PubMed Journals Articles About "Cognitive Control Training Impulsive Behavior" RSS

15:57 EDT 25th June 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Cognitive Control Training Impulsive Behavior" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 26,000+

Linking Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat loci to human male impulsive aggression.

Men are more susceptible to impulsive behavior than women. Epidemiological studies revealed that the impulsive aggressive behavior is affected by genetic factors, and the male-specific Y chromosome plays an important role in this behavior. In this study, we investigated the association between the impulsive aggressive behavior and Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) loci.

Reducing Impulsive Choice: V. The Role of Timing in Delay-Exposure Training.

Impulsive decision-making is common in addiction-related disorders, with some research suggesting it plays a causal role in their development. Therefore, reducing impulsive decision-making may prevent or reduce addiction-related behaviors. Recent research shows that prolonged experience with response-contingent delayed reward (delay exposure [DE] training) reduces impulsive choice in rats, but it is unclear what behavioral mechanisms underlie this effect. The present study evaluated whether improvements in ...

Speed of processing training results in lower risk of dementia.

Cognitive training improves cognitive performance and delays functional impairment, but its effects on dementia are not known. We examined whether three different types of cognitive training lowered the risk of dementia across 10 years of follow-up relative to control and if greater number of training sessions attended was associated with lower dementia risk.

Cognitive control training for emotion-related impulsivity.

Many forms of psychopathology are tied to a heightened tendency to respond impulsively to strong emotions, and this tendency, in turn, is closely tied to problems with cognitive control. The goal of the present study was to test whether a two-week, six-session cognitive control training program is efficacious in reducing emotion-related impulsivity. Participants (N = 52) reporting elevated scores on an emotion-related impulsivity measure completed cognitive control training targeting working memory and ...

Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Aggression, Impulsivity, and History of Other- and Self-Directed Aggression.

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is highly prevalent, with an estimated occurrence in the United States of more than 1.3 million per year. While one consequence of mTBI is impulsive aggressive behavior, very few studies have examined the relationship between history of mTBI and aggressive behavior in impulsively aggressive individuals. The authors examined the relationship between history of mTBI in a healthy control group (HC; N=453), a control group with psychiatric disorders (PC; N=486), and individual...

Rational metareasoning and the plasticity of cognitive control.

The human brain has the impressive capacity to adapt how it processes information to high-level goals. While it is known that these cognitive control skills are malleable and can be improved through training, the underlying plasticity mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we develop and evaluate a model of how people learn when to exert cognitive control, which controlled process to use, and how much effort to exert. We derive this model from a general theory according to which the function of cognitive...

Virtual reality training to enhance behavior and cognitive function among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: brief report.

To examine the feasibility and efficacy of a combined motor-cognitive training using virtual reality to enhance behavior, cognitive function and dual-tasking in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

Systemic administration of guanfacine improves food-motivated impulsive choice behavior primarily via direct stimulation of postsynaptic α-adrenergic receptors in rats.

Impulsive choice behavior, which can be assessed using the delay discounting task, is a characteristic of various psychiatric disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Guanfacine is a selective α-adrenergic receptor agonist that is clinically effective in treating ADHD. However, there is no clear evidence that systemic guanfacine administration reduces impulsive choice behavior in the delay discounting task in rats. In the present study, we examined the effect of systemic guanfa...

Training and transfer effects of interference control training in children and young adults.

Many studies have examined transfer of working memory (WM) training improvements to non-trained cognitive tasks, with largely disappointing results. Interference control has been suggested to be a central feature of WM. However, studies examining transfer effects of a training program exclusively and directly targeting interference control are lacking. Forty-one 10‒12 year-old children and 47 19‒24 year-old adults were assigned to an adaptive interference control training or active control condition. Tr...

No evidence for common processes of cognitive control and self-control.

Cognitive control and self-control are often used as interchangeable terms. Both terms refer to the ability to pursue long-term goals, but the types of controlled behavior that are typically associated with these terms differ, at least superficially. Cognitive control is observed in the control of attention and the overcoming of habitual responses, while self-control is observed in resistance to short-term impulses and temptations. Evidence from clinical studies and neuroimaging studies suggests that below ...

Balance and Mobility Training With or Without Simultaneous Cognitive Training Reduces Attention Demand But Does Not Improve Obstacle Clearance in Older Adults.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether balance and mobility training (BMT) or balance and mobility plus cognitive training (BMT + C) would improve obstacle clearance and reaction time (RT); whether further improvements would be exposed in the BMT + C group relative to the BMT group; and whether possible improvements would be sustained at the follow-up. Healthy older adults were allocated to the BMT (n = 15; age: 70.2 ± 3.2), BMT + C (n = 14; age: 68.7 ± 5.5), or con...

Cognitive judgement bias is associated with frequency of anticipatory behavior in bottlenose dolphins.

Many animals display a suite of increased vigilance and/or activity responses in relation to upcoming events, termed "anticipatory behavior." Anticipatory behavior toward positive events has been suggested as a cross-species measure of affective state as it likely reflects the balance of the reward-sensitivity system: various studies suggest that animals in poorer welfare situations show higher or excessive levels of anticipation for positive events. Another tool for evaluating animals' affective state is c...

On the Role of Cognitive Abilities in Second Language Vowel Learning.

This study investigated the role of different cognitive abilities-inhibitory control, attention control, phonological short-term memory (PSTM), and acoustic short-term memory (AM)-in second language (L2) vowel learning. The participants were 40 Azerbaijani learners of Standard Southern British English. Their perception of L2 vowels was tested through a perceptual discrimination task before and after five sessions of high-variability phonetic training. Inhibitory control was significantly correlated with gai...

Affective traits of psychopathy are linked to white-matter abnormalities in impulsive male offenders.

Psychopathy is a personality disorder typified by lack of empathy and impulsive antisocial behavior. Psychopathic traits may partly relate to disrupted connections between brain regions. The aim of the present study was to link abnormalities in microstructural integrity of white-matter tracts to the severity of different psychopathic traits in 15 male offenders with impulse control problems and 10 without impulse control problems.

Cognitive bias modification as an add-on treatment in clinical depression: Results from a placebo-controlled, single-blinded randomized control trial.

Only 60% of depressed patients respond sufficiently to treatment, so there is a dire need for novel approaches to improve treatment effects. Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) may be an effective and easily implemented computerized add-on to treatment-as-usual. Therefore, we investigated the effects of a positivity-attention training and a positivity-approach training compared to control trainings.

Do cognitive deficits predict negative emotionality and aggression in schizophrenia?

Schizophrenia is associated with an elevated risk of aggression. Cognitive deficits have been associated with inpatient aggression and future violence. The relationship between cognitive deficits and violent behavior has however been inconsistent across studies. In addition, studies have failed to inform how cognitive deficits may contribute to aggression in schizophrenia. The current study examined the association of cognitive deficits with schizophrenia-related aggression and violent offending. It also ex...

Higher-order cognitive training effects on processing speed-related neural activity: a randomized trial.

Higher-order cognitive training has shown to enhance performance in older adults, but the neural mechanisms underlying performance enhancement have yet to be fully disambiguated. This randomized trial examined changes in processing speed and processing speed-related neural activity in older participants (57-71 years of age) who underwent cognitive training (CT, N = 12) compared with wait-listed (WLC, N = 15) or exercise-training active (AC, N = 14) controls. The cognitive training taught cognitive contr...

The efficacy of Motivational Intervention and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pathological Gambling.

The aim of the current study is to determine the effectiveness of an individual psychological intervention based on the motivational interview and cognitive-behavioral therapy for the treatment of pathological gambling. A sample of 18 participants, diagnosed of pathological gambling and without any other associated comorbidity, were assessed, attended at the publicly-funded Gambling and Behavioral Addictions Unit (Consorci Sanitari de Terrassa). Median age was 46 years (SD = 12). All the patients achieved a...

Anatomical and functional changes in the brain after simultaneous interpreting training: A longitudinal study.

In the recent literature on bilingualism, a lively debate has arisen about the long-term effects of bilingualism on cognition and the brain. These studies yield inconsistent results, in part because they rely on comparisons between bilingual and monolingual control groups that may also differ on other variables. In the present neuroimaging study, we adopted a longitudinal design, assessing the long-term anatomical and cognitive effects of an extreme form of bilingualism, namely simultaneous interpreting. We...

The Influence of Attentional Focus on Balance Control over Seven Days of Training.

This study examined the training effect of attentional focus (external focus, internal focus, or no focus instructions) on a dynamic balance task. Participants completed baseline balance testing, seven consecutive days of dynamic balance board training, and retention testing 24 hours after the last session. The novel finding of this study was the presence of a training effect on balance control when adopting an external focus relative to an internal focus or no focus instructions. Further, we report the un...

Ventral striatal D2/3 receptor availability is associated with impulsive choice behavior as well aslimbic corticostriatal connectivity.

Low dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the nucleus accumbens (NAcb) shell is associated with highly-impulsive behavior in rats, as measured by premature responses in a cued attentional task. However, it is unclear whether dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the NAcb is equally linked to intolerance for delayed rewards, a related form of impulsivity.

Training Cognitive Control to Reduce Emotional Vulnerability in Breast Cancer.

Breast cancer enhances anxiety and depressive vulnerability, profoundly impairing the quality of life in survivors. Hinging on recent research that training attentional control can reduce emotional vulnerability, we assess how improving cognitive function could reduce emotional vulnerability in female survivors of breast cancer.

Adaptive Control and the Avoidance of Cognitive Control Demands Across Development.

Young adults adaptively coordinate their behavior to avoid demands placed on cognitive control. We investigated how this adaptive coordination develops by having 6-7- and 11-12-year-olds and young adults complete a demand selection task, in which participants could select between two tasks that varied in cognitive control demands via differences in rule switch frequency. Adults and older children exhibited significant preference for selecting the less demanding task, as well as a metacognitive signal guidin...

Psychosocial impairment in DSM-5 intermittent explosive disorder.

The purpose of this study was to document the functional severity of DSM-5 IED in a clinical research sample. IED and control groups were compared on psychosocial functioning, life satisfaction, and on a variety of cognitive and behavioral issues. IED study participants reported significantly worse psychosocial function, quality of life, and higher job dysfunction than both psychiatric and healthy control study participants. The presence of DSM-5 IED is associated with significant psychosocial and functiona...

Self-confidence and affect responses to short-term sprint interval training.

The study aimed to investigate the effects of repeated sprint (RS) training on somatic anxiety (SA), cognitive anxiety (CA), self-confidence (SC), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and repeated sprint ability (RSA) indicators in elite young soccer players. Thirty elite soccer players in the first football league (age: 17.8±0.9years) volunteered to participate in this study. They were randomly assigned to one of two groups: a repeated sprint training group (RST-G; n=15) and a control group (CON-G; n=15). R...

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