PubMed Journals Articles About "Cognitive Control Training Impulsive Behavior" RSS

15:42 EST 11th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Cognitive Control Training Impulsive Behavior" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 27,000+

Reducing Impulsive Choice: V. The Role of Timing in Delay-Exposure Training.

Impulsive decision-making is common in addiction-related disorders, with some research suggesting it plays a causal role in their development. Therefore, reducing impulsive decision-making may prevent or reduce addiction-related behaviors. Recent research shows that prolonged experience with response-contingent delayed reward (delay exposure [DE] training) reduces impulsive choice in rats, but it is unclear what behavioral mechanisms underlie this effect. The present study evaluated whether improvements in ...

Impulsive choice does not predict binge-like eating in rats.

Binge eating disorder is an addiction-like disorder characterized by recurrent, excessive food consumption within discrete periods of time, and it has been linked to increased trait impulsivity. Within impulsivity components, while impulsive action was shown to predict binge-like and addictive-like eating, the role of impulsive choice is instead unknown. The goal of this study was to determine if impulsive choice predicted, or was altered by binge-like eating of a sugary, highly palatable diet. We utilized ...

Examining the effect of cue exposure and introspective responses to cues on impulsivity in restrained and unrestrained eaters.

The current study extends cue-reactivity research by evaluating impulsive valuation as an outcome of exposure to food cues. This study also separates introspection after viewing cues (e.g., responding to questions about craving and affect) from mere cue exposure, to examine if introspection changes self-regulation behaviors in response to food cues. Finally, we compared restrained and unrestrained eaters to ascertain the influence of motivation toward food on how cue-reactivity influences impulsive behavior...

Shifts in Frontal Asymmetry Underlying Impulsive and Controlled Decision-Making.

The frontal cortices are asymmetrically activated in impulsive and inhibitory action. However, no past work has examined shifts in frontal asymmetric activation during active impulse control or risk-taking behavior. The current study examined impulsive and controlled behavior in a behavioral risk-taking task (Balloon Analogue Risk Task) under alcohol or neutral cue exposure while EEG was recorded. Results revealed activity shifted towards greater relative left frontal activation on alcohol trials with impul...

Cognitive training: a new avenue in gambling disorder management?

Cognitive deficits are being robustly documented in gambling disorder. Cognitive training has been increasingly investigated as a treatment of substance use disorders. Four training components have been listed to date: cognitive bias, response inhibition, working memory, and goal-directed. This review aimed at the identification of use and efficacy findings in cognitive training in gambling disorder.

Frequency of resistance training does not affect inhibitory control or improve strength in well-trained young adults.

The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of resistance training frequency on cognitive inhibitory control in young adults with previous experience in the modality. Male participants (N = 36) were randomly placed into one of three experimental groups. Participants performed resistance training 1 (F1), 2 (F2), and 3 (F3) times per week for 24 weeks. The three groups performed exercises of equal intensity, volume-load, and rest duration. Cognitive inhibitory control (via Stroop test) was t...

Rational metareasoning and the plasticity of cognitive control.

The human brain has the impressive capacity to adapt how it processes information to high-level goals. While it is known that these cognitive control skills are malleable and can be improved through training, the underlying plasticity mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we develop and evaluate a model of how people learn when to exert cognitive control, which controlled process to use, and how much effort to exert. We derive this model from a general theory according to which the function of cognitive...

Virtual reality training to enhance behavior and cognitive function among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: brief report.

To examine the feasibility and efficacy of a combined motor-cognitive training using virtual reality to enhance behavior, cognitive function and dual-tasking in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

A randomised controlled trial of a walking training with simultaneous cognitive demand (dual task) in chronic stroke.

To evaluate the tolerability of, adherence to and efficacy of a community walking training programme with simultaneous cognitive demand (dual-task) compared to a control walking training programme without cognitive distraction.

How Music Impacts Visual Attention Training in Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study.

Music has been demonstrated to improve cognitive test performance in neuropsychiatric populations. However, the impact of music on cognitive training effects, and the importance of music preference, has yet to be studied. This is an essential oversight because many cognitive training programs play music in the background. We sought to determine if participant-preferred or random music would increase the efficacy of computer-based attention training (AT). Forty-eight patients with schizophrenia were randomly...

Long-term brain effects of N-back training: an fMRI study.

Neurobehavioral effects of cognitive training have become a popular research issue. Specifically, behavioral studies have demonstrated the long-term efficacy of cognitive training of working memory functions, but the neural basis for this training have been studied only at short-term. Using fMRI, we investigate the cerebral changes produced by brief single n-back training immediately and 5 weeks after finishing the training. We used the data from a sample of 52 participants who were assigned to either an e...

Consequence-Based Approach-Avoidance Training: A New and Improved Method for Changing Behavior.

The repeated performance of approach or avoidance actions in response to specific stimuli (e.g., alcoholic drinks) is often considered a most promising type of cognitive-bias modification that can reduce unwanted behavior (e.g., alcohol consumption). Unfortunately, approach-avoidance training sometimes fails to produce desired outcomes (e.g., in the context of unhealthy eating). We introduce a novel training task in which approach-avoidance actions are followed by affective consequences. Four experiments (t...

Cognitive Training Does Not Enhance General Cognition.

Due to potential theoretical and societal implications, cognitive training has been one of the most influential topics in psychology and neuroscience. The assumption behind cognitive training is that one's general cognitive ability can be enhanced by practicing cognitive tasks or intellectually demanding activities. The hundreds of studies published so far have provided mixed findings and systematic reviews have reached inconsistent conclusions. To resolve these discrepancies, we carried out several meta-an...

Affective traits of psychopathy are linked to white-matter abnormalities in impulsive male offenders.

Psychopathy is a personality disorder typified by lack of empathy and impulsive antisocial behavior. Psychopathic traits may partly relate to disrupted connections between brain regions. The aim of the present study was to link abnormalities in microstructural integrity of white-matter tracts to the severity of different psychopathic traits in 15 male offenders with impulse control problems and 10 without impulse control problems.

Effectiveness of a Personalized Brain-Computer Interface System for Cognitive Training in Healthy Elderly: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Cognitive training has been demonstrated to improve cognitive performance in older adults. To date, no study has explored personalized training that targets the brain activity of each individual.

Method effects of the relation between family history of alcoholism and parent reports of offspring impulsive behavior.

There is an extensive, albeit inconsistent, literature on the relation between parental alcoholism and offspring impulsive behavior. The reasons for this inconsistency are likely multiple but it seems probable that method effects due to different methodological approaches might explain some of the inconsistencies. Offspring behavior is typically assessed based on informant reports. However, no specific method has been demonstrated as optimal for analyzing informant reports, and conclusions may differ depend...

Cognitive bias modification as an add-on treatment in clinical depression: Results from a placebo-controlled, single-blinded randomized control trial.

Only 60% of depressed patients respond sufficiently to treatment, so there is a dire need for novel approaches to improve treatment effects. Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) may be an effective and easily implemented computerized add-on to treatment-as-usual. Therefore, we investigated the effects of a positivity-attention training and a positivity-approach training compared to control trainings.

The relationship between cognitive enrichment and cognitive control: A systematic investigation of environmental influences on development through socioeconomic status.

We measured the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on cognitive processes. We examined cognitive control, specifically working memory (WM), in a sample of N = 141 7- to 17-year-olds using rule-guided behavior tasks. Our hypothesis is based on computational modeling data that suggest that the development of flexible cognitive control requires variable experiences in which to implement rule-guided action. We found that not all experiences that correlated with SES in our sample impacted task performance, a...

Mindfulness and Cognitive Training in a CBT-resistant Patient With Gambling Disorder: A Combined Therapy to Enhance Self-control.

: Despite the major health consequences of problem gambling, such as suicide, over-indebtedness, delinquency, or family problems, there is currently no approved drug available for the treatment of problem gambling. The efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs) has been demonstrated repeatedly. However, some people seem resistant to conventional CBT alone. We present the case of a 59-year-old woman with a gambling disorder, who relapsed, despite a CBT-based intervention, and who then received a combi...

The Influence of Attentional Focus on Balance Control over Seven Days of Training.

This study examined the training effect of attentional focus (external focus, internal focus, or no focus instructions) on a dynamic balance task. Participants completed baseline balance testing, seven consecutive days of dynamic balance board training, and retention testing 24 hours after the last session. The novel finding of this study was the presence of a training effect on balance control when adopting an external focus relative to an internal focus or no focus instructions. Further, we report the un...

Cognitive Training Game Versus Action Videogame: Effects on Cognitive Functions in Older Adults.

The purpose of the study was to compare a cognitive training game, Kawashima Brain Training (KBT), and an action videogame, Super Mario Bros (SMB), in their effects on cognitive function in older adults.

The influence of short-term language-switching training on the plasticity of the cognitive control mechanism in bilingual word production.

This study examined the effect of short-term language-switching training on the cognitive control mechanism in bilingual word production. In two experiments, two groups of relatively proficient but unbalanced Chinese-English bilinguals performed a cued picture-naming task, in which they switched between their two languages. On two consecutive days, the participants took part in four sessions. The same procedure was employed on 2 days in Experiment 1, whereas the cue-language mapping was reversed on Day 2 ...

Review of stability and stabilization for impulsive delayed systems.

This paper reviews some recent works on impulsive delayed systems (IDSs). The prime focus is the fundamental results and recent progress in theory and applications. After reviewing the relative literatures, this paper provides a comprehensive and intuitive overview of IDSs. Five aspects of IDSs are surveyed including basic theory, stability analysis, impulsive control, impulsive perturbation, and delayed impulses. Then the research prospect is given, which provides a reference for further study of IDSs theo...

Adaptive Control and the Avoidance of Cognitive Control Demands Across Development.

Young adults adaptively coordinate their behavior to avoid demands placed on cognitive control. We investigated how this adaptive coordination develops by having 6-7- and 11-12-year-olds and young adults complete a demand selection task, in which participants could select between two tasks that varied in cognitive control demands via differences in rule switch frequency. Adults and older children exhibited significant preference for selecting the less demanding task, as well as a metacognitive signal guidin...

Cognitive training for modifying interpretation and attention bias in depression: Relevance to mood improvement and implications for cognitive intervention in depression.

Depressed individuals interpret ambiguous information more negatively and this has been suggested a central component in cognitive models of depression. In this study we investigated the effectiveness of the interpretation modification training on modifying interpretation bias in depression and its association with symptoms reduction. In a double-blind, randomized controlled design, twenty-two depressed individuals (mean age = 19.86, SD = 1.16) were randomly assigned to the experimental and control ...

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