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Showing "DIVALPROEX SODIUM" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 1,700+

The subfornical organ in sodium appetite: recent insights.

To maintain sodium homeostasis, animals will readily seek and ingest salt when salt-depleted, even at concentrations that they typically find aversive when sodium replete. This innate behaviour is known as sodium (or salt) appetite. Salt appetite is subserved by a conserved brain network that senses sodium need and promotes the ingestion of salty substances when sodium-deficient. The subfornical organ (SFO) is a circumventricular organ that has diverse roles encompassing cardiovascular regulation, energy ba...

Association of usual 24-h sodium excretion with measures of adiposity among adults in the United States: NHANES, 2014.

Both excessive sodium intake and obesity are risk factors for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The association between sodium intake and obesity is unclear, with few studies assessing sodium intake using 24-h urine collection.

Dialysate sodium concentration: The forgotten salt shaker.

The concentration of sodium in dialysis fluid, a major determinant of extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure, plays a major role in the sodium balance in end-stage renal disease patients. A low dialysate sodium concentration (DNa) reduces interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) and blood pressure and might help ameliorate endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. However, low DNa can also increase the incidence of hypotensive episodes and muscle cramps. Sodium profiling, as typically prescribed in which the...

Effects of the Inhibition of Late Sodium Current by GS967 on Stretch-Induced Changes in Cardiac Electrophysiology.

Mechanical stretch increases sodium and calcium entry into myocytes and activates the late sodium current. GS967, a triazolopyridine derivative, is a sodium channel blocker with preferential effects on the late sodium current. The present study evaluates whether GS967 inhibits or modulates the arrhythmogenic electrophysiological effects of myocardial stretch.

Sodium Houttuyfonate Inhibits Voltage-Gated Peak Sodium Current and Anemonia Sulcata Toxin II-Increased Late Sodium Current in Rabbit Ventricular Myocytes.

Sodium houttuyfonate (SH), a chemical compound originating from Houttuynia cordata, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antifungal effects, as well as cardioprotective effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of SH on cardiac electrophysiology, because to the best of our knowledge, this issue has not been previously investigated.

Improvement of ethanol and biogas production from sugarcane bagasse using sodium alkaline pretreatments.

Sugarcane bagasse was pretreated with sodium carbonate, sodium sulfite, and sodium acetate in concentrations of 0.5 M and 0.25 M, as well as hydrothermal pretreatment, to break down its structural recalcitrance and improve biogas and ethanol production. The pretreatments were conducted at 100, 140, and 180 °C for 1 h. The highest biogas and ethanol production was observed for sugarcane bagasse pretreated with 0.5 M sodium carbonate solution at 140 °C, which was 239 ± 20 Nml CH/g VS, and 7...

Serum sodium as a risk factor for hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis and ascites.

Hyponatremia is associated with development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), but the nature of the relationship between serum sodium and HE incidence is unknown. We examined the association between serum sodium, changes in serum sodium, and HE incidence using data from three randomised trials of satavaptan in cirrhosis patients with ascites.

The purinergic mechanism of the central nucleus of amygdala is involved in the modulation of salt intake in sodium-depleted rats.

The CeA is a critical region in regulating sodium intake, and interestingly, purinergic receptors reportedly related to fluid balance, are also expressed in CeA. Thus, in this study, we investigated whether the purinergic mechanisms of CeA were involved in regulating sodium intake. Male Sprague-Dawley rats had cannulas implanted bilaterally into the CeA and were sodium depleted with furosemide (20 mg/kg) plus 24 h-sodium deficient food fed. Bilateral injections of the P2X purinergic agonist, α,β-methy...

Tissue sodium concentration and sodium T mapping of the human brain at 3 T using a Variable Flip Angle method.

The state-of-the-art method to quantify sodium concentrations in vivo consists in a fully relaxed 3D spin-density (SD) weighted acquisition. Nevertheless, most sodium MRI clinical studies use short-TR SD acquisitions to reduce acquisition durations. We present a clinically viable implementation of the Variable Flip Angle (VFA) method for robust and clinically viable quantification of total sodium concentration (TSC) and longitudinal relaxation rates in vivo in human brain at 3 T.

Sodium percarbonate as a novel intracoronal bleaching agent: assessment of the associated risk of cervical root resorption.

To evaluate the extraradicular peroxide release from sodium percarbonate compared to sodium perborate as an intracoronal bleaching agent.

Formation and characterization of the complex coacervates obtained between lactoferrin and sodium alginate.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of some parameters (pH, NaCl, and ratio of biopolymers) on the formation of the complex coacervates of lactoferrin and sodium alginate. Different ratios of lactoferrin:sodium alginate were tested (1:1, 1:2, 1:4,1:8, 2:1, 4:1, and 8:1) at pH levels ranging from 2.0 to 7.0 with different concentrations of NaCl (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mM). Sodium alginate has a molecular weight of 138 kDa ± 0.07. The ratio of 8:1(lactoferrin: sodium alginate) at a ...

Association between socioeconomic factors and urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio: the Nagahama Study.

High sodium intake is a simple modifiable risk factor for hypertension. Although not confirmed, lower socioeconomic status may be a factor that increases sodium intake. We aimed to clarify the association between socioeconomic status and urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio by cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. The study included 9410 community residents. Spot urine sodium-to-potassium ratios were measured twice with a 5-year interval. Socioeconomic status was investigated using a self-administered que...

Sodium Loading, Treadmill Walking and the Acute Redistribution of Bone Mineral Content on Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Scans.

To assess relationships between plasma sodium concentration ([Na]) and bone mineral content (BMC) after an acute sodium load plus treadmill walking and quantify the amount of sodium the dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan could detect.

Chemically bound Prussian blue in sodium alginate hydrogel for enhanced removal of Cs ions.

A new approach for efficient removal of radioactive Cs was developed using a sodium alginate hydrogel beads-based adsorbent containing chemically bound Prussian blue (PB). Sodium alginate was crosslinked with Fe (III) ions to form hydrogel beads, in which Fe (III) had a dual function; it served as a crosslinking agent and also led to PB formation via reaction with hexacyanoferrate. Fe (III) ions, an unusual crosslinking agent for sodium alginate gel, led to stable, homogeneous distribution of PB inside the ...

Errors in estimating usual sodium intake by the Kawasaki formula alter its relationship with mortality: implications for public health.

Several cohort studies with inaccurate estimates of sodium reported a J-shaped relationship with mortality. We compared various estimated sodium intakes with that measured by the gold-standard method of multiple non-consecutive 24-h urine collections and assessed their relationship with mortality.

Effects of sodium intake on postural lightheadedness: Results from the DASH-sodium trial.

Lightheadedness after standing contributes to adverse clinical events, including falls. Recommendations for higher sodium intake to treat postural lightheadedness have not been evaluated in a trial setting. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-Sodium trial (1998-1999) tested the effects of the DASH diet and sodium reduction on blood pressure (BP). Participants were randomly assigned to DASH or a typical Western diet (control). During either diet, participants ate three sodium levels (50, 100, ...

Distribution and re-transportation of sodium in three Malus species with different salt tolerance.

To further dissect the mechanism of salt tolerance in Malus, the comparison was made regarding the differences between the salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive species in sodium accumulation and extrusion capability in the roots and stem base as well as the sodium re-transportation from shoot to roots by using Na labeling-based feeding of leaves and roots-split experiments. The results demonstrated that the salt-tolerant Malus species could accumulate more Na in the main roots, lateral roots, stem base phloem a...

Rationale and design of the Study of Dietary Intervention Under 100 MMOL in Heart Failure (SODIUM-HF).

Patients with heart failure (HF) remain at high risk for future events despite medical and device therapy. Dietary sodium reduction is often recommended based on limited evidence. However, it is not known whether dietary sodium reduction reduces the morbidity or mortality associated with HF.

Impact of 0.1% sodium hyaluronate and 0.2% sodium hyaluronate artificial tears on postoperative discomfort following cataract extraction surgery: a comparative study.

Recent artificial tear preparations have provided 0.2% concentration of sodium hyaluronate. However, no published data exist on their potential superiority against 0.1% in alleviating dry-eye-disease symptoms in cataract extraction surgery.

Dissipation of bispyribac sodium in aridisols: Impact of soil type, moisture and temperature.

The study was conducted to evaluate the influence of physicochemical properties of soil, moisture and temperature on the dissipation behaviour of bispyribac sodium under laboratory conditions. Bispyribac sodium residues were extracted using matrix solid phase dispersion and were quantified using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. The mean percent recovery of bispyribac sodium from studied soils ranged from 82.7 ± 8.3-105.1± 2.6%. The limit of quantification and limit of detection was 0....

Switching from traditional sodium channel blockers to lacosamide in patients with epilepsy.

Lacosamide (LCM) is a recently developed sodium channel blocker (SCB), which acts mainly on the slow activation state in sodium channels. Although LCM shares a range of dose-dependent adverse effects with traditional SCBs, it has several advantages in that it does not induce hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes and has less risk of drug interactions and idiosyncratic adverse effects.

Fibroblast growth factor 23 is associated with fractional excretion of sodium in patients with chronic kidney disease.

Recent studies suggest that the phosphaturic hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is involved in regulation of renal sodium excretion and blood pressure. There is evidence of both direct effects via regulation of the sodium-chloride symporter (NCC) in the distal tubule, and indirect effects through interactions with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. However, clinical data on the association between FGF23 and renal sodium regulation is lacking. Herein, we investigated the associations of FGF23...

Ab initio study of sodium diffusion and adsorption on boron-doped graphyne as promising anode material in sodium-ion batteries.

The electronic properties, adsorption energies and energy barrier of sodium ion diffusion in B-doped graphyne (BGY) are studied by density functional theory (DFT) method. If some carbon atoms in pristine graphyne (GY) are substituted by boron atoms (one substitution per unit cell in this work), BGY is obtained, and the band structure and density of state (DOS) plots indicate a transition from a semiconductive state for GY to a metallic state for BGY. The calculated adsorption energy shows an improvement in ...

The Neuronal (Pro)renin Receptor Regulates Deoxycorticosterone-Induced Sodium Intake.

Increased sodium appetite is a physiological response to sodium deficiency; however, it has also been implicated in disease conditions such as congestive heart failure, kidney failure, and salt-sensitive hypertension. The central nervous system is the major regulator of sodium appetite and intake behavior; however, the neural mechanisms underlying this behavior remain incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the involvement of the (pro)renin receptor (PRR), a component of the brain renin-angiotensin s...

Major food groups contributing to sodium intake in school-attending adolescents.

Background Excessive sodium intake is a risk factor for developing systemic arterial hypertension. Increased blood pressure during childhood increases the risk of hypertension in adulthood. Assessing sodium intake across different eating places is important, as the meals offered in different places can influence dietary quality. Objective This study aimed to assess the contribution of different food groups to the mean of sodium intake of school-attending adolescents in the city of Niterói, a metropolitan a...

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