PubMed Journals Articles About "Craving Manipulation Cocaine Placebo Cocaine Unspecified" RSS

22:33 EDT 15th June 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Craving Manipulation Cocaine Placebo Cocaine Unspecified" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 1,900+

Relapse to cocaine use persists following extinction of drug-primed craving.

Craving often precedes relapse into cocaine addiction. This explains why considerable research effort is being expended to try to develop anti-craving strategies for relapse prevention. Recently, we discovered using the classic reinstatement model of cocaine craving that the reinstating or priming effect of cocaine can be extinguished with repeated priming in rats - a phenomenon dubbed extinction of cocaine priming because it is thought to involve extinction of the conditioned interoceptive cues of the drug...

Craving in crack cocaine users according to individual and behavioral characteristics.

to analyze variation in craving levels according to individual and behavioral characteristics of crack cocaine users at two public treatment services in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

The effect of N-acetylcysteine and working memory training on neural mechanisms of working memory and cue reactivity in regular cocaine users.

The current study investigated the combined effects of N-acetylcysteine and working memory (WM) training on behavioral and neural mechanisms of cue reactivity and WM in cocaine users in a randomized, double-blind design. Twenty-four of 38 cocaine-using men completed a 25-day treatment with either 2400 mg/day NAC or placebo. Both groups performed WM-training. During pre- and post-test lab-visits, neural mechanisms of cue reactivity and WM, and cue-induced craving and WM performance were assessed. Additiona...

Using a data science approach to predict cocaine use frequency from depressive symptoms.

Depressive symptoms may contribute to cocaine use. However, tests of the relationship between depression and severity of cocaine use have produced mixed results, possibly due to heterogeneity in individual symptoms of depression. Our goal was to establish which symptoms of depression are most strongly related to frequency of cocaine use (one aspect of severity) in a large sample of current cocaine users. We utilized generalized additive modeling to provide data-driven exploration of the relationships betwee...

Recent cocaine use and the incidence of hemodynamic events during general anesthesia: A retrospective cohort study.

To evaluate the intraoperative hemodynamics and medication requirements of cocaine-positive patients compared to matched cocaine-negative controls.

Cocaine Hydroxy Metabolites in Hair: Indicators for Cocaine Use Versus External Contamination☆.

Given that external contamination must be considered in hair analysis, there is still a demand for reliable tools to differentiate between incorporation of drugs into the hair as a result of drug consumption and of the hair shaft by external contamination. With the aim of establishing alternative discrimination parameters, some of the hydroxy metabolites of cocaine i.e., para- and meta-hydroxycocaine and para- and meta-hydroxybenzoylecgonine were measured together with cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene...

Neuroactive steroid levels and cocaine use chronicity in men and women with cocaine use disorder receiving progesterone or placebo.

Neuroactive steroids (NAS) may play a role in addiction, with observed increases in response to acute stress and drug use, but decreases with chronic substance use, suggesting that NAS neuroadaptations may occur with chronic substance use. However, levels of NAS in addicted individuals have not been systematically examined. Here, we evaluated a panel of NAS in men and women with cocaine use disorder (CUD) who participated in a clinical laboratory study of progesterone.

Label-free cocaine aptasensor based on a long-period fiber grating.

In this Letter, we combined a promising bioreceptor, a cocaine aptamer MN6, with an ultrasensitive optical platform long-period fiber grating (LPFG) to create a new cocaine biosensor. The cocaine induces a conformational rearrangement of the aptamer which changes the refractive index around the LPFG producing a measurable shift of the transmission spectrum. We were able to track subtle interaction between the receptor and cocaine molecules over a concentration range of 25 to 100 μM. The presented biosenso...

Making risky decisions to take drug: Effects of cocaine abstinence in cocaine users.

Risky decision-making is characteristic of drug users, but little is known about the effects of circumstances, such as abstinence, on risky choice behavior in human drug users. We hypothesized that cocaine users would make more risky choices for cocaine (defined as taking a chance to receive a large number of cocaine doses as opposed to choosing to receive a fixed amount of cocaine) after 3 or 7 days of cocaine abstinence, compared to 1 day of cocaine abstinence. Six male nontreatment-seeking current co...

The negative allosteric modulator of mGluR5, MPEP, potentiates the rewarding properties of cocaine in priming-induced reinstatement of CPP.

Cocaine addiction is a chronic disorder with high relapse rates; therefore, understanding the neuronal mechanisms underlying drug-seeking during relapse is a priority to develop targeted pharmacotherapy. The metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) seems to be involved in the reinstatement induced by cocaine-associated cues. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of MPEP, a negative allosteric modulator of mGluR5, in attenuating or potentiating the reinstatement induced by priming do...

Cocaine relapse and health-related quality of life: a 23 weeks study.

Cocaine dependence is a disorder where relapses are frequently presented and many factors are involved. Furthermore, cocaine dependence is associated with poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes. This study aims to explore perceived HRQoL as an indicator of drug relapse in cocaine-dependent patients (CDP).

Forensic Drug Profile: Cocaethylene.

This article is intended as a brief review or primer about cocaethylene (CE), a pharmacologically active substance formed in the body when a person co-ingests ethanol and cocaine. Reference books widely used in forensic toxicology contain scant information about CE, even though this cocaine metabolite is commonly encountered in routine casework. CE and cocaine are equi-effective at blocking the reuptake of dopamine at receptor sites, thus reinforcing the stimulant effects of the neurotransmitter. In some an...

Cocaine Positivity in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A True or False Association.

Every year, more than 500,000 US Emergency Department visits are associated with cocaine use. People who use cocaine tend to have a lower incidence of true ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Role of the orbitofrontal cortex and the dorsal striatum in incentive motivation for cocaine.

Drug addiction involves increased incentive motivation for drug. Intermittent access to cocaine (IntA; 5-6 minutes ON, 25-26 minutes OFF, for 5-6 hours/session) enhances motivation to take the drug. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and the dorsal striatum (DS) are part of a corticolimbic circuit that encodes incentive value and regulates reward-directed behaviour. We predicted that inactivation of the OFC, DS or both suppresses incentive motivation for cocaine after IntA experience. Male Wistar rats had...

Cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization is greater in adolescent than in adult mice and heightens cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in adolescents.

Adolescents are more sensitive than adults to the neural and behavioral effects of psychostimulants, and exhibit greater vulnerability to drug abuse, dependence or relapse into these conditions. We have reported that cocaine pretreatment during adolescence promotes the expression of behavioral sensitization to a greater extent than when the pretreatment occurs at adulthood. Behavioral sensitization has been associated to the transition from drug use to addiction and is postulated to indicate heightened sens...

Enhanced toxicity from powder cocaine use in comparison to crack cocaine use - an observational study in the intensive care unit.

Neuronal HMGB1 in nucleus accumbens regulates cocaine reward memory.

Cocaine is a common abused drug that can induce abnormal synaptic and immune responses in the central nervous system (CNS). High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is one kind of inflammatory molecules that is expressed both on neurons and immune cells. Previous studies of HMGB1 in the CNS have largely focused on immune function, and the role of HMGB1 in neurons and cocaine addiction remains unknown. Here, we show that cocaine exposure induced the translocation and release of HMGB1 in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) ...

State-Dependent Effects of Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Continuous Thetaburst Stimulation on Cocaine Cue Reactivity in Chronic Cocaine Users.

Cue-induced craving is a significant barrier to obtaining abstinence from cocaine. Neuroimaging research has shown that cocaine cue exposure evokes elevated activity in a network of frontal-striatal brain regions involved in drug craving and drug seeking. Prior research from our laboratory has demonstrated that when targeted at the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS), an inhibitory form of non-invasive brain stimulation, can decrease drug cue-related activity in the st...

Genome-wide DNA methylation profile in the peripheral blood of cocaine and crack dependents.

Cocaine use disorders (CUDs) represent a major public health problem in many countries. To better understand the interaction between the environmental modulations and phenotype, the aim of the present study was to investigate the DNA methylation pattern of CUD patients, who had concomitant cocaine and crack dependence, and healthy controls.

Changes in the prevalence and correlates of cocaine use and cocaine use disorder in the United States, 2001-2002 and 2012-2013.

To present nationally representative data on changes in the prevalences of 12-month cocaine use, cocaine use disorder (CocUD) and 12-month CocUD among 12-month cocaine users between 2001 and 2002 and 2012-2013. Data were derived from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and the 2012-2013 NESARC-III. Between 2001 and 2002 and 2012-2013, prevalences of 12-month cocaine use and DSM-IV CocUD significantly increased and 12-month CocUD among 12-month users signifi...

Plasticity at Thalamo-amygdala Synapses Regulates Cocaine-Cue Memory Formation and Extinction.

Repeated drug use has long-lasting effects on plasticity throughout the brain's reward and memory systems. Environmental cues that are associated with drugs of abuse can elicit craving and relapse, but the neural circuits responsible for driving drug-cue-related behaviors have not been well delineated, creating a hurdle for the development of effective relapse prevention therapies. In this study, we used a cocaine+cue self-administration paradigm followed by cue re-exposure to establish that the strength of...

Pitolisant and intravenous cocaine self-administration in mice.

Pitolisant, a selective inverse agonist for the histamine H3 receptor, is a new treatment for adults suffering from narcolepsy. Numerous studies have shown that striatal H3 receptors can modulate the activity of the dopamine mesolimbic system, a pathway that plays a crucial role in drug addiction. Therefore, it is important to guarantee that pitolisant has no abuse potential and does not potentiate the behavioral effects of psychostimulants. The present study tested the effects of pitolisant on cocaine rein...

A Novel Role of Prolidase in Cocaine-Mediated Breach in the Barrier of Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells.

Cocaine use is associated with breach in the blood brain barrier (BBB) and increased HIV-1 neuro-invasion. We show that the cellular enzyme "Prolidase" plays a key role in cocaine-induced disruption of the BBB. We established a barrier model to mimic the BBB by culturing human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) in transwell inserts. In this model, cocaine treatment enhanced permeability of FITC-dextran suggesting a breach in the barrier. Interestingly, cocaine treatment increased the activity of...

Sexual cues influence cocaine-induced locomotion, anxiety and the immunoreactivity of estrogen receptor alpha and tyrosine hydroxylase in both sexes.

Dyadic physical social interaction influences cocaine-seeking behavior, but whether limited sexual cues (LSCs) from an opposite-sex partner influence behavioral responses to cocaine is unclear. We investigated this issue using a cylindrical wire cage containing a stimulus mouse (of the opposite sex); the subject mouse had access to this stimulus mouse during a "binge" injection pattern (injected with cocaine or saline vehicle twice a day, at 6-h intervals). Following the second injection, locomotion and anx...

Persistent increase of I.V. cocaine self-administration in a subgroup of C57BL/6J male mice after social defeat stress.

Stressful life experiences can persistently increase the motivation for, and consumption of, intensely rewarding stimuli, like cocaine, over time. In rodents, intermittent versus continuous exposure to social stress engenders opposing changes to reward-related behavior, as measured by consumption of sucrose and cocaine.

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