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PubMed Journals Articles About "Effects Cognitive Strategies Neural Food Reactivity Adults With" RSS

07:44 EDT 20th September 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Effects Cognitive Strategies Neural Food Reactivity Adults with" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 44,000+

Effects of Cognitive Strategies on Neural Food Cue Reactivity in Adults with Overweight/Obesity.

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of obesity have revealed key roles for reward-related and inhibitory control-related activity in response to food cues. This study examines how cognitive strategies impact neural food cue reactivity.


Impact of Intensive Lifestyle Intervention on Neural Food Cue Reactivity: Action for Health in Diabetes Brain Ancillary Study.

The Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) research study was a randomized trial comparing the effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) versus a diabetes support and education (DSE) control group in adults with type 2 diabetes and overweight or obesity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine whether neural food cue reactivity differed for these groups 10 years after randomization.

Overweight adults are more impulsive than normal weight adults: Evidence from ERPs during a chocolate-related delayed discounting task.

Overweight or obesity can be accompanied by abnormalities in executive function and related neural markers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the behavioral and neural correlates of food-related decision-making in overweight and normal-weight adults. We used a delayed discounting task (DDT), which requires participants to choose between smaller immediate rewards and larger delayed rewards. In total, 24 overweight adults and 24 normal-weight adults participated; all participants engaged with a ...


Efficacy of weight loss intervention can be predicted based on early alterations of fMRI food cue reactivity in the striatum.

Increased fMRI food cue reactivity in obesity, i.e. higher responses to high- vs. low-calorie food images, is a promising marker of the dysregulated brain reward system underlying enhanced susceptibility to obesogenic environmental cues. Recently, it has also been shown that weight loss interventions might affect fMRI food cue reactivity and that there is a close association between the alteration of cue reactivity and the outcome of the intervention. Here we tested whether fMRI food cue reactivity could be...

When Older Adults Outperform Young Adults: Effects of Prior-Task Success in Arithmetic.

Older adults improve their cognitive performance on a target task after succeeding in a prior task. We tested whether effects of prior-task success occur via changing older adults' ability to select the better strategy and/or to execute strategies efficiently.

Age-Related Differences in Motivational Integration and Cognitive Control.

Motivational incentives play an influential role in value-based decision-making and cognitive control. A compelling hypothesis in the literature suggests that the motivational value of diverse incentives are integrated in the brain into a common currency value signal that influences decision-making and behavior. To investigate whether motivational integration processes change during healthy aging, we tested older (N = 44) and younger (N = 54) adults in an innovative incentive integration task paradigm that...

Cognitive-affective strategies and cortisol stress reactivity in children and adolescents: Normative development and effects of early life stress.

This study examined cognitive-affective strategies as predictors of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to a social-evaluative stressor in adolescence as compared to late childhood as a function of early life experiences. Participants included 159 children (9-10 years) and adolescents (15-16 years) divided into two groups based on early care experiences: non-adopted youth raised in their birth families (n = 81) and post-institutionalized youth internationally adopted from orphanage care ...

Food processing and emotion regulation in vegetarians and omnivores: An event-related potential investigation.

The present study investigated cognitive reappraisal during exposure to vegetarian and nonvegetarian food cues in food-deprived vegetarian and omnivore participants. In particular, we were interested in clarifying the motivational meaning of the foods that vegetarians avoid, as revealed by self-reported food craving, valence, and arousal, as well as by ERP measures of neural processing during passive viewing and emotional regulation. Twenty-four vegetarians and twenty-one omnivores were instructed to either...

Developing, mature, and unique functions of the child's brain in reading and mathematics.

Cognitive development research shows that children use basic "child-unique" strategies for reading and mathematics. This suggests that children's neural processes will differ qualitatively from those of adults during this developmental period. The goals of the current study were to 1) establish whether a within-subjects neural dissociation between reading and mathematics exists in early childhood as it does in adulthood, and 2) use a novel, developmental intersubject correlation method to test for "child-un...

Taste manipulation during a food cue-reactivity task: Effects on cue-elicited food craving and subsequent food intake among individuals with overweight and obesity.

Food cue-reactivity tasks are used to induce and evaluate food cravings. Extant research has implicated the role of tasting foods in heightening cue-elicited food craving. The present study was the first to evaluate a taste manipulation during a food cue-reactivity task to optimize cue-elicited craving and predict food intake. Participants with overweight/obesity (N = 35; M age = 33.46 years [SD = 13.27]; M BMI = 32.91 kg/m [SD = 5.34]) engaged in one laboratory session and were rand...

The neural association between arithmetic and basic numerical processing depends on arithmetic problem size and not chronological age.

The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) is thought to be an important region for basic number processing (e.g. symbol-quantity associations) and arithmetic (e.g. addition). Evidence for shared circuitry within the IPS is largely based on comparisons across studies, and little research has investigated number processing and arithmetic in the same individuals. It is also unclear how the neural overlap between number processing and arithmetic is influenced by age and arithmetic problem difficulty. This study investigat...

Head Over Heels but I Forget Why: Disruptive Functional Connectivity in Older Adult Fallers with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

Disrupted functional connectivity has been highlighted as a neural mechanism by which impaired cognitive function and mobility co-exist in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The objective of this study was to determine the independent and combined effects of MCI and faller status on functional connectivity of three functional networks: default mode network (DMN), fronto-parietal network (FPN) and sensorimotor network (SMN) between 4 groups of older adults: 1) Healthy; 2) MCI without Falls; 3...

Food neophobia and pickiness among children and associations with socioenvironmental and cognitive factors.

Food neophobia and picky eating are common behaviors exhibited among children that may impact their nutritional health. Due to the limited data available regarding food neophobia and pickiness in Saudi Arabia, this study aimed to estimate the prevalence of picky eating and food neophobia among Saudi children and to examine the association of socioenvironmental and cognitive factors with food neophobia and pickiness. The study included 216 healthy children with no known allergy, aged 3-7 years old, recruited...

Motivation and social-cognitive abilities in older adults: Convergent evidence from self-report measures and cardiovascular reactivity.

Recently, some authors have suggested that age-related impairments in social-cognitive abilities-emotion recognition (ER) and theory of mind (ToM)-may be explained in terms of reduced motivation and effort mobilization in older adults. We examined performance on ER and ToM tasks, as well as corresponding control tasks, experimentally manipulating self-involvement. Sixty-one older adults and 57 young adults were randomly assigned to either a High or Low self-involvement condition. In the first condition, sel...

A review of evidence supporting current strategies, challenges, and opportunities to reduce portion sizes.

Although there is considerable evidence for the portion-size effect and its potential impact on health, much of this has not been successfully applied to help consumers reduce portion sizes. The objective of this review is to provide an update on the strength of evidence supporting strategies with potential to reduce portion sizes across individuals and eating contexts. Three levels of action are considered: food-level strategies (targeting commercial snack and meal portion sizes, packaging, food labels, ta...

Food cue reactivity in food addiction: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

While neuroimaging studies have revealed that reward dysfunction may similarly contribute to obesity and addiction, no prior studies have examined neural responses in individuals who meet the "clinical" food addiction phenotype.

The effect of N-acetylcysteine and working memory training on neural mechanisms of working memory and cue reactivity in regular cocaine users.

The current study investigated the combined effects of N-acetylcysteine and working memory (WM) training on behavioral and neural mechanisms of cue reactivity and WM in cocaine users in a randomized, double-blind design. Twenty-four of 38 cocaine-using men completed a 25-day treatment with either 2400 mg/day NAC or placebo. Both groups performed WM-training. During pre- and post-test lab-visits, neural mechanisms of cue reactivity and WM, and cue-induced craving and WM performance were assessed. Additiona...

Aging and the prevalence of 'ironic' action errors under avoidant instruction.

Action errors can put older adults at risk of injury. Our study is the first to investigate whether older adults are more prone than younger adults to making 'ironic' motor errors (i.e., actions they have been instructed not to perform), or over-compensatory motor errors (e.g., moving more to the right when instructed not to move to the left). We also investigated whether error patterns change under cognitive load, and assessed whether age effects in the ability to inhibit a prohibited action are comparable...

Effects of interpretation bias modification on unregulated and regulated emotional reactivity.

Although induced changes in interpretation bias can lead to reduced levels of stress reactivity, results are often inconsistent. One possible cause of the inconsistencies in the effects of interpretation bias modification (IBM) on stress reactivity is the degree to which participants engaged in emotion regulation while being exposed to stressors. In this study, we distinguished between the effects of IBM on natural, unregulated stress reactivity and the effects of IBM on people's ability to up- or downregul...

Environmental predictors of objectively measured out-of-home time among older adults with cognitive decline.

Older adults with cognitive decline are vulnerable to various health problems. Going out of home for longer time could be beneficial for their health. Identifying modifiable predictors is essential for developing effective strategies that would increase time spent out-of-home by older adults. This study examined social and physical environmental predictors of objectively measured out-of-home time spent among older adults with cognitive decline.

Effects of mother-offspring and father-offspring dynamics on emerging adults' adjustment: The mediating role of emotion regulation.

The present study tested a theoretical model of emotion regulation between parent-offspring dynamics and emerging adults' adjustment. The mediating role of emotion regulation strategies, including cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, were investigated for the effects of mother-offspring and father-offspring dynamics on emerging adults' adjustment. A sample of 352 Chinese emerging adults in Hong Kong (230 female, 121 male) participated in this study. Participants were asked to complete a set of ...

Does cognitive dissonance occur in older age? A study of induced compliance in a healthy elderly population.

Does cognitive dissonance change as people age? Although cognitive dissonance has been one of the most widely studied theories in psychology, scant research has investigated the experience of dissonance over the life span and, to our knowledge, no prior research has investigated its effects in healthy older adults. The current study is the 1st empirical test of cognitive dissonance in an elderly population. We found that, consistent with dissonance theory, older adults showed effects of cognitive dissonance...

Evidence for enhanced neural tracking of the speech envelope underlying age-related speech-in-noise difficulties.

When we grow older, understanding speech in noise becomes more challenging. Research has demonstrated the role of auditory temporal and cognitive deficits in these age-related speech-in-noise difficulties. To better understand the underlying neural mechanisms, we recruited young, middle-aged and older normal-hearing adults, and investigated the interplay between speech understanding, cognition and neural tracking of the speech envelope using electroencephalography. The stimuli consisted of natural speech ma...

Sleep and cognitive function in chronic stroke: A comparative cross-sectional study.

Poor sleep is common following stroke, limits stroke recovery, and can contribute to further cognitive decline post-stroke. However, it is unclear what aspects of sleep are different in older adults with stroke compared to those without, and whether the relationship between sleep and cognitive function differs by stroke history. We investigated whether older adults with stroke experience poorer sleep quality than older adults without stroke, and whether poor sleep quality attenuates cognitive performance am...

Enhancing healthy eating patterns among Hong Kong young adults.

Every year, the majority of Hong Kong young adults who graduate from secondary school progress onto tertiary education. Poor eating patterns among young adults could lead to long-term health implications associated with overweight and obesity. Using the socio-ecological model as a theoretical framework, this paper reviews the current food-related policies in Hong Kong and proposes a comprehensive policy approach relevant to a variety of organizational contexts that has the potential to support positive eati...


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