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PubMed Journals Articles About "Decline Diversity Swedish Seas Environmental Narratives Marine History" RSS

17:28 EST 10th December 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Decline diversity Swedish seas Environmental narratives marine history" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 16,000+

Decline and diversity in Swedish seas: Environmental narratives in marine history, science and policy.

Before the mid-twentieth century, there was no comprehensive narrative about empirical conditions in Swedish seas. Around 1970, this view changed profoundly. In line with growing research and the emergence of 'the environment' as a defining concept, conditions in Swedish seas were framed as a 'narrative of decline'. Marine scientists have since recorded more diverse developments than are described by an overall declensionist narrative. Data show trends of interrupted decline, variability and even recovery, ...


Global Trends in Marine Plankton Diversity across Kingdoms of Life.

The ocean is home to myriad small planktonic organisms that underpin the functioning of marine ecosystems. However, their spatial patterns of diversity and the underlying drivers remain poorly known, precluding projections of their responses to global changes. Here we investigate the latitudinal gradients and global predictors of plankton diversity across archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes, and major virus clades using both molecular and imaging data from Tara Oceans. We show a decline of diversity for most plan...

Hierarchical partitioning of fish diversity and scale-dependent environmental effects in tropical coastal ecosystems.

The spatial structure of the fish diversity and site-scale and landscape-scale environmental effects were investigated across hierarchical levels in tropical coastal ecosystems. Total diversity (γ) was hierarchically partitioned into α and β components using both the additive and multiplicative methods. A model selection based on the AICc was applied to generalized linear mixed models relating diversity measures to environmental variables and including random effects for hierarchical levels and season. S...


Risk assessment of plastic pollution on marine diversity in the Mediterranean Sea.

Plastic marine pollution is an increasing threat to global marine diversity. Quantifying this threat is particularly difficult and complex, especially when evaluating multiple species with different ecological requirements. Here, we examine the semi-enclosed basin of the Mediterranean Sea where the inputs of plastic pollution and its impact on marine diversity are still widely unknown. Eighty-four species from six taxonomic classes were evaluated to assess the risk of ingesting plastic marine debris, integr...

Temporal and spatial trends in marine carbon isotopes in the Arctic Ocean and implications for food web studies.

The Arctic is undergoing unprecedented environmental change. Rapid warming, decline in sea ice extent, increase in riverine input, ocean acidification and changes in primary productivity are creating a crucible for multiple concurrent environmental stressors, with unknown consequences for the entire arctic ecosystem. Here, we synthesised 30 years of data on the stable carbon isotope (δ C) signatures in dissolved inorganic carbon (δ C-DIC; 1977 to 2014), marine and riverine particulate organic carbon (δ C...

Physiological Thresholds in the Context of Marine Mammal Conservation.

There is growing evidence of the adverse effects of global environmental change on marine mammals, particularly in terms of changes in abundance, distribution, habitat use, migratory phenology, feeding habits, risk of infectious diseases, bioaccumulation of contaminants, declines in reproductive success, and reductions in genetic diversity. These anthropogenic stressors have led to an evident conservation crisis: a quarter of the extant marine mammal species that have been assessed and now considered at ris...

Global distribution of Trebouxiophyceae diversity explored by high-throughput sequencing and phylogenetic approaches.

Trebouxiophyceae are a ubiquitous class of Chlorophyta encountered in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Most taxa are photosynthetic, and many acts as photobionts in symbiotic relationships, while others are free-living. Trebouxiophyceae have also been widely investigated for their use for biotechnological applications. In this work, we aimed at obtaining a comprehensive image of their diversity by compiling the information of 435 freshwater, soil and marine environmental DNA samples surveyed with Illum...

Rummaging through the bin: Modelling marine litter distribution using Artificial Neural Networks.

Marine litter has significant ecological, social and economic impacts, ultimately raising welfare and conservation concerns. Assessing marine litter hotspots or inferring potential areas of accumulation are challenging topics of marine research. Nevertheless, models able to predict the distribution of marine litter on the seabed are still limited. In this work, a set of Artificial Neural Networks were trained to both model the effect of environmental descriptors on litter distribution and estimate the amoun...

Cell Biology: Marine Yeasts Deepen the Sea of Diversity.

Fewer than 10% of fungal species have been discovered, and the diversity and ecological roles of marine species are particularly enigmatic. A new study shows that exploration of this untapped fungal biodiversity may expand our understanding of basic cellular functions such as growth, polarization, and division.

Island area, body size, and demographic history shape genomic diversity in Darwin's finches and related tanagers.

Genomic diversity is the evolutionary foundation for adaptation to environmental change and thus is essential to consider in conservation planning. Island species are ideal for investigating the evolutionary drivers of genomic diversity, in part because of the potential for biological replicates. Here we use genome data from 180 individuals spread among 27 island populations from 17 avian species to study the effects of island area, body size, demographic history, and conservation status on contemporary gen...

Organochlorine pesticides in marine ecosystems of the Far Eastern Seas of Russia (2000-2017).

The present review provides information on the main organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), widely used in world agriculture in the 1940s-1960s. The patterns of their distribution in the environment, as well as the toxicity, metabolism, and degradation are described. Some data on OCPs distribution in components of aquatic ecosystems in different regions of the World and, particularly, in the Far Eastern Seas of Russia-the Sea of Japan/East Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk, and the Bering Sea-is considered for the period 2...

The diversity of benthic diatoms affects ecosystem productivity in heterogeneous coastal environments.

The current decrease in biodiversity affects all ecosystems, and the impacts of diversity on ecosystem functioning need to be resolved. So far, marine studies about diversity-ecosystem productivity -relationships have concentrated on small-scale, controlled experiments, with often limited relevance to natural ecosystems. Here, we provide a real-world study on the effects of microorganismal diversity (measured as the diversity of benthic diatom communities) on ecosystem productivity (using chlorophyll a conc...

Sedimentary records of polychlorinated biphenyls in the East China Marginal Seas and Great Lakes: Significance of recent rise of emissions in China and environmental implications.

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in dated sediment cores from the East China Marginal Seas (ECMSs) and the chronology of the net fluxes to sediments were analyzed. The accumulation of 27 PCBs (ΣPCBs) in the ECMS sediments is about 5-26 ng cm, with the net depositional fluxes of ΣPCBs 10 times lower than those observed in the Great Lakes during the 1960s-1970s. Exponential increases in PCB deposition to the ECMS sediments since the 1990s were observed, which closely follows the fast growth of PCB emi...

Do marine reserves increase prey for California sea lions and Pacific harbor seals?

Community marine reserves are geographical areas closed to fishing activities, implemented and enforced by the same fishermen that fish around them. Their main objective is to recover commercial stocks of fish and invertebrates. While marine reserves have proven successful in many parts of the world, their success near important marine predator colonies, such as the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and the Pacific harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardii), is yet to be analyzed. In response to the ...

Mortality from cardiovascular disease in a cohort of Swedish seafarers.

The aim of this study was to investigate whether Swedish seafarers have increased mortality from cardiovascular disease compared with the general population.

Influence of 16S rRNA variable region on perceived diversity of marine microbial communities of the Northern North Atlantic.

Marine microbes play essential roles in global energy and nutrient cycles. A primary method of determining their diversity and distribution is through sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes from environmental samples. However, the perceived community composition may vary significantly based on differences in methodology, including choice of 16S variable region(s). This study investigated the influence of 16S variable region selection (V4-V5 or V6-V8) on perceived community composition and diversity for Bacte...

Characters matter: How narratives shape affective responses to risk communication.

Whereas scientists depend on the language of probability to relay information about hazards, risk communication may be more effective when embedding scientific information in narratives. The persuasive power of narratives is theorized to reside, in part, in narrative transportation.

Community composition of marine and brackish water ammonia-oxidizing consortia developed for aquaculture application.

To mitigate the toxicity of ammonia in aquaculture systems, marine and brackish water ammonia-oxidizing bacterial consortia have been developed and are used for activation of nitrifying bioreactors integrated to recirculating aquaculture systems. To shed more light on to these biological entities, diversity of both the consortia were analyzed based on random cloning of 16S rRNA gene and ammonia-oxidizing bacterial specific amoA gene sequences. The dendrograms of representative clones on the basis of amplifi...

Nutrients and heavy metals mediate the distribution of microbial community in the marine sediments of the Bohai Sea, China.

The Bohai Sea, one of the largest marginal seas in China, is extensively influenced by human and industrial activities. The pollutant loads from anthropogenic activities have induced severe ecological problems. The study investigates the physicochemical characteristics of seawater and sediments in Bohai Bay and Laizhou Bay of the Bohai Sea. The diversity and composition of microbial community in sediments are analyzed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The sequencing results present 16 phyla and 31 class...

Long-term Data from the Swedish National Environmental Monitoring Program of Pesticides in Surface Waters.

Environmental monitoring is essential for assessing the impact of human activities on the environment. Monitoring data are used to ascertain that environmental standards are met, to inform policy making, to determine trends, and to provide parameterization data for prediction models. The design of monitoring programs depends on what is being monitored, for what purpose, and available resources. Here we describe the strategy and design of the Swedish environmental monitoring program for chemical pesticides i...

Understanding the spatial diversity of social uses, dynamics, and conflicts in marine spatial planning.

Marine coastal environments are often socially complex public areas that need equitable spatial planning approaches. Understanding the extent of extractive and non-extractive uses and the social dynamics that may be driving patterns of use is essential if the spatial plan is to support the social resilience of a marine area. In this study, a combination of fuzzy-set multi-criteria GIS modelling and negative tie social network analysis were used to explore social uses and conflicts based on sketch-mapping in...

Shared ground: Between environmental history and the history of science.

Recent years have witnessed a significant expansion in the number of studies positioned at the intersection of the history of science and environmental history. Although these studies continue to navigate lingering methodological tensions, collectively they underscore the promise of a disciplinary cross-fertilization that proved largely latent for the first quarter century or more following environmental history's emergence as a discrete discipline. This article situates this recent scholarship in the histo...

Distribution of arsenic and its biotransformation genes in sediments from the East China Sea.

Microbial transformation of arsenic (As) plays a key role in As biogeochemical cycling and affects the mobility, bioavailability, and toxicity of As. This study aims to investigate the accumulation of As in marine sediments at different water depths in the East China Sea and reveal the abundance and diversity of the aioA, arrA, arsC, and arsM genes through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and high-throughput sequencing. Results showed that the As content in sediments ranged from 5.53...

Transport and fate of Cs in the Mediterranean and Black Seas system during 1945-2020 period: A modelling study.

The compartment model POSEIDON-R with an embedded dynamic food web model was used to assess Cs distributions in the Mediterranean and Black Seas during 1945-2020 due to the weapon testing and accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Three maximums of contamination of surface waters can be identified from 1950 in the Mediterranean Sea system. Two of them (in 1959 and 1963) were caused by atmospheric deposition due to the nuclear weapon testing. Third maximum in 1986 was related with the Chernobyl accid...

Characterization of the microbial community diversity and composition of the coast of Lebanon: Potential for petroleum oil biodegradation.

In this study, the shoreline of Lebanon, which extends over 225 km along the eastern side of the Mediterranean Sea, was characterized for its sediment microbial community diversity and composition using 16S rRNA gene sequencing with Illumina MiSeq technology. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed no clear grouping among nearby sampled sites along the shoreline. Insignificant diversion between the wet and dry season microbial communities was observed along the coast at each sampling si...


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