The current study was undertaken to investigate C. perfringens contamination in duck products from a large retail market in Tai'an region, China and the serotype distribution, antimicrobial resistance and genetic relatedness of the isolates. In to...

Cytosolic phospholipase A2 is a key regulator of blood-brain barrier function in epilepsy.

Blood-brain barrier dysfunction in epilepsy contributes to seizures and resistance to antiseizure drugs. Reports show that seizures increase brain glutamate levels, leading to barrier dysfunction. One component of barrier dysfunction is overexpression of the drug efflux transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Based on our previous studies, we hypothesized that glutamate released during seizures activates cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), resulting in P-gp and BCRP o...

Chipping Away at Blood-Brain-Barrier Modeling.

In this issue, Vatine et al. (2019) present a fully human blood-brain barrier chip that accurately predicts drug permeability and can be perfused with whole blood. Utilizing patient-derived tissue, they recapitulate disease-specific defects and establish a platform to advance drug screening and disease modeling.

Strategies used by bacterial pathogens to cross the blood-brain barrier.

The brain and meningeal spaces are well protected against microbial invasion by the skull, spine, meninges and cellular barriers at the blood-brain and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid interfaces. However, once in the bloodstream, a range of pathogenic bacteria are able to reach the brain and cause meningitis. Despite advances in antibacterial therapy, bacterial meningitis remains one of the most important infectious diseases worldwide. The most common causative bacteria in children and adults are Streptococcu...

Analyses of miRNA in the ileum of diarrheic piglets caused by Clostridium perfringens type C.

Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) type C is one of major pathogenic causing diarrhea and other intestinal inflammatory diseases in piglets, which seriously affects the healthy development of the swine industries. Studies have found that miRNAs play important roles in regulating piglet diarrhea challenged by pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. However, little is known miRNAs in the ileum of diarrheic piglets caused by C. perfringens type C. Therefore, we studied the expression profiles of the ileum miR...

Calcitriol protects the Blood-Brain Barrier integrity against ischemic stroke and reduces vasogenic brain edema via antioxidant and antiapoptotic actions in rats.

Vasogenic brain edema is the most important complication of ischemic stroke that aggravates primary brain injury. Ischemia-Reperfusion (IR)-induced Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) impairment limits the use of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA) by increasing the possibility of hemorrhagic transformation and contributing to vasogenic edema and neuroinflammation. This study examined the effects of post-ischemic treatment with calcitriol on cerebral infarction, vasogenic edema formation and BBB disrupti...

Acute cocaine administration alters permeability of blood-brain barrier in freely-moving rats- Evidence using miniaturized fluorescence microscopy.

Cocaine has a variety of negative effects on the central nervous system, including reports of decreased barrier function of brain microvascular endothelial cells. However, few studies have directly shown the effects of cocaine on blood-brain barrier (BBB) function in vivo. The miniature integrated fluorescence microscope (i.e., miniscope) technology was used to visualize cocaine-induced changes in BBB permeability in awake, freely-moving rats.

Development of a new serological assay for the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infections with prognostic value.

The most common hospital-acquired enteral infection is caused by Clostridium difficile. Unfortunately, Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are of high risk to recur and little is known about how to predict recurrences. Previous findings have shown that high risk for recurrence correlates with low levels of C. difficile toxin-A and -B specific antibodies suggesting the protective role of humoral immunity against bacterial virulence factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop an immunoassay, w...

Effect of Clostridium perfringens type C on TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway in piglet small intestines.

Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens), a Gram-positive bacterium, is one of the main causing piglet diarrhea, which leads serious economic loss in the world swine industries. Generally, the innate immune response plays a critical role in host defense against pathogen invasion. TLR4, a member of the TLR (Toll-like receptor) family, has been considered to implicate in the host immune responses and induce secretion of inflammatory cytokines during bacterial infection. However, little is clear about the effe...

Feed supplementation with inulin on broiler performance and meat quality challenged with Clostridium perfringens: Infection and prebiotic impacts.

Following the ban on the use of antibiotics as growth enhancers in 2006 by the European Union, alternative products have been sought. Inulin is a prebiotic that is found naturally in many plants. It reaches large intestine of animals unaltered, where it is fermented by beneficial bacteria that comprise the intestinal microbiota. Inulin also inhibits the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Consumption of inulin in chicken diets improves performance at slaughter; nevertheless, little is known about its effects on ...

Development and Cell Biology of the Blood-Brain Barrier.

The vertebrate vasculature displays high organotypic specialization, with the structure and function of blood vessels catering to the specific needs of each tissue. A unique feature of the central nervous system (CNS) vasculature is the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB regulates substance influx and efflux to maintain a homeostatic environment for proper brain function. Here, we review the development and cell biology of the BBB, focusing on the cellular and molecular regulation of barrier formation and t...

Protection of blood-brain barrier as a potential mechanism for enriched environments to improve cognitive impairment caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is a common pathophysiological basis for Alzheimer's Disease and vascular dementia in the early stages. It has been confirmed that blood-brain barrier (BBB) destruction is a key factor in CCH-related cognitive impairment. Here we explored the effects of an enriched environment (EE) intervention on CCH-induced BBB destruction and cognitive impairment, and the underlying mechanism.

Evaluation of the preventive and therapeutic effects of a recombinant vector co-expressing prostate-specific stem cell antigen (PSCA) and Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) on prostate cancer in rats.

The effects of Clostridium perfringens (C.perfringens) enterotoxin (CPE) and prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) on cancer prevention or treatment have been previously studied separately. For the first time, here we have elaborated a recombinant vector to co-express and study the cumulative effects of both of these factors on prostate cancer (PCa) in an animal model. The recombinant pBudCE4.1-cpe-PSCA vector was constructed in large scale. Rats were vaccinated by vector or vector plus chitosan nanoparticles b...

Bayesian inference for parameter estimation in lactoferrin-mediated iron transport across blood-brain barrier.

In neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, excessive irons as well as lactoferrin (Lf), but not transferrin (Tf), have been found in and around the affected regions of the brain. These evidences suggest that lactoferrin plays a critical role during neurodegenerative diseases, although Lf-mediated iron transport across blood-brain barrier (BBB) is negligible compared to that of transferrin in normal condition. However, the kinetics of lactoferrins and lactoferrin-mediated iron transpo...

Disturbed flow disrupts the blood-brain barrier in a 3D bifurcation model.

The effect of disturbed flow profiles on the endothelium have been studied extensively in systemic vasculature, but less is known about the response of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to these flow regimes. Here we investigate the effect of disturbed flow on the integrity of the BBB using a three-dimensional, perfusable bifurcation model consisting of a co-culture of endothelial cells with mural and glial cells. Experimental flow patterns predicted by computational fluid dynamics mimic in vivo flow regimes, s...

Human iPSC-Derived Blood-Brain Barrier Chips Enable Disease Modeling and Personalized Medicine Applications.

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) tightly regulates the entry of solutes from blood into the brain and is disrupted in several neurological diseases. Using Organ-Chip technology, we created an entirely human BBB-Chip with induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived brain microvascular endothelial-like cells (iBMECs), astrocytes, and neurons. The iBMECs formed a tight monolayer that expressed markers specific to brain vasculature. The BBB-Chip exhibited physiologically relevant transendothelial electrical resi...


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