PubMed Journals Articles About "Cognitive Control Training Impulsive Behavior" RSS

11:41 EDT 18th September 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Cognitive Control Training Impulsive Behavior" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 27,000+

Reducing Impulsive Choice: V. The Role of Timing in Delay-Exposure Training.

Impulsive decision-making is common in addiction-related disorders, with some research suggesting it plays a causal role in their development. Therefore, reducing impulsive decision-making may prevent or reduce addiction-related behaviors. Recent research shows that prolonged experience with response-contingent delayed reward (delay exposure [DE] training) reduces impulsive choice in rats, but it is unclear what behavioral mechanisms underlie this effect. The present study evaluated whether improvements in ...

Cognitive control training for emotion-related impulsivity.

Many forms of psychopathology are tied to a heightened tendency to respond impulsively to strong emotions, and this tendency, in turn, is closely tied to problems with cognitive control. The goal of the present study was to test whether a two-week, six-session cognitive control training program is efficacious in reducing emotion-related impulsivity. Participants (N = 52) reporting elevated scores on an emotion-related impulsivity measure completed cognitive control training targeting working memory and ...

Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Aggression, Impulsivity, and History of Other- and Self-Directed Aggression.

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is highly prevalent, with an estimated occurrence in the United States of more than 1.3 million per year. While one consequence of mTBI is impulsive aggressive behavior, very few studies have examined the relationship between history of mTBI and aggressive behavior in impulsively aggressive individuals. The authors examined the relationship between history of mTBI in a healthy control group (HC; N=453), a control group with psychiatric disorders (PC; N=486), and individual...

Rational metareasoning and the plasticity of cognitive control.

The human brain has the impressive capacity to adapt how it processes information to high-level goals. While it is known that these cognitive control skills are malleable and can be improved through training, the underlying plasticity mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we develop and evaluate a model of how people learn when to exert cognitive control, which controlled process to use, and how much effort to exert. We derive this model from a general theory according to which the function of cognitive...

Virtual reality training to enhance behavior and cognitive function among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: brief report.

To examine the feasibility and efficacy of a combined motor-cognitive training using virtual reality to enhance behavior, cognitive function and dual-tasking in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

Systemic administration of guanfacine improves food-motivated impulsive choice behavior primarily via direct stimulation of postsynaptic α-adrenergic receptors in rats.

Impulsive choice behavior, which can be assessed using the delay discounting task, is a characteristic of various psychiatric disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Guanfacine is a selective α-adrenergic receptor agonist that is clinically effective in treating ADHD. However, there is no clear evidence that systemic guanfacine administration reduces impulsive choice behavior in the delay discounting task in rats. In the present study, we examined the effect of systemic guanfa...

Long-term brain effects of N-back training: an fMRI study.

Neurobehavioral effects of cognitive training have become a popular research issue. Specifically, behavioral studies have demonstrated the long-term efficacy of cognitive training of working memory functions, but the neural basis for this training have been studied only at short-term. Using fMRI, we investigate the cerebral changes produced by brief single n-back training immediately and 5 weeks after finishing the training. We used the data from a sample of 52 participants who were assigned to either an e...

Training and transfer effects of interference control training in children and young adults.

Many studies have examined transfer of working memory (WM) training improvements to non-trained cognitive tasks, with largely disappointing results. Interference control has been suggested to be a central feature of WM. However, studies examining transfer effects of a training program exclusively and directly targeting interference control are lacking. Forty-one 10‒12 year-old children and 47 19‒24 year-old adults were assigned to an adaptive interference control training or active control condition. Tr...

On the Role of Cognitive Abilities in Second Language Vowel Learning.

This study investigated the role of different cognitive abilities-inhibitory control, attention control, phonological short-term memory (PSTM), and acoustic short-term memory (AM)-in second language (L2) vowel learning. The participants were 40 Azerbaijani learners of Standard Southern British English. Their perception of L2 vowels was tested through a perceptual discrimination task before and after five sessions of high-variability phonetic training. Inhibitory control was significantly correlated with gai...

Affective traits of psychopathy are linked to white-matter abnormalities in impulsive male offenders.

Psychopathy is a personality disorder typified by lack of empathy and impulsive antisocial behavior. Psychopathic traits may partly relate to disrupted connections between brain regions. The aim of the present study was to link abnormalities in microstructural integrity of white-matter tracts to the severity of different psychopathic traits in 15 male offenders with impulse control problems and 10 without impulse control problems.

Method effects of the relation between family history of alcoholism and parent reports of offspring impulsive behavior.

There is an extensive, albeit inconsistent, literature on the relation between parental alcoholism and offspring impulsive behavior. The reasons for this inconsistency are likely multiple but it seems probable that method effects due to different methodological approaches might explain some of the inconsistencies. Offspring behavior is typically assessed based on informant reports. However, no specific method has been demonstrated as optimal for analyzing informant reports, and conclusions may differ depend...

Cognitive bias modification as an add-on treatment in clinical depression: Results from a placebo-controlled, single-blinded randomized control trial.

Only 60% of depressed patients respond sufficiently to treatment, so there is a dire need for novel approaches to improve treatment effects. Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) may be an effective and easily implemented computerized add-on to treatment-as-usual. Therefore, we investigated the effects of a positivity-attention training and a positivity-approach training compared to control trainings.

Mindfulness and Cognitive Training in a CBT-resistant Patient With Gambling Disorder: A Combined Therapy to Enhance Self-control.

: Despite the major health consequences of problem gambling, such as suicide, over-indebtedness, delinquency, or family problems, there is currently no approved drug available for the treatment of problem gambling. The efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs) has been demonstrated repeatedly. However, some people seem resistant to conventional CBT alone. We present the case of a 59-year-old woman with a gambling disorder, who relapsed, despite a CBT-based intervention, and who then received a combi...

The Influence of Attentional Focus on Balance Control over Seven Days of Training.

This study examined the training effect of attentional focus (external focus, internal focus, or no focus instructions) on a dynamic balance task. Participants completed baseline balance testing, seven consecutive days of dynamic balance board training, and retention testing 24 hours after the last session. The novel finding of this study was the presence of a training effect on balance control when adopting an external focus relative to an internal focus or no focus instructions. Further, we report the un...

Ventral striatal D2/3 receptor availability is associated with impulsive choice behavior as well aslimbic corticostriatal connectivity.

Low dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the nucleus accumbens (NAcb) shell is associated with highly-impulsive behavior in rats, as measured by premature responses in a cued attentional task. However, it is unclear whether dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the NAcb is equally linked to intolerance for delayed rewards, a related form of impulsivity.

Adaptive Control and the Avoidance of Cognitive Control Demands Across Development.

Young adults adaptively coordinate their behavior to avoid demands placed on cognitive control. We investigated how this adaptive coordination develops by having 6-7- and 11-12-year-olds and young adults complete a demand selection task, in which participants could select between two tasks that varied in cognitive control demands via differences in rule switch frequency. Adults and older children exhibited significant preference for selecting the less demanding task, as well as a metacognitive signal guidin...

Training Cognitive Control to Reduce Emotional Vulnerability in Breast Cancer.

Breast cancer enhances anxiety and depressive vulnerability, profoundly impairing the quality of life in survivors. Hinging on recent research that training attentional control can reduce emotional vulnerability, we assess how improving cognitive function could reduce emotional vulnerability in female survivors of breast cancer.

Psychosocial impairment in DSM-5 intermittent explosive disorder.

The purpose of this study was to document the functional severity of DSM-5 IED in a clinical research sample. IED and control groups were compared on psychosocial functioning, life satisfaction, and on a variety of cognitive and behavioral issues. IED study participants reported significantly worse psychosocial function, quality of life, and higher job dysfunction than both psychiatric and healthy control study participants. The presence of DSM-5 IED is associated with significant psychosocial and functiona...

A novel approach to challenging OCD related beliefs using a mobile-app: An exploratory study.

According to cognitive models, obsessive compulsive symptoms result from catastrophic misinterpretations of commonly occurring intrusive experiences and the use of counterproductive strategies to manage them. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) related beliefs such as inflated responsibility, importance of thoughts and perfectionism increases the likelihood of such misinterpretations. Consistent with a growing body of literature supporting the usefulness of mobile delivered technologies in fostering cogniti...

Effects of cognitive-motor dual-task training combined with auditory motor synchronization training on cognitive functioning in individuals with chronic stroke: A pilot randomized controlled trial.

Preservation and enhancement of cognitive function are essential for the restoration of functional abilities and independence following stroke. While cognitive-motor dual-task training (CMDT) has been utilized in rehabilitation settings, many patients with stroke experience impairments in cognitive function that can interfere with dual-task performance. In the present study, we investigated the effects of CMDT combined with auditory motor synchronization training (AMST) utilizing rhythmic cues on cognitive ...

Neural systems of cognitive demand avoidance.

Cognitive effort is typically aversive, evident in people's tendency to avoid cognitively demanding tasks. The 'cost of control' hypothesis suggests that engagement of cognitive control systems of the brain makes a task costly and the currency of that cost is a reduction in anticipated rewards. However, prior studies have relied on binary hard versus easy task subtractions to manipulate cognitive effort and so have not tested this hypothesis in "dose-response" fashion. In a sample of 50 participants, we par...

Effect of interactive cognitive motor training on gait and balance among older adults: A randomized controlled trial.

Aging is a normal degenerative process that results in a decline in the gait and balance performance of older adults. Interactive cognitive motor training is an intervention that integrates cognitive and motor tasks to promote individuals' physical and cognitive fall risk factors. However, the additive effects of the interactive cognitive motor training on objective quantitative data and comprehensive descriptions of gait and balance warrants further investigation.

Effects of Different Cognitive Trainings on Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly: A One-Year Longitudinal Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Study.

BACKGROUND Cognitive training has been focused on the interventions of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) in recent years, with poor understanding. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study participants with aMCI were screened in a previous intervention trial. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was adopted to investigate effects of single-domain cognitive training (SDCT) and multi-domain cognitive training (MDCT) on aMCI and to explore potential mechanisms. RESULTS There were significant differences i...

Tool-use training temporarily enhances cognitive performance in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

Tool use relies on numerous cognitive functions, including sustained attention and understanding of causality. In this study, we investigated the effects of tool-use training on cognitive performance in primates. Specifically, we applied the Primate Cognition Test Battery to three long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) at different stages of a training procedure that consisted of using a rake to retrieve out-of-reach food items. In addition, we evaluated a control group (n = 3) performing a grasping...

The Effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills Training Group Vs. Cognitive Therapy Group on Reducing Depression and Suicide Attempts for Borderline Personality Disorder in Taiwan.

Effectiveness of the condensed Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills Training Group (DBTSTG) was compared to the Cognitive Therapy Group (CTG) in reducing depression and suicide reattempt, and modifying emotion regulation strategies among those with borderline personality disorder (BPD).

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